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' fAFW^ 















Tests for the Deteetioii ef Adultentio&g in Oils, Colors, Et^. 












CheTreuFs Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors. 



810 Walnut Street. 

Rnterod afioordliig to Act of CongresA, In the yemt 1809, by 

Hjctrt Caret Baird, 

to tb« a«rk*8 Office of the District Coart of the United States fn Mid •>» ttl* 

KMtem District of Pennajrlvania. 



The marked success which has attended the 
publication, of The Painter, Gilder, and 
Varnisher's Companion, has encouraged the 
publisher, from time to time, to make such ad- 
ditions to it as seemed most likely to add to its 
value and usefulness. The present edition has 
been greatly improved, and it is confidently be- 
lieved, will commend itself still further to the 
attention of practical men, and others who have 
occasion to use su^h a book. 

The object of the volume is to give a clear, 
concise, and comprehensive view of the princi- 
pal materials to be used, and the operations to 

be conducted, in the practice of the various 



branches of these trades, and to embody in as 
simple language and as limited a compass as 
possible, the present state of knowledge in 
regard to them. 

Since the appearance of the first edition, and 
prior to the publication of the pre^nt one, the 
following additions had been made : — 

Directions for Graining and Imitating Woods 
and Marbles, instructions for Sign Writing, and 
complete instructions for. Coach Painting and 
Varnishing. The present one comprises, be- 
side the contents of all former editions, th« 
entire Appendix. 

That portion of the Appendix on Colors 
AND Coloring, theoretical and practical, 
will be found to comprise many very valuable 
principles regarding all the colors, together 
with descriptions of the best pigments, tabler 
classifying them under general heads, indicating 

FKEFACfi. 5 

their respective merits or defects, and conse- 
quently pointing out the circumstances under 
which they may or may not be safely used, 
beside much other general information. 

The brief but comprehensive statement of 
The Pbikcu'les of Uarmony a^'d Contrast 
OF Colors, of M. Cuevreul has been given 
under the conviction, that by calling attention 
to the doctrines laid down by that eminent 
experimenter and philosopher, in a book so 
popular as the present one, much good would 
result. It would be difficult to over-estimate 
the importance of disseminating true ideas of 
taste in color, not only among Painters, but 
among all those who desire to embellish their 
houses, or who have any control over, or direc- 
tion of buildings, for public or private use, or 
those who have occasion to call into requisition 
the painter's art, or to use colors in any of the 


thousand ways in which they play an im 
portant and leading part. That our people need 
instruction in this direction cannot be denied, 
and this portion of the volume is particularly 
commended to the attention of all readers. 

H. 0. B. 
Philadelphia. April 1, 1869. 



Tools axd Apparatus 7 

Taylor's Indigo Giindiiig-mill ... 9 
Kawlinson's Indigo Grinding-niill 1 1 

COF.0URS 19 

Whites 10 

Wliite Lead, Ceruse, and Flako 

White 19 

Spanish, or Bongival White 21 

(iypsum, or IMasti-r of Pai is 21 

White of Tioyos, or White C halk 22 

IJl.ACKS 22 

Ivor y Black 22 

Lamp Black 23 

('harcoal Blacks 23 

|{Ki« 24 

Vt-rmilion 24 

lilinium, or Red Lead 2a 

i'ai mine 2(5 I 

]4»ke 2S I 

^IKinish Brown 29 i 

Other Reds :'. ) | 

Yku.ows 30 I 

Yellow Ochre;. 30 | 

Ma-<sicot 30 | 

Chrome Yellow 31 i 

Turner's, or I'atent Yellow 31 i 

Oipinient - 32 1 

Nuples Yellow 32 j 

Yellow of Antimony 33 i 

Yellow Pink 33 

Bi.UES 33 

Prussian Blue 33 ; 

Indigo 34 ^ 

Ultramaiine 35 

t^malr, Ziiffre, Azure, Saxon Blue, ' 

or Enamel Blue 36 ] 

Blue Verditer 37 | 

Greens 37' 

Verdigris 37 ' 

Italian or Verona Creeu 38 ' 


Saxon, or Hungary Green 38 

Schoc'k's' Green 38 

Schweiiifurt Green 39 

Brunswick Green 39 

Green Verditer 40 

Grt'cn Lake ')r Venetian Grceu- 40 

Bkowns 41 

Umber 41 

New Brown, di '•cove red l)y Mr. 

ILitchet 41 

Compound Coloiks, or Coloiks 


Light Gi-ay 42 

Buff :. ... 42 

Silver, or Pearl G my 42 

Flaxen Gray .. .42 

Bi ick colour 42 

Oak -Wood culoiu' 42 

Walnut-tree coluur 43 

Jonquil 43 

Leniun Yellow 43 

Oiango colour 43 

Violet colour 43 

Purple 43 

Carnation 43 

Gold colour 43 

Olive colour 4,3 

Lead ctdour 4.3 

Chestnut clour 43 

Light Timber colour 44 

Flesh colour 44 

Light Willow (Jreen 44 

Grass Green 44 

Stone colour 44 

"Dark Lead colour 44 

Fawn colour 44 

Choc(dafe colour 44 

Portland Stnne colour 44 

To imitate Mahogany 44 

To imitate Wainscot 44 





To imitate Satiii wood 41 

OiM 45 

Oil of Spike 45 

Oil of Liivender 46 

Oil of Poppies 45 

Nut Oil, or Linseed Oil 46 

Oil of Turpentine ~... 48 

Vat Oils « 48 

DijingOils 49 

IMIchard Oils &0 

Varnishes..^ 51 

81iell-l«c Varnish M 

Ked Shell-lac Varnisii 65 

Turpentine Varnish 55 

Unseed Oil Varnish 56 

Copal Varnish 56 

Gold-coloured Copal Varnish 56 

Camphorated Copal Varnish 57 

('A)\yn\ Varnish in imitation of Tor- 
toise-Shell 57 

Amber Varnish 59 

Caoutchouc, or Gum-elastic Var- 
nish 60 

Mastic Varnish 60 

Varnish fur Violins, etc 61 

White Hard Varnish 62 

Varnishes for Paling and coarse 

Wood-work 62 

Varnish for Coloured Drawings... 63 

Varnish for Olass 63 

Black Varnish for old Straw or 

Chip Hats 63 

Varnish for Draw^ings and Card- 
work 64 

Changing Varnishes 54 

Mordant Varnishes 65 

Gbnebal Obsertations ox Var- 

jnsHBS 66 

Polishes 70 

Varnish Polish 70 

Polish for Dark-coloured Woods... 70 
Polish for Tunbridge-ware, Goods, 

etc 71 

Canrer's Polish 72 

French Polish 72 

Water-proof Polish- 72 

Finishing Polish 73 

(JiLDiNO Materials 74 

Fine Gold Powder 74 

Colour-heightening Compositions. 74 

MostUc Gold 75 

Dutch or German Metal 76 

Ethere:i] .Solution of Gold 76 

Gold 0ll-col«mr, or Size 78 

Gold Water Size 78 

Proparatory Size 78 


White Coating 79 

Colouring Yellow 79 

Vermeil 80 

Miscellaneous Materials 81 

Painter's Cream 81 

Rotten Stone 81 

Glue and Isinglass 82 

Common Size 82 


pRACTicB OF Painting 91 

Painting in Distemper 94 

Painting in Milk 97 

Practice of Varnishing and 

Polishing 100 

French Polish lO'^; 

Waxing IW 

Pkactice of Gilwno 107 

Gilding Carved Wood with 

Water Size 107 

Gilding Plaster or Marble with 

Water Size Ill 

Gilding Wood in Oil 112 

To Gild Steel 112 

To Gild Copper, Brass, etc 113 

Gilding Glass and Porcelain....;.. 113 

Gilding Leather 114 

Gilding Writings, Drawings, etc., 

on Paper or Parchment 115 

Gilding the Edges of Paper 116 

Ox Lacquering 117 

Lacquer for Bi-ass 117 

Lacquer for Philosophical In- 
struments. .< 117 

Gold-coloured Lacquer for Bras3 

Watch-cases, Watch-keys, etc. 118 
To make Lacquer of various 

Tints 119 

To Clean old Brass-work for La> 

quering 119 

Bronzing 120 

Japanning 128 

Colours required in Japanning... 123 
To prepare a Tortoi.ic-8hell Ja- 
pan ground by means of Heat. 121 

Foils 126 

To Colour Foils 126 

Fish Oil Colours 130 

To prepare the Oil I^^U 

Gain by the above Process 131 

Preparation and C«Mt t)f particu- 
lar Colours 132 

Subdued Green 182 

Lead Colour 133 

Bright Green a35 

Stone Colour 1.S4 



Brown Retl 135 

Chocolate Colour 136 

Yellow 136 

Black 186 

Olass-Staimnq 137 

No. 1. Flux 139 

No. 2. Gray Flux 189 

No. 3. Flux for Canoines and 

Groena 139 

The Various Colors 139 

BlUfiS 140 

Ir^Jigo Blue 140 

Turquoise Blue 141 

Azuro Blue 141 

Deep Aeurc Blue... 141 

Sky Blue for the Browns 141 

Violet Blue, for Ground Colour... 142 
Lavender Blue, for Ground 

Tint 142 

Greens 142 

Emerald Green 142 

Bluish Green 143 

Grass Green 143 

Di'agon, Pistache, and Olive 

Green 143 

YELLrfWS 143 

Sulphur Yellow 144 

Fixed Yellow for touches 144 

Yellow f(»r Browns and Greens... 144 
Deep Yellow, to nrix with the 

Chromium Greens 145 

Jonquille Yellow for flowers 145 

Wax Yellow 145 

Fixed Wax Yellow 145 

Nankin Yellow for grounds 146 

Deep Nankin Yellow 146 

Pale Yellow Ochre 146 

Deep Yellow Ochre, called Yel- 
low Brown 146 

Brown Yellow Ochre 146 

IsalKilla Yellow, for grounds 147 

Orange Yellow, for grounds 147 

Brick Red 147 

Deep Blood Red 147 

Colours OF Gold 147 

Hard Carmine 148 

Pure Purple 148 

Deep Violet 148 

Colours of Iron 148 

Flesh Red 149 

Clove Brown 149 

W(»od Brown 150 

Hair Brown 150 

Liver Brown 160 

Sepia Brown 150 

White 150 


YellowI»h-Gi-ay for Browns and 

Reds 161 

Bluish-Gray for mixtures 161 

Grayish- Black forniixtures 361 

Deep Black 162 

Application of the Coloui-s 152 

To fire the Paintings 164 

Furnace and Muffle 154 

Harmony of Colours 158 

Miscellaneous Subjects and 

Useful Receipts 169 

To increase the strength of com- 
mon Rectified Spirits of Wine. 15S 

To Silver by Heat. im 

To Tin Copper and Brass 161 

To Tin Iron and Copper Vessels. 161 
To Paint Sail-Cloth so as to make 
it PUable, Durable, And Water- 
proof. 162 

To make Oil-Cloth 162 

To prepare Varnished Silk 164 

To paint Cloth, Cambric, Sarce- 
net, etc., so as to render them 

Transparent 164 

To thicken linen Cloths for 

Screens 165 

Printei-'s Ink 165 

Sticking, or Court Plaster 166 

To imitate Tortoise-shell with 

Horn « 167 

A Varnish to preserve Glass from 

the Rays of the Sun 168 

To imitate Rosewood 168 

To imitate Black Rosewood 169 

A fine Black Varnish for Coaches 

and Iron Work 170 

A Varnish to imitate the Chinese 170 

To' clean Silver Furniture 170 

To colour the Backs of Chinmeys 

with Lead Ore 171 

To clean Marble, Sieiiaa, Jasper, 

Porphj-ry, etc 171 

A White for inside Painting 171 

To take Ink Spots out of Mahog- 
any 172 

To make Paste for Furniture 172 

To make Oil for Furniture 173 

To Brown Gun Barrels 17o 

To clean Pictures 173 

Another Method 174 

Varnish for Clock Faces, etc 174 

Varnish for Balloons 176 

Diseases and Accidents to 
WHICH Painters and Var- 

NISUBRS are particularly 




Painter's Colic 177 

Weakness of the Wrists 180 

Effects of Poisonous Substances 
used in Painting and Varnish- 
ing 181 

Nausea 184 

Burns and Scalds 184 

Gkneral Ob3:;rvation8 187 


Imitating Woods and Mar- 
bles 190 

Oak 190 

Combs 190 

Brushes 191 

Colours, etc 191 

tiniining C«>1 »ur 192 

Spirit C.lour 194 

PollanlOak 195- 

Root of Oak 196 

To Grain Pollard and Root of 

Oak in Distemper 196 

Walnut 197 

Bird's-eye Maple in Distemper.. . 197 

To Gi ain Maple in Oil 199 

S itiii-wooil 200 

Mah'iganyin Distemper 201 

Mahog my in Oil 201 

Rosewood 202 

Marble 203 

Sienna ... 203 

Black and Gold Marble 204 

Siint Ann'.s 205 

'Veid Antique, or .\iicient Green. 205 

Egyp!i»n <;re.Mi 206 

Rouge n a, or lloyal lied 206 

Italian Jasper 207 

Dove Marble 208 

Black Pardel la 208 


Derbyshire Spar. 208 

Granites ... 2-9 

To Polish Imitation Marble^ 210 


Setting-out, or Airangement of 

Lettei^ 213 

To raise or make Letters appear 
to stand out from the Buaid, 

and to tsbadow them 213 

To Gild Lettei-s 214 

To Write, Gild, and On anient 

on Glass 215 

Complete iNSTRrcrioNS for 
Coach-Painting and Var- 
nishing 217 

A suitable place to work in 217 

Preparing the Oil 217 

Boiled Oil 217 

Raw Oil 219 

Priming Coat for a carriage-gear- 
ing and body 219 

Smoothing with eandpnper 220 

Use of pumice-stone in smooth- 
ing after priming 220 

Use of grained sole leather jn 

snif.otliing after piiniing 220 

Roufih-stufling 221 

Finishing up to receive the colour 223 

Putting on the colour 224 

Rubbing down after the second 

coat. 220 

Varnishing 227 

Ornamenting and striping 229 

Ornaments on panels 230 

Shading 232 

Striping 232 

Varnishing after striping 235 


Colors and Coloring; theoretical and practical: CoMPRismo descrip- 
tions OF A Great Variety of additional Pigments; their Qualities and 
uses; to which are added Dryers and Modes and Operationsof Painting. 


Colors 241 

Qualities of Pijrments. 242 


White 243 


White Lead 2-J4 

Adnlterations 245 

Kreins,CremsorKremnitz white 246 
Flake White 246 


VI 1 


mane d' Argent '247 

Roman White 247 

Sulphate uf Lead 247 

Zinc White 247 

Tin White 249 

Poail White 249 

Tints 250 

Of toe Primary Colors 

Of Yellow 250 

Jauue Minerale 252 

Naples Yellow 252 

Massicot 253 

Yellow Ochre ^ 253 

Oxford Ochre 254 

Stone Ochre 254 

Koman Ochre 254 

Brown Ochre 254 

Terra di Sienna 255 

Iron Yellow 255 

King's Yellow 255 

Chinese Yellow "255 

Arsenic Yellow 256 

Cadmium Yellow 256 

(jkimboge 266 

Gall-stone 257 

Yellow Lake 257 

Of Red 257 

Iodine Scsulet 259 

Ked Ochre 200 

Indian Red 260 

Light Red 261 

Venetian Red 261 

Rubric or Madder Lakes 261 

Scarlet Lake 262 

Lac Lake 263 

Madder Carmine 263 

Of Blue '. 263 

Ultramarine 266 

Factitious Ultnunarluo 267 

Cobalt Blue 268 

Smalt 268 

Royal Bine 269 

Antwerp Blue 269 

Op tub Seooxdart Polors 

Of Orange 269 

Chrome Orange 270 

Orange Ochre 271 

Mai-s Orange 271 

Burnt Sienna Earth 271 

Orange Lo<id 271 

Orange Orpimont 272 

Op Green 272 

Mixed Greens 274 

Turre-rerte 274 

Chrome Greens 275 


Cobalt Greens 276 

£mcrald Green 276 

Mineral Green •• 276 

Prussian Green 276 

Invisible Green 276 

Zinc Green 276 

Of Purple 277 

Mixed Purples 278 

Gold Purple 279 

Madder Purple 279 

Burnt Carniiuo 279 

Purple Lake 280 

Purple Ochre 280 

Of tue Tertlirt Colors 

Of Citrine 280 

Mixed Citrine 281 

Brown Pink 282 

Umber 282 

Of Russet 282 

Mixed Russet 283 

Field's Russet 284 

Prussiate of Copper 284 

Kusset Ochre 285 

Of Olive 285 

Mixed Olive 286 

Olive Green 286 

Burnt Verdigris 286 

Of semi-Neutral Colors 

Op Brown 287 

Vandyke Browu. 289 

Manganese Brown 289 

Cappagh Browu 290 

Burnt Umber 290 

Cassel Earth 291 

Cologne Earth 291 

Rubens Brown 291 

Brown Ochre 291 

Bono Brown 291 

Asphaltum 292 

Antwerp Brown 292 

Prussian Brown 293 

Op Grat 293 

Mixed Grays 294 

Ultramarine Ashes 294 

Phosphate of Iron 295 

Plumbago 2'.>5 

Op the Neutual-Black 295 

Ivory Black 297 

Lamp Black 297 

Frankfort Black 298 

Blue Black 298 

Spanish Black 298 

Mineral Black 299 

Maganese Black 299 

Black Ochre 299 

Black Lea<l 296 

__• • • 




Tables op Piomextb 

Table I. Pigments wlucU change 
by liglit, oxygen and pure air 
but not by sbude sulphuretted 
Ijydrogon, damp and foul air... 301 

Table II. Pigments little or nut at 
all changed by light, oxygen, 
und pure air; but by shade, 
Bulphurctted Iiydrogen, damp 
and impure air 301 

Table III. Pigments changed by 
the action both of light and 
oxygen and the opposite pow- 
ers of sulphuretted hydrogen 
damp and impure air 302 

Table IV. Pigments not at all or 
little changed by the action of 
light, oxygen and pure air ; nor 
by the opposite influences of 
shade, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
dump and impure air; nor by 
the action of lead or iron 303 

Table V. Pigments subject to 
change variously by the ac- 
tion of wljite lead and other 
jngments and preparations of 
that metal 304 

Table A' I. Pigments changed by 
iron, its pigments and other 
ferruginous substances 305 

Table VII. IMgnientS more or 
less transi)arent, and generally 
lit to be emi>loyed as graining 
and fiiiislnng colors 305 

Table Vlll. Pigments little or 
not at .all affected by heat or 
fire 306 

Table IX. Pigments little or not 
at all artected by lime and 
elij;ible for fresco, distenjpor 
urul crayon painting 307 

Dryers 308 

Modes AND Operations of Pai.vt- 


Grounds 310 

Painting in Oil 310 

Priming 311 

Flattening 311 

Stain Oraitiing 812 

Transparencies 313 

Jlules of Painting 313 

Fre-sco 313 

In Distemper Painting 315 

Scagliola 315 

Cleaning and Restorinq 

In I'emoving Varnish 316 


Removing Paint 317 

Chevreul's Principles of Har- 
mony AND Contrast of Colors 

Definitions 319 

Analysis of Light and Color 320 

The Source of Color 320 

The Type or Standard of Color 321 

On the Mixture of Colors 321 

C«)lors of Objects 324 

Complementary Colors 324 

Circumstances which modify a 

Color 826 

Modificatioivs produced in a color 
by being placed in contact with 

another Color 326 

Result of placing Colors in Con- 
tiguity 3-29 

First gi-oup. — ^Two compound Col- 
ors, having the same simple 

Color in each 3'29 

Second group. — Acomi>ound Col- 
or with a simple color which 
forms a part of the Compound 329 
Third group. Two simple Colors 330 
Fourth group. Two Conipounds 
composed of the sanic simple 

Colors 330 

I"ifth gi'oup. A Compound Col- 
or, and a simple color which is 

not found in the compound 330 

Influence of Gloss atid of Form 
upon the Effect of Contrast of 

two Colors 3.J1 

Binary associations of Colors 331 

1. Association of Complementary 
Colors 331 

2. Association of non-Comple- 
mentary Colors 33f 

In the Association of two Colors 
of equal tone, the height of 
the tone may influence the 
Beauty of the Association 332 

Influence of the Contignity of 
White on Colors 33:j 

Influence of the -Contignity of 
Black on Colors 334 

Influence of the Contiguity of 
Gray on Colors 3:^^ 

Harmony of Coloi'S 3.50 

First group. Harmonies of An- 
alogous Colors 336 

Second group. Harmonies of 
Contrast 336 

On the Selection of the kind of 
Harmony for a given object... 338 

Index W) 





Before proceeding to enter upon any details respect- 
ing the nature, use, and composition of the substances 
employed by the Painter, Gilder, and Varnisher, I shall 
give a description of the tools and apparatus necessary 
in these occupations, with directions for their selection 
and proper use. The first in order and in importance 
are the grindstone and muller, employed in grinding 
colours. The grindstone in common use is a horizontal 
slab, tibout eighteen inches square, and sufficiently heavy 
to enable it to remain fixed and firm while the colours 
are ground upon it. The best material is spotted marble 
or granite ; but when that cannot be procured without 
inconvenience or great expense, white or black marble 
may be used. Particular care must be taken that the stono 
IH hard and of a close grain, and not full of sn^all pores 



which will be sure to retain part of the colours 6rsl 
ground, and thus prevent the stone from being properly 
cleaned, and render the po^ours that are ground after- 
wards mixed and dingy. 

A large piece of slate is sometimes used for a grinds 
etone ; but this is very improper, except where the colours 
are quite of a common description, and the painting re- 
quires no nicety. 

The muller is a pebble-stone, in the shape of an egg, 
with the larger end broken off, and then ground as smooth 
ind flat as possible. It is generally to be purchased 
ready-made at the colour shops. The greater its size 
(if the dimensions are not so large as to make it difficult 
for the workman, with a moderate exertion of the strength 
of his arms, to keep it in continual motion) the better. 
The usual size is from two to three inches in diameter 
at the flat end, and about five inches high. In choosing 
it, the principal points to be observed are, that the sur- 
face is perfectly smooth and the edges well rounded off. 

An excellent substitute for the common grindstone 
and muller, but confined in its application to the grind- 
ing of colours in a dry state, has been invented by Mr. 
Charles Taylor, of Manchester, England, and is repre- 
sented by Figs. 1 and 2. 

Fig. 1 represents a mortar, made of marble or other 
bard stone. One made in the usual form will answer. 

M is a muller or grinder, made nearly in the form of 
a. pear, in the upper part of which an iron axis is firmly 
fixed ; which axis, at the parts marked N, N, turns in 
grooves, or slits, made in two pieces of oak, projecting 


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

hofizoatally from n wait, &c, ; and when the axis ia ai 
work, it is secured in the grooves bj the iron pins 0, 

P, the handle, which forms a part of the axis, and bj 
turning which the grinder is worked. 

Q, the wall, &c., in wliicli the oak pieces, N, N, ara 

R, a weight, which may occasionally be added, if 
more power ie wanted. 

Fig. 2 shows the muller or grinder with its ttxisRepit- 


fa to from the other machinery : its bottom should be 
made to fit the mortar. 

S, a groove cut through the stone muUer. 

The muUer being placed in the mortar, and secured 
m the oak pieces by means of the pins, the colour to be 
ground is thrown into the mortar, above the muUer; on 
turning the handle, the colour in lumps falls into the 
groove cut through the mulle'r; and is from thence 
drawn in under the action of the muller, and again pro- 
pelled to its outer edge, within the mortar; from whence 
the coarser particles again fall into the groove of the 
muller, and are again ground underneath it ; this opera- 
tion is continued until the whole of the colour is ground 
to an impalpable powder: the muller is then readily 
removed and the colour taken out. 

To prevent any of the colour from flying ofF in dust 
under the rapid operation of the muller, and to save also 
the workmen from inhaling any of those pernicious mat- 
ters which enter into the composition of most paints, a 
wooden cover, made in two halves, with a hole in it for 
the axis of the muller to pass through, is usually placed 
on the mortar while at work. Had Mr. Taylor's mill 
aothing else to recommend it, the protection which it 
thus affords to the health of the workmen ought alone 
to insure its general adoption. The common grindstone 
and muller are, in this respect, particularly objectionable. 
For mixing, or rather perfectly incorporating, colours, 
after they are dry-ground, with oil or water, and still 
farther refining them, recourse may be had to the mill 
for which Mr. Rawlinson, artist, in England, received a 
prize from the Society of Arts. 


Fig. 8. 

A is a cyliDder, made of any kind of marble; i.';i 
black marble is esteemed the best, because it is the hard- 
est, and takes the best polish. B is a concave muller; 
uovering one-third of the circumference of the cylinder, 
and made of the same kind of marble with it: this is 
tiled in a wooden frame, h, whieh is hung to tie fraino 
E at /, t. c is a piece of iron, about an inch broad, to 
keep the muUer steady ; and is affixed to the frame by 
u joint at/ Tlic small bindinjx swob (with '\l>- nut) 


tvhich passes through the centre of the iron plate c, k 
foi the purpose of laying more pressure on the miiller, 
when required, as well as to keep it steady. D is a 
taker-oflF, made of a piece of clock-spring, about half an 
inch broad, and is fixed, similarly to a frame-saw, in an 
iron frame, K, in an inclined position to the cylinder ; 
and the frame turns on pivots at d, d, G is a sliding- 
board, made to draw out occasionally, in order to clean 
it, should any particles of paint fall upon it from the 
cylinder ; it also forms a support for the dish H, to catch 
tho colour as it drops from the taker-ofi* D. F is a drawer 
for the purpose of containing curriers' shavings, which 
are the best things for cleaning paint-mills. E is the 
mill frame. 

The colour being mixed with oil or water, an^, with 
a spatula or palette-knife, put upon the cylinder near to 
the top of the concave muUer, the cylinder is then turned 
round towards the muller ; which draws the colour be- 
neath the muller without any difficulty ; and a very few 
turns of the cylinder spread it equally over the surface. 
When it is found to be ground sufficiently fine for the 
purpose required, it is very readily removed b}' means 
of the taker-off before described; which must be held 
against the cylinder, and the cylinder be turned the re- 
verse way, which cleans it very quickly and completely ; 
and the muller will only require to be cleaned when the 
operation is nearly completed and previous to changing 
the colour. For this purpose, it is to be turned back, 
being, as before said, hung upon pivots affixed to the 
frame at /, i; and may then be very conveniently cleaned 


with a j»alette-knife or a spatula. Afterwards, a hand- 
ful of the curriers' shavings being held upon the cylinder, 
by two or three revolutions it is cleaned effectually -, and 
there is much less waste of colour with this machine 
than with any marble slab. 

For the purpose of clearing the colour off the common 
grinding-stone, as well as for keeping it together should 
it spread too much during the grinding, painters some- 
times employ a piece of horn, like that used for lanterns, 
about three inches by four, or a piece of wood of the 
same dimensions, very thin and smooth, and made sharp 
and even at the edge. This is called a voider. It is, 
however, more customary to use for this purpose a 
palette-'knife. This instrument is commonly sold in the 
shops, and is generally made of steel, which ought to be 
highly tempered, extremely thin, and perfectly flexible 
Ivory, however, is a much preferable material for the 
palette-knife, since some kinds of yellow assume a dingy, 
dark-green hue, and all colours which contain any por- 
tion of arsenic in their composition experience a change 
when touched with iron or steel. 

In no particular ought the painter or varnish er, who 
wishes to insure superiority in the execution of his work, 
to be more circumspect, than in the choice of his brushes 
and pencils. 

Binislies are either round or flat, and are of various 
sizes. The round ones vary from a quarter of an inch 
to two inches and a half in diameter. For some par- 
ticular purposes, they even exceed this latter size. The 
larger ones are made use of in laying on the first coat 


of pamt, ov priming, as it is called, and in painting ovoi 
large surfaces which require considerable quantities of 
colour. The smaller brushes are for parts to which, 
from their size or situation, the large ones cannot l^e 
applied. Brushes of a flat form are usually termed 
varnishing brushes, being chieflj* used for that purpose] 
but they are likewise employed in drawing lines, vein 
ing, and imitations of variegated woods. 

A correspondent of the Mechanics* Magazine (vol. i. 
p. 279) makes an objection to the use of round brushes, 
which must be allowed to have considerable weight 
" Being made round," he says, '' they are by no means 
well adapted, in that shape, for laying on a flat surface : 
the consequence is, that painters invariably use their 
brushes but one way, for the very purpose of wearing 
them flat, which goes to prove the necessity of an altera- 
tion in their general shape/' He then describes one 
which he made with a flat handle, and found to answei 
much better, for all common purposes, than the ordinary 
round brush. The handle was of beech, about an ineb 
and a half wide and three-eighths of an inch thick, andj 
near the end on which the hairs were tied, was bevelled 
off" to a thin edge. 

Brushes are almost always made of hogs' bristles 
Sometimes they are of badger's or goat's hair, especially 
when required for varnishing fine works with a thin 
varnish. In choosing them, observe, in the first place, 
that the hairs are strong ; and next, that they are close 
together, and fast bound with the threads that tie them 
round in the stocks. If the hairs are weak, the coloui 


irill never lie in a good body ; if they are not ulosc to- 
gether, they will spread and divide unequally when 
used, and consequently cannot work well. But the 
worst fault of all is, their not being fast bound in the 
stocks; for, in that case, some of them will come out 
while you are working, and the appearance of the work 
will be strangely disfigured by loose hairs being seen 
buried in the colouring, when dry. 

Even when as tightly bound together as possible, the 
hairs often get loose, from the practice, so common with 
painters, of keeping their brushes in water when out of 
use, by which the strings that bind them, though usually 
glued over, soon become rotten. To prevent brushes 
from being damaged in this way, get them bound in the 
usual way, but not glued over, and then work in rosin 
and grease, which will resist the water, and keep the 
brush for a long time tight and sound. When, by long 
use, the hairs of a good brush legin to work loosely, 
drive a few thin wedges of wood inside the thread with 
which they are bound round, and this will render the 
whole fast again. 

PenciU differ from brushes in the smallness of their 
size, and in being manufactured of a much finer and 
softer hair. In some cases the hair of the marten, or 
of children, and even swansdown, are used for them ; 
but these are generally confined to pencils intended for 
irtists, the mechanical painter being rarely engaged in 
work of such a delicate nature as to require them. Pen- 
cils are invariably of a round form. The smallest aro 
fitted into the barrels of quills, the larger sort into tin 


cases, both placed at the ends of sticks *, some of a very 
large size are fastened into stocks in the same manner 
HS brushes. 

In choosing pencils, a very simple trial will prove 
whether they are fit for your purpose. You have only 
to put them into your mouth, and, after wetting them 
a little, draw them out between your tongue and upper 
lip ; then, if they present a sharp point, and the hairs 
come out full next to the case, and without separating, 
the pencils are good ; if the hairs show ragged, or are 
thin at the opposite end to the point, they cannot be 
depended upon. The sharpness of the point is of par- 
ticular consequence in small pencils. The same atten- 
tion must be paid to the hairs being fast bound in the 
stocks or cases, as directed in the choice of brushes. 

With regard to the stick, or stock, attached to the 
pencil, it ought never to be less than eight inches ; and, 
indeed, the greater the length, provided the workman 
can handle it with freedom and certainty, the better ; 
for it is as impossible for a painter to have a good com- 
mand of his pencil, as a writer of his pen, if he hold it 
too near the point. 

To steady the hand while using the pencil, painter* 
use what they call a moU-stick. This is made of a 
straight piece of wood, generally mahogany, with a nob 
at one end of it, resembling a printer's puff, but smaller, 
composed of some soft substance enclosed in leather. 
This end must be rested lightly on the work, and the 
other end being held in the left hand, will render the 
Mtick a support to the right. 


When you are engaged upon works which will require 
the use of pencils or small brushes for a long time to- 
gfttlier, it is customary, instead of having your colours in 
pots or pans, to dispose them in such quantities as they 
are likely to be wanted in, upon a palette. This is a 
8m<all board, generally of an oval form, to be had at any 
colour-shop. It ought to be made of walnut or apple- 
tree wood, and, before being used, it should be well 
rubbed over with drying oil, till it refuses to take up 
any more. The same kind of palette will serve for the 
vaniisher ; but, for painting m distemper, it is necessary 
to have one made of tin-plat<}. 

Spatulas, resembling in appearance the spreading 
slices used by apothecaries, are useful for preparing 
colours, and for many other purposes. They should be 
had of different materials, horn, bone, iron, steol, or 
ivory ; but there should be, at least, one of each of the 
last two kinds, — those made of steel being sometimes 
improper, for the reason mentioned in speaking of the 

A fflass mattrass is usually recommended for digest- 
ing varnishes, as its transparency admits of the progress 
of the solution being readily observed. But it is only 
the experienced manipulator who can safely employ a 
vessel of this kind ; and for general use, one of tin is' 
much better. 

A rubber y for varnishing or polishing, is usually made 
by rolling up a strip of thick woollen cloth, which has 
been torn off so as to form a soft, elastic edge ) thick, 
wide list will, however, answer equally well. The coil 


may be from one to three inches in diameter, accorciiiig 
to the size of the work. 

There are other articles which it may be desirable, or 
even indispensable, for the painter, gilder, or varnisher 
to have among his apparatus, but which do not require 
any description of their nature or use, or any directions 
for their selection, — ^such as putty,* a putty-knife, dust- 
ing-cloths, and brushes, pots and pans of different sizes, 
made of tin or earthenware, to hold colours, (when of 
earthenware they should be glazed,) a large pestle and 
mortar, hair and silk sieves, square and rule, compasses, 
and black-lead pencils. 

* Putt J is m^de of commc>n whitings pounded very fine, and 
oiixed op with linseed oil till it becomes %bout the Uiickn^M of 



I SHALL now proceed to mention the principal colouring 
Bubstances, with their combinations, pointing out their 
comparative advantages and disadvantages. In a few 
instances, where the process is not tedious or difficult, 
or where there would be a risk of getting them in a very 
impure state at the shops, I shall state the method cf 
preparing them for use. In most cases, particularly 
since the general erection of colour-mills, it will be found 
a saving both of time and expense to purchase them 
ready prepared. 

White Lead, Ceruse^ cmd Flake Whitt, 

The white colour most generally used in house-painting, 
and which forms the best priming for all other colours, 
is a subcarbonate of lead, consisting of 85 parts of pure 
lead and 25 of carbonic acid. The more common sorts 
are called white lead; the purer, ceruse; the very best, 
flake white. The following is a simple and expeditious 
method of preparing it. 

Take some long narrow slips of lead, and make them 
up into rolls, leaving a small space between every fold, 
10 that none of the surfaces may touch on j another any- 


where ; place these rolls in earthen pots, upheld by a 
little bar in such a manner as not to sink down above 
halfway into the pots ; and in each of these vessels put 
as much strong vinegar as nearly to touch the lead. 
When the vinegar and the lead are both in the pot; cover 
it up close, and leave it under the action of a moderate 
heat, till the plates of lead are reduced to a complete 
calx, which when dried will become very solid. If yoi 
find that the process has not been continued long enough, 
knock ofif the part of the surface of the lead which b 
calcined, and repeat the process with the remainder. 

When cakes of white lead are purchased ready pre- 
pared, small particles of lead in the metallic state are 
not unfrequently found, owing to the preparation having 
been imperfectly executed; and in grinding the colour, 
this metallic part; becoming divided by the motion of 
the muUer, gives a grayish tint to it. To avoid this 
inconvenience, if you do not prepare your white lead 
yourself, be careful to ascertain as well as you can, in 
purchasing it, whether it is pure, and select the thinnest 
cakes, in grinding it, your slab and muUer should be 
perfectly cWn, because there is often a little acid moist- 
ure in white lead, which renders it very apt to attract 
any parts thau remain of colours previously ground. To 
obtain white lead of a very fine quality, it is often neces- 
sary to grind it several times. 

Not unfrequently this colour is adulterated with com- 
mon whiting, and its beauty by this means greatly im- 
paired. To detect this fraud, rub a little of the suspected 
wticle between the fingersj and throw it on a piece of 


live charcoal ; if pure, the whole of it will tura of a yel- 
lowish hue, and in a few minutes take the form of bril- 
liant metallic globules; but if any whiting has been 
mixed with it, there will be a corresponding residue of 
a white earthy appearance. 

Sjpanishj or Bougival White. 

A precipitate, formed by the solutions of bismuth 
when thrown into water, is what goes, in commerce, by 
the name of Spanish White, Bougival White, (from 
Bougival, near Marly, in France,) and sometimes White 
of Bismuth. It is generally sold in cakes of an oblong 
form. It is much better for house-painting than any 
whites that contain a mixture of chalky substances, and 
it is not unfrequently used instead of white lead for 
priming, being far cheaper, though much less durable. 
When employed with oil or varnish, it ought to be used 
Tery dry, or it will unite but imperfectly with them. 

Rolls of washed chalk, possessing none of the qualities 
that should belong to Spanish or Bougival White, are 
often sold under these names. To detect this adultera- 
tion, pour upon the sample a few drops of aqua fortis, 
or very strong distilled vinegar. If the Spanish White 
be pure, no efifervescence will take place ; if any effer- 
vescence appears, it is either wholly or in part chalk. 

Gypsum y or Plaster of Paris. 

Gypsum is a sulphate of lime, composed of lime and 
tulphuric acid. It requires to be calcined before it in 


used as a colouring substance. When employed in hooseh 
painting, it requires to be mixed with a great quantity 
of M ater, and it then forms a very valuable article for 
white-washing apartments, and for painting in distem- 
per. Its white, when the gypsum is quite pure and 
free from any mixture of clay, is very fine, and much 
more delicate than that of chalk. 

White of Troi/ts, or White Chalk. 

The substance known by these names is an insoluble 
compound formed of carbonic acid and lime. It is 
generally used for common white-washing, though gyp- 
sum is much preferable for this purpose. In distemper 
it answers very well, as its being mixed up with size 
renders it more durable ; but with oil and varnishes it 
becomes brown, and occasions the latter to split. lake 
all colours that contain chalk, it is without lustre. 

Ivori/ Black, 

The bones of all animals, when reduced to charcoal 
or carbon, form a good black; but the best of all blacks, 
whether animal or vegetable, is that made from ivory 
shavings burnt to a black coal, in a crucible closely 
stopped up, and afterwards ground very fine. It may 
be freed from every possible impurity by washing it in 
muriatic acid or weak aqua-fortis, and is then an ox- 
^remeiy rich and intense colour ; but being costly, ifc in 


tfcldom employed in common work. The water colour, 
dalled China Ink, is merely ivory black perfectly puro, 
mixed with a solution of isinglass and Spanish liquoricei 
and then evaporated to a proper c insistence. 

Lamp Black. 

The soot collected by holding a plate over the flame 
of a lamp or candle is the veritable lamp black ; but the 
more general way of obtaiting this substance on a large 
scale is from the burning of resinous woods. It is used 
more than any other black in common painting. It 
serves to modify the brightness of the tints of other 
colours, and is very useful in the composition of such 
colours as result from mixtures. It is both cheap and 
plentiful ; is a very good black for general purposes ; 
and of so fine a body that, if tempered only with linseed 
oil, it wUl serve, on most occaiions, to work without 
grinding. But as the substance of this colour contains 
a kind of greasy fatness, which makes it long in drying, 
it is advisable to mix two parts of drying oil with the lin- 
seed oil, or to grind some white copperas and mix it with 
the colour, which will make it dry in a short time. Its 
unctuosity may be also greatly lessened, and its lustre 
at the same time much improved, by burning it in a 
crucible or iron ladle made red-hot over a clear fire. 

Charcoal Blacks. 

The best charcoal is that procured by subjecting 
wood, enclosed in a cast iron cylinder and wholly ex- 


eluded from the action of the air, to a strong fire till ibt 
cylinder is red-hot. The whole of the gaseous ingre- 
dients being then disengaged, the fire is extinguished, 
and the charcoal allowed to cool in the cylinder. The 
woods that furnish the best charcoal for painters aic the 
beech and vine ; the former yielding a black of a "bluish, 
and the latter one of a grayish, cast. Wine LeeSy after 
being calcined, washed several times in boiling water, 
and ground to a fine powder, .yield a fine velvety black 
which, however, is chiefly used by copper-plate printers. 
Peach Stones, burned in a close vessel, yield a charcoal 
which, after being ground, may be successfully used for 
that kind of black generally known by the name of raven 
gray, A very pure charcoal is also obtained by expos- 
ing white sugar-candy to a red heat in an earthenware 
retort. When charcoal obtained from any of these 
sources is employed in painting, it should be mixed 
with a very small portion of white lead, and made up 
for use with drying oil. 



The most delicate and brilliant of all the light reds is 
that called VeiTailioUj obtained from the red sulphuret, 
•jommonly known by the name of cinnabar. Although 
einnabar is found in a natural state, being the ore from 
which mercury is usually extracted, it is, in general, 
prepared artificially, when vermilion is intended to be 
manufactured out of it. The process is simple. Melt 


six ounces of sulphur in an iron ladle ; then put two 
pounds of mercury into a chamois leather, or a double 
linen clotn, and squeeze it thence into the melted brim* 
tftone, stirring them at the same time with a wooden 
spatula, till they are well combined, forming a substance 
the same as the natural cinnabar. When the mass is 
cold; beat it into a powder, and sublime it in a glass 
vessel with a worm-like top, over a strong fire, when 
tiie ascendii^g fumes will form an incrustration on the 
top of th^ vessel, which, reduced to a fine powder, is 

The body of vermilion is very delicate, and will grind 
fts fine as oil itself. No colour looks better, works 
HKioother, bears a better body, or goes farther. 

It is not unfrequently debased by a mixture of red- 
lead. To detect this adulteration, place a portion of it 
on a piece of red-hot iron : if pure, it will evaporate 
entirely ; if not, there will be an earthy residue. 

Minium, or Red Lead. ^ 

This colour is made by first reducing common lead, by 
calcining, to an oxide or litharge, which being ground to 
powder, is put into a hot furnace exposed to a free access 
of air, and continually stirred with an iron rake, till the 
colour becomes a fine pale red. 

The grinding red lead to a proper degree of fineness 

IS very laborious and difficult, it being naturally very 

harish and sandy. When, however, it is well ground 



and made fine, it is lighter than any other red in general 
use, bears a. good body in oil, and binds very fast and 
firm. It has, likewise, the advantage of drying readily. 


A more dazzling red than vermilion (the superfine 
species of it, called Madame Cenett^Sy is almost too bril- 
liant for the eye to endure) is derived from the precipi- 
tation of the colouring matter in cochineal, by means 
of an acid, usually alum. Various sorts of carmine are 
sold at the colour-shops, and numbered in the order of 
their relative value, thus ; No. 1 is the best ) No. 2, the 
second best, and so on. Some modes of manufacturing 
it may be superior to others, but the difference of quality 
arises chiefly from an excess of alum employed in the 
precipitation, or from the intermixture of a portion of 
vermilion. In the first case, the colour is weakened; 
in the second, it does not retain the same brilliancy. 
it is always easy to detect the proportion of mixture, 
by means of a property which pure carmine possesses, 
of dissolving in ammonia. All the foreign matters re- 
main untouched, and the proportion they bear may be 
estimated by drying the residuum. 

The preparation of this article is involved in consider- 
able mystery ; for, in consequence of the great cost of 
the original material, cochineal, the consumption of it is 
limited, and the manufacture confined to a few hands. 
There are many receipts for the purpose, in scientific 
books, but succefis appears to depend on a certain dex- 


terity, which habit alone can confer. One of the Kk^ 
liesf processes seem to me to be the following : — 

Boil one pound of powdered cochineal, and three and 
a half drams of subcarbonate of potash, in ten gall 009 
of water, checking the effervescence from time to time, 
by adding a little cold water. When the mixture has 
boiled for some minutes, take the boiler off the fire, and 
place it on a table so inclined that the liquor may be 
easily poured off. Now throw in eight drams of alum, 
m powder, and stir the whole well, when the decoction 
will instantly assume a very brilliant tint. In about a 
quarter of an hour, the cochineal, divested of its colour- 
ing matter, will be seen deposited at the bottom, and the 
liquor as clear as if it had been filtered. Draw off this 
liquor into another boiler, and, after adding three and a 
half drams of isinglass dissolved in water and passed 
through a sieve, set it on the fire. As soon as it begins 
to boil, the carmine will be seen rising to the surface of 
the bath, and a coagulum will be formed, similar to that 
which takes place in the clarifications made with whites 
of eggs. The boiler must then be withdrawn from the 
fire, and the bath well stirred with a spatula ; in fifteen 
or twenty minutes after which, the carmine will have 
all fallen to the bottom The clear fluid is then poured 
off, and the precipitate laid to drain on a very fine sieve. 
If the whole of this process has been properly per- 
formed, the carmine, when dry, will easily break be* 
tweeu the fingers. 

'^^ THE PAINT£R, GlLbiOly 


There are two sorts of colours knowD under this name 
lakes derived from cochineal — ^the richest and finest cf 
all dark reds; and lakes prepared from madder — ntn 
quite so good. 

Cochineal lake is obtained by boiling the fluid which 
remains after the precipitation of the carmine^ in the 
manner described under the preceding head, along with 
potashes and the deposit which was left in the boilet 
after the addition of the alum. When all the heavier 
matters have fallen to the bottom, the clear fluid is 
drawn off, and alum again added. A precipitate is then 
thrown down, which, when drained and dried, is cochi- 
neal lake. 

Madder lakes, or, as they are sometimes called^ mad- 
der carmine J are nearly as costly as cochineal lakes, and 
not so Qniwh inferior as is generally supposed. They 
are very durable, and have the peculiar merit of long 
retaining an appearance of great freshness. Madder 
being itself abundant and cheap, the costliness of mad- 
der lakes has been hitherto entirely owing to the ex- 
tremely tedious and complicated methods pursued in the 
manufacturing of them ; but, in consequence of certain 
scientific researches recently entered into by Messrs. 
Colin and Roubiquet, (see Annales de Chim., March, 
1827,) 80 much light has been thrown on the subject, 
that the same results may now be obtained in three or 


fi»ur hours only, which formerly required several succes- 
sive months, and that, too, in a very simple manner. 

" The manipulations/' say Messrs. Colin and Rouhi- 
quct, " are so easy in practice, that it is in every per. 
son's power to undertake them ; and in a little time, we 
have no doubt, the use of these lakes will extend to the 
commonest objects." 

The new mode consists in mixing one part of madder 
with four parts of water, leaving it to macerate for ten 
minutes only, and then submitting it to a powerful pres- 
sure, till nearly every portion of liquid is squeezed out. 
Three times this process is repeated, and to the washing- 
liquor, preserved in each instance, there is added five or 
six parts more of pure water, and half a pint of pounded 
alum. The mixture is then allowed to macerate for two 
or three hours, in the heat of a water-bath, and stirred 
occasionally with a spatula. It is next strained through 
a fine cloth, and afterwards filtered through paper. A 
dilute solution of crystals of soda is finally added, when 
a precipitate is formed, which is the colouring matter 
wanted. Messrs. Colin and Roubiquet recommend that 
the dilute solution of crystals of soda should be divided 
into three portions, by which means three precipitates 
will be obtained, decreasing successively in colour and 

SpanisJi Brown. 

This is obtained from an earth dug out of the ground : 
it is of a dark, dull-red colour, something like horse-flesh 
The deeper the colour, and the freer from gritty parti- 



des, the better it is for use. It is cheap and plentiful, 
and works well. It is much employed by painters, foi 
ft priming or first colour. 

Other Reds. 

Besides the above reds, I may mention, among those 
in use among painters, English red and Prussian red, 
both obtained from oxides of iron, and commonly called 
colcothar of vitriol ; red ochre, which is very extensively 
employed, especially in distemper ; rose colour , composed 
of a portion of white lead mixed with pure lake ; and 
realgar, which is formed of fifty-eight parts of arsenic 
and forty-two of sulphur. 


Yellow Ochre. 

Of this colour there are two kinds, the bright yellow, 
and the dark yellow. The former is sometimes called 
plain orhre, and the latter spruce ochre. It will grind 
very fine, resists the weather well, and bears a good 


The substance known under this name in commerce, 
IS produced by the calcination of lead in contact with tht 
air ; it is the lead, in fact, in its first state of change, 
after being combined with the oxygen of the atmo* 
sphere; heated a little longer, it is converted into minium. 


or red lead; longer still, into a brown oxide, whicli is 
of no use in the arts. It is a good light-yellow for ge- 
neral purposes, and very serviceable, when mixed with 
blue, for making greens. 

Chrome Yellow, 

The mineral called chrome, discovered by M. Vau- 
quelin, in 1797, was so called from the peculiar property 
it possesses of colouring whatever it combines with — 
chrome signifying colour. Of the various compound co- 
lours of which it is the basis, the most valuable is that 
called chrome yellow, or chromate of leady obtained by 
pouring a solution of chromate of potass into a solution 
of any of the salts of lead. It is a very rich and brilliant 
yellow, and employed to advantage in house and coach 
painting. To test its purity, pour a little nitric acid 
upon it : if it effervesces, it is adulterated. 

Turner's, or Patent Yellow. 

When sea-salt is made into a paste with litharge, it is 
aecomposed, its acid unites with the litharge, and the 
soda is set free. Hence Turner's patent process for 
decomposing sea-salt, which consists in mixing two parts 
of the former with one of the latter, moistening them 
and leaving them together for about twenty -four hours. 
The product is then washed, filtered, and evaporated, by 
which soda is obtained. A white substance is now left 
undissolved; it is a compound of muriatic acid and lead, 
which, when heated, changes its colour, and forms Tur' 


w€/'*« Yellow — a very beautiful colour, much in use among 
voacb painters. 


Thip colour is more commonly known by the name of 
yellow arsenic. It is a compound of about fifty-eight 
parts of arsenic, and forty-two of sulphur. It is good 
for some purposes, particularly for the production of 
straw-colours in painting doors, windows, &c.; but as it is 
a stony substance, the grinding of it is a very difficult, 
and, from its poisonous nature, an injurious operation. It 
likewise, in common with all bodies that contain arsenic, 
produces a bad effect on any metallic substances exposed 
to its action. 

Naples Yellow, 

The best of all yellows : it is milder and more unctuous 
than either orpiment, massicot, or any of the ochres; 
combines readily with other colours, and improves them, 
[t is generally supposed to be obtained from the lava of 
Mount Vesuvius; but M. de Bondaroy says (Memoirs 
of the French Academy j 1766,) that is a composition 
known at Naples under the name of giallolini, the mode 
of preparing which is known only to one individual. On 
afterwards analyzing it, he found it to consist of ceruse 
alum, sal-ammoniac, and diaphoretic antimony. It is 
necessary to use it with great care. It must be ground 
well on a slab of porphyry or marble, and scraped to- 
gether with an ivory knife, as both stone and steel have 


a tendency to turn it to green. Sometimes it is adulto* 
rated by an intermixture of iron; to detect this, fuse a 
portion of it along with colourless glass : if free from 
iron, it will become of a milk-white colour. 

Yellow of Antimony, 

A yellow obtained from dissolving crude antimony in 
muriatic acid, holds an intermediate place between chrome 
yellow and Naples yellow. It is chiefly used for giving 
a yellow colour to glass and earthenware. 


Yellow Pink. 

A variety of yellow colours are also obtained from 
vegetable substances. The most durable of these is that 
extracted from the reseda luteola^ a plant common to most 
European countries. It grinds and dissolves in water 
easily ; but care must be taken not to bring it in contact 
with iron, as the astringent principle which it contains 
in abundance, instantly dissolves that metal, which in 
its turn destroys the clearness of the colour. 


Prussian Bliie. 

A Prussian chemist, when making experiments on 
iron, happened to pour a solution of one of its salts on a 
solution of potashes, which had been kept for some time 
on animal matter, and found that a blue substance was 
formed. Following up the hint thus accidently ob- 


tained; ho succeeded, after a number of experiments, in 
discovering a method of preparing the valuable colour 
called Prussian Blue. The process, which was long kept 
•ecret, is as follows : Four parts of bullock's blood, 
dried by the application of a slight heat, are mixed with 
an equal weight of potashes, and again exposed to a strong 
heat till the f\imes which are at first given off cease to 
appear. The residue is then boiled in about twelve 
quarts of water, and strained, and to the solution are 
added two parts of green vitriol and eight of alum. A 
blue powder is now deposited, which is to be washed by 
muriatic acid, and then dried. There are blue colours 
superior to this, both in clearness and durability; but 
none which, volume for volume, contains so large a quan- 
tity of colouring matter. M. Bourgeois, a practical co- 
lourman, says that it contains even ten to one more than 
any other colour. It is, on this account, much employed 
in house-painting, and also in colouring paper-hangings 
Unfortunately, it is affected by all the alkalis, and there- 
fore is unfit for mixing with any colour which contains 
them. When ground with oil, it takes a yellowish tint; 
the best method to prevent which is to mix a little lake. 



Another blue colour, much used in common painting, 
IS indigo y extracted from the plant indigofera^ found 
in America, Egypt, and the East Indies. None but the 
best and purest kind of this colour — that obtained from 
the indigofera argentea — is proper for oil-painting: 


that of an inferior quality is only fit for distemper, as 
the oil renders it black or green. 

Indigo grinds fine, and bears a very good body. Its 
natural colour, however, being very dark, almost indeed 
approaching to black, it is seldom or never used without 
a small mixture of white. A preparation from the leave? 
of the anillo is sometimes fraudulently substituted for 
indigo, but may be at once detected by throwing a piecf 
into the fire; as genuine indigo will not burn. 


Ultramarine is the richest, mellowest, most beautiful 
and lasting of all blues ; but its extravagant price — 
nearly equal, when pure, to its weight in gold — prevents 
it being introduced, unless very rarely indeed, into house- 
painting. It is prepared from lapis lazuli, A number 
of pieces of this mineral are made red hot, and thrown 
into water, to make them pulverize easily; they are 
then reduced to a fine powder, and made up into a paste 
with a varnish compounded of resin, wax, and boiled 
linseed oil. This paste is put into a linen cloth, and 
repeatedly kneaded with hot water. The first water is 
thrown away; the second gives ultramarine of the best 
' quality ; the third a colour of less value. The best test 
of the purity of this article is, to throw it into concen- 
trated nitric acid ; if adulterated, (as it often is,) it will 
be scarcely affected by the acid ; if pure, it will lose vb 
colour almost entirely. 


Smoky Zaffre, Azure, Saxon Blue, or Enamel Bltte, 

A compound; known in commerce by all these different 
nameS; and bearing a strong resemblance to ultramarinoi 
is obtained by dissolving cobalt in nitric acid, and pre- 
cipitating it by a solution of potash. It is of a lovely 
azure hue ; but if not bought in the form of powder, is 
very difficult to grind, and it can be used only in a pe- 
culiar manner. It is too sandy to bear any body in oil ; 
besides, oil would change its colour, and make it of 
a black cast. The only proper, indeed the only practica- 
ble method of laying it on, is by strewing it on a ground 
of white lead, which is done in the following manner : 
Temper white lead with good clear drying oil, as stiff as 
you can well use it with the pencil or brush : with this 
white cover the surface or the work you intend to strew 
with smalt, being sure to cover it completely and equally. 
Then strew your smalt thickly over this white ground, 
while it is moist, and with the feather-edge of a goose- 
quill stroke it over, that it may lie evenly and thickly 
alike on all parts, and with a piece of linen cloth dab it 
down close, that it may take well upon the ground laid 
under it. When you find the ground quite dry, wipe 
off the loose colour with a feather, and blow the remain- ' 
der off with a pair of bellows. A portion of Prussian 
blue is frequently mixed up with the genuine cobalt ; 
and Prussian blue has been even prepared in such a 
manner as to be passed off for cobalt, without containing a 
single particle of that ingredient. The property, however 


nrliicli Prussian blue possesses, of being discoloured by 
alkalis, furnishes an easy security against any imposition 
of this sort. Immerse a piece of the suspected article 
in clarified lime-water for abeut an hour ; if the water 
has then assumed a citron hue, and there is an ochrous 
deposit at the bottom, it is a certain proof of the pre- 
sence of Prussian blue. 

Blue Verditer, 

This is a beautiful blue, obtained from the waste 
nitrate of copper of the refiners, by adding to it a quan- 
lity of chalk ; but it is only proper for distemper : it 
does not admit of being used with oil, unless a consider- 
ible mixture of white is introduced. 



This is the best simple green, and the one most in 
use. It b obtained by dissolving common verdigris in 
distilled vinegar or sour wine, and then proceeding to 
evaporation and crystallization. 

It has a bluish tint; but when lightened by the ad- 
dition of a little yellow pink, it makes a beautiful grass 
green. It grinds very fine, and works easily, and in a 
good body. 

When delicate paintmg is required, the dross, mixed 
with the common verdigris, makes it improper, and it 
becomes necessary to use distilled verdigris^ which cau 



be had at the shops, and is free from all imparities; but 
it is too expensive for ordinary purposes. 

Italiariy or Verona Ghreen, 

According to Hatiy, this is a species of chloride, (a 
3ombination of chlorine with a metallic or other sub- 
Btance.) It is of the same colour as chlorine, which de- 
rives its name from the Greek word cMoros, signifying 
a yellowish green. It is very durable, and not acted on 
by acids ; but, being obtained from an earth, does not 
incorporate well with oil. 

Saxofi, or Hungary Green, 

The colour which bears this name is a carbonate ot 
copper, found in a natural state in the mountains of 
Saxony and Hungary, mixed with earthy matters, 
which give it a palish hue. 

Scheele^s Green, 

This colour, called after the celebrated chemist by 
whom its composition was first made known, is an arsen- 
iteof copper, obtained in the following manner : A pound 
of sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) is first dissolved in foui 
pints of water; then a pound of carbonate of potass, dis- 
solved in eight pints of water, is boiled for some time 
with five ounces of white arsenic ; the two solutions arc 
now mixed while hot, and a precipitate produced, whicb, 
being well washed and dried, is of a light sea-green colour 


It grinds well with oil, and is in much request for the 
painting of the cabins of ships. 

Srhweinfurt Grreen. 

A green, which has recently obtained great reputation 
on the Continent, and which is said to surpass Scheele's, 
both in beauty and splendour, may be obtained, accord- 
ing to Dr. Liebig, (Annales de Ohimiey) by the following 
process : Dissolve, in a copper kettle, by heat, one part 
of verdigris in a sufficient quantity of pure vinegar, and 
add to it an aqueous solution of white arsenic. A pre- 
cipitate of dirty green generally forms ; but you must 
add more vinegar, and keep the boiler on the fire till that 
precipitate disappears and a perfect amalgamation of 
the materials takes place. After boiling this compound 
for some time, a granular precipitate will be formed, of 
a most beautiful green colour, which has then only to 
be separated from the liquid, well washed, and dried. 
Should the colour thus prepared have too blue a shade, 
boil ten pounds of it in a solution of common potash, 
over a moderate fire, and it will soon acquire a rich 
yellow tint. 

Brunswick Green. 

A colour, thus named, is much used for paper-hangings 
and coarse kinds of painting in water-colours. It is pre- 
pared as follows: A close earthenware vessel is half 
filled with copper filings or clippings, and a saturated 
solution of sal-ammoniac poured over them. It is al- 


lowed to stand for a few weeks, by which time the whol* 
of the copper becomes oxidyzed, (a muriate of copper.) 
The oxide being then well washed, and slowly dried io 
the shade, is pure Brunswick green. Two parts of cop 
per and three parts of sal-ammoniac yield six parts o^ 

Green Verditer, 

This is obtained from the same substance as blue ver 
diter, by a process nearly similar. Without the addition 
of white lead, or Spanish white, it is unfit for oil-paint- 
ing : and, in any way, it is better adapted for distemper. 
Its colour may be obtained in oil, by mixing two or 
three parts of verdigris with one of white lead. 

Green Lake, or Venetian Emerald, 

A very simple mode has recently been discovered, at 
Venice, of producing a fine unchangeable emerald colour. 
A quantity of coffee is boiled in river- water — if spoiled 
coffee, so much the better. By means of a proportionate 
quantity of pure soda, a green precipitate is obtained, 
which is placed to dry, for six or seven days, upon po- 
lished marble, stirring it occasionally, in order that every 
part may come in contact with the atmosphere, by which 
the vivacity of the colour is greatly heightened. Tho 
green lake obtained by this process is said to have re- 
sisted the action of acids, and even the influence of light 
and moisture. 



Umbo.*, or, as it is sometimes called, brown ochre, is 
fti^ impure native oxide of iron and manganese. It is 
brought from Umbria, in Italy, whence its name. It is 
much employed by painters, and is the only dmple 
brown in common use. A species of it has been lately 
brought from Cologne, which is a good deal browner and 
more transparent than that in common use. 

The browns arising from mixture will be mentioned 
in speaking of compound colours. 

New Broton, discovered hy Mr, Hatchet 

The celebrated chemist, Mr. Hatchet, has suggested 
to painters that a simple brown colour, far superior in 
beauty and intensity to all the browns, whether simple 
or compound, hitherto known, may be obtained from the 
prussiate of copper, (a combination of prussic acid with 
copper.) The following is the process which he recom- 
mends : Dissolve the green muriate of copper in about 
ten times its weight of distilled or rain-water, and add 
a solution of prussiate of lime, until a complete precipi- 
tittion is eflfected. The precipitate is then to be washed 
with cold water, filtered, and set to dry in the shade 




The vanous colours that may be obtained bj the mix* 
tore of other colours, are innumerable. I only propose 
here to give the best and simplest modes of preparing 
those most frequently required. 

Compound colours, formed by the union of only two 
colours^ are called by painters virgin tints. 

The smaller the number of colours of which any com- 
pound* colour is composed, the purer and the richer it 
will be. 

Light Gray is made by mixing white lead with lamp- 
black, using more or less of each material, as you wish 
to obtain a lighter or a darker colour. 

Buffxs, made from yellow ochre and white lead. 

Silvery or Pearl Gray, — Mix white lead, indigo, and 
a very slight portion of black, regulating the quantities 
by the shade you wish to obtain. 

Flaxen Gray is obtained by a mixture of white lead 
and Prussian blue, with a small quantity of lake. 

Brick colour. — Yellow ochre and red lead, with a little 

Oak-wood colour. — ^Three-fourths white lead, and one- 
fourth part umber and yellow ochre : the proportions of 
the last two ingredients being determined by the re* 
quired tints. 



Walnut-^ree colattr. — Two-thirds white lead, and one 
third red ochre, yellow ochre, and umber, mixed accord 
ing to the shade sought. If veining is required, use 
different shades of the same mixture, and, for the deepest 
places, black. 

Jonquil, — ^Yellow, pink, and white lead. This colour 
is only proper for distemper. 

Lemon Yellow, — ^Realgar and orpiraent. Some object 
to this mixture, on account of the poisonous nature of 
the ingredients. The same colour can be obtained by 
mixing yellow-pink with Naples yellow ; but it is then 
only fit for distemper. 

Orange colour. — Red lead and yellow ochre. 

Violet colour. — Vermilion, or red lead, mixed with 
black or blue, and a small portion of white. Yermilion 
is far preferable to red lead, in mixing this colour. 

Purple, — Dark-red mixed with violet-colour. 

Carnation, — Lake and white. 

Gold colour, — Massicot, or Naples yellow, with a 
small quantity of realgar, and a very little Spanish 

Olive colour, — ^This ma;y be obtained by various mix- 
tures: black and a little blue, mixed with yellow; yel- 
low-pink, with a little verdigris and lampblack ; or ochre 
and a small quantity of white, will also produce a kind 
of olive colour. For distemper, indigo and yellow-pink 
mixed with white lead or Spanir^h white, must be used, 
[f veined, it should be done with umber. 

Lead colour, — ^Indigo and white. 

Chestnut colour, — ^Red ochre and black, for a dark 


cheetnut. To make it lighter, employ a mixture of 
yellow ochre. 

lAght Timber colour. — Spruce ochre, white, and a 
little umber. 

Flesh colour. — Lake, white lead, and a little vermilion. 

Light Willow Green. — White mixed with verdigris. 

Grass Green. — Yellow-pink mixed with verdigris. 

An endless variety of greens can be obtained by the 
mixture of blue and yellow in different proportions, with 
the occasional addition of white lead. 

Stone colour. — White, with a little spruce ochre. 

Dark Lead colour, — Black and white, with a littlq 

Fawn colour. — White lead, stone ochre, and a littlo 

Chocolate colour, — Lampblack and Spanish brown. 
On account of the fatness of the lampblack, mix some 
litharge and red lead. 

Portland Stone colour. — Umber, yellow ochre, and 
white lead. 

The variety of shades of brown that may be obtained^ 
are nearly as numerous as those of green. 

To imitate Mahogany. — Let the first%coat of painting 
be white lead, the second orange, and the last burned 
amber or sienna ; imitating the veins according to your 
faste and practice. 

To imitate Wainscot. — Let the first coat be white, the 
second half white and half yellow ochre, and the third 
jrelbw ochre only. Shadow with umber or sienna. 

To imitate Satin Wood, — Take white for your first 


ooating, light blue for the second, and dark blue or 
dark green for the third. 


We come, next, to speak of the principal oils which aro 
used in the preparation both of colours and varnishes. 

OU of SpiJce was formerly much more in use than it 
b at present. It is a volatile oil, and has the advantage 
of drying more speedily than any of the fat oils ; it is 
also free from any offensive odour. It is, however, 
generally in a very impure state ; and of this painters 
are so thoroughly convinced, that they have pretty gene- 
rally renounced it. In all preparations for varnishes, 
where it is directed to be employed, oil of turpentine, 
which is much cheaper, can be substituted without any 
other inconvenience than what may arise from its 
stronger smell. 

Oil of Lavender is principally used by enamellers, to 
whom it is particularly valuable, from its consistency 
being such as to prevent the colours that are mixed with 
it from running. Its property of drying more equally 
and gradually than perhaps any other oil, renders it also 
of service to the varnisher. 

Oil of Poppies has one advantage possessed by no 
other — that of being perfectly colourless For this rea- 
son, a decided preference is given to it for delicate kinds 
of painting. Being, however, extremely fat, it is liable, 
imless very old, to the objection of being insufferably 
tedious in drying. 


Nut Oil and Linseed Oily both in very general use, 
rank among the fat oils. Their fatness, indeed, is so 
great, that it is mostly found necessary, before employ- 
ing them in colouring, to give them a drying quality, 
which may be done in the following manner : — Take 
three parts of white vitriol, and twelve parts of litharge, 
and let them be reduced to as fine a powder as possible ; 
then mix them with thirty-two parts of nut or linseed 
oil, and place the mixture over a fire just brisk enough 
to keep the oil slightly boiling. Let it continue to boil, 
till the oil entirely ceases to throw up any sciim. Then 
take the vessel off the fire, and let it stand in a cool 
place for about three hours, and a sediment, which con- 
Utins the fattening part of the oil, will be formed at the 
bottom. Pour off the oil which is above (being careful 
not to let any of the sediment mix with it) into wide- 
mouthed bottles. Let it remain a sufficient time to clear 
itself perfectly, before it is used, and you will find it 
possessed of the proper drying quality. 

Sometimes, when the fire is not kept pretty equal 
while the boiling is going on, the colour of the oil is 
affected, so as to render it unfit for delicate painting 
To avoid this, some persons tie up the litharge and 
vitriol, when powdered, in a bag ; but, in this case, the 
quantity of litharge must be doubled. The bag must 
also be suspended by a piece of packthread to a stick 
made to rest upon the edges of the vessel, so as to keep 
the bag at the distance of an inch from the bottom. 
This method, too, is slower than that of boiling the dry« 
Ing material along with the oil. 


In some kinds of work, such as the preparation of 
floor-cloths; and painting large figures or ornaments, in 
which clayey colours are employed, an extraordinary 
rapidity in drying is sometimes necessary, which could 
not be procured by using the proportions of drying ma- 
terials above mentioned. In such cases, it is customary 
to increase the quantity of litharge in any proportion 
that may be requisite. On some occasions, the litharge 
employed has amounted to one- fourth part of the whole 
quantity of oil. 

The process used for giving a drying quality to nut 
and linseed oil will not do for oil of poppies, which would 
thereby be deprived of its colourless property, the most 
valuable one which it possesses. 

Many painters consider it a matter of indifference 
whether nut or linseed oil be employed in colouring, and 
therefore, for the sake of cheapness, give the preference 
to the latter. But they labour under a mistake ; for these 
two oils should, by no means, be used indiscriminately. 
In painting which is allowed to be coarse, or which is 
sheltered from the effects of the rain and sun, linseed oil 
will answer the purpose. But where any nicety is re- 
quired in colouring, in situations exposed to the weather, 
nut oil only is proper, as it nourishes and develops the 
colour; whereas linseed oil dissipates and destroys it, and 
obliges the work to be done afresh in a short time. In 
painting exposed to weather, persons aware of the im- 
propriety of using linseed oil, are sometimes induced to 
mix a portion of oil of turpentine with nut oil, to save 
cost; but this mixture has almost as injurious an effect 


in whitening colour which is exposed to the sun, as pure 
linseed oil. 

I have before said that linseed oil will serve for paint- 
ing that is not exposed to the rain and sun. This is not, 
however, the case when a pure white is wanted, for lin- 
seed oil has the effect of turning the white lead yellow, 
and nut oil should therefore be employed. If that is 
considered too expensive, one part of turpentine, at least, 
ought to be mixed with two parts of linseed oil. 

Oil of Turpentine is more used than any of the pre- 
ceding oils 5 the varnisher, indeed, scarcely employs any 
other. There is a great difference in the quality. The 
inferior kinds, though they may serve for mixing coarse 
and common colours, can never be used with good effect 
in varnish. The best description is that which is the 
lightest and least coloured. A simple method of trying 
its degree of goodness is with the best spirits of wine, 
which will take up about one-third part of the w^ght 
of the inferior sort of oil, and only about a seventh or 
eighth part of the best kinds. 

Fat oils are often mixed with the oil of turpentine, 
as well as with other volatile oils— ^a mixture particularly 
hurtful in the case of varnishes. There is a remarkable 
distinction, however, between the two, by which such 
adulterations may be always readily detected. Both 
sorts of oil stain paper, — but a stain from a volatile oil 
may be easily removed by heat, while one from fixed' oils 
remains almost indelible. Thus, if a drop of common 
oil be thrown on paper, and held near a fire, a part files 
off; but, before the whole of it can be dissipated^ the 


paper is destroyed. If, on the contrary, a few drops of 
turpentine (or any other volatile oil) be thrown on paper 
and treated in the same way, the stain disappears with- 
out the texture of the paper being in the smallest degree 
injured. And if paper be stained with an oil com- 
pounded partly of a volatile and partly of a fat oil, that 
portion only which is volatile will evaporate on exposure 
to heat, while the other will remain. 

It is owing to the property just mentioned, that vola- 
tile oils are sometimes employed to make transparent 
paper for copying drawings. 

For this purpose, the paper is besmeared with pure 
volatile oil of turpentine, and dried for a short time, by 
exposure to air ; it is then put on the drawing, the traces 
of which are distinctly seen through it. After taking 
off the copy by a pencil, the oil is easily expelled by 
holding the paper near the fire. 

Drying Oils, which are composed of particular sub- 
stances mixed with some of the oils before mentioned, 
are useful for several purposes. They are most valuable 
when so manufactured as to be colourless. They are 
much used in preparing varnishes ; and, in oil painting, 
are not unfrequently employed as a varnish, either alone 
or diluted with a little oil of turpentine. Drying oil ia 
easily procured at the shops ; but, if you wish to make 
it ygurself, one of the best methods is to take a pound of 
aut or linseed oil, (according as it is intended for inside 
&v outside work,) to which a drying quality has been 
given by the method before mentioned ; dissolve in it 
five ounces of rosin by means of a gentle heat ; when 


this is done, add to it rather more than half an ounce of 
turpentine : let the composition rest till a oedimenk \8 
formed and is quite cool ; then pour it, free from any 
part of the sediment, into proper vessels, and make use 
of it while fresh. If at any time it should become too 
thick, you may dilute it with a little oil of turpentine. 

Some painters of ornaments, and coach painters, in* 
stead of using drying oils, content themselves with add- 
ing white vitriol in mixing their colours. This method 
is bad; the salt of the vitriol will not unite with the 
oil, and the painting, in consequence, becomes me^ly, 
and sometimes cracks. 

When drying oil is colourless, it is of great use to 
painters of pictures, by whom, as well as by the house 
painter, it is not unfrequently used as varnish, either in 
a pure or dilute state. 

It has been recently discovered, that when a solutioD 
)f yellow soap is added to red, yellow, and black paints, 
when ground in oil, before they are casked up, they 
acquire no improper hardness, and dry remarkably fast 
when laid on with the brush, without having recourse 
to any of the usual drying expedients. 

Pilchard (HI, which possesses more greasy matter than 
any other fish oil, has been used in Cornwall for the last 
fifty years, to great advantage, in coarse painting. The 
preparation is said, by a correspondent in the Meckauic^ 
Magazine, (vol. vi., page 471,) to be made in the fol- 
lowing manner : Put the oil into a clean iron pot, and 
place it over a slow fire, (wood is best,) to prevent it 
from burning; when it begms to heat, skim it well; let 


i| remain on the fire till it singes a feather put therein. 
For every gallon of oil, add a small table-spoonful of red 
litharge. Stir them together well for about threo 
minutes; then take the pot off the fire, and let the mix* 
ture cool in the open air, after which it is fit for use. 
It is said to dry quickly, to incorporate well with any 
coloured paint on wood or iron, to have all the appear- 
ance of varnish, and to be extremely durable. 


Strictly speaking, every substance, whether dry or 
liquid, is a varnish, which, being spread over any body, 
has the effect of giving its surface a brilliant appearance. 
But, in its general meaning, the term is only applied to 
those substances that are capable of rendering this effect 

The foundation of all varnishes are gummy and resin- 
ous substances ; and the only liquids that can be com- 
Y/ined with them, so as to form varnishes, are oils and 
Mpirit of wine. 

For a varnish to be really good, it ought to be limpid, 
brilliant, ti-ansparent, and durable. The durability of a 
Tarnish is its greatest and rarest excellence. 

The principal gums and resins used for varnishes ai*e 
gum Arabic, gum elastic, gum anima, copal, dragon's 
blood, stick-lac, shelMac, and mastic. The solvents 
chiefly employed are spirits of wine and spirits of tur- 

In choosing gums and resins, those are to be preferred 


which are quite free from particles of dirt, and of which 
the lumps, when held up to the light, present a clear and 
transparent appearance. 

What is often sold at the shops as gum Arabic — the 
best of all the gums — is frequently only the clearer 
pieces of the gum Senegal, which, though equally strong 
and substantial, is far from being so pure as gum Arabic. 
The imposition may be detected by observing one very 
obvious distinction. The genuine gum Arabic is always 
in small irregular masses, smooth on the outside; the 
pieces of the gum Senegal are invariably larger, and 
rough on the outside. 

A composition of different resins, coloured with brick- 
dust or Brazil-wood, or a very small portion of real dra- 
gon's blood, is not unfrequently sold as genuine. It is 
of a dull red or brick colour, whereas real dragon's blood 
is a dark red, and almost brown colour on the outside. 
The latter, too, is inflammable; while the imitation, 
when put into the fire, does not inflame, but swells up. 

The liquid commonly sold under the name of spirits 
of loine is in general a highly-rectified spirit, interme- 
diate between proof spirit and alcohol, but not suffi- 
ciently concentrated for the purpose of making varnish. 
The readiest practicable method of determining whether 
the alcohol will answer your purpose, is to fill a large 
phial with it, and then to drop into it a small lump of 
potash or pearlash, which has been heated very hot over 
the fire, to expel its moisture, and not afterwards suf- 
fered to become cold : the phial is then to be well 
shaken, and if the lump remain dry, or nearly so, the 


kicohol is good ; if any considerable portion of it remain 
undissolved, it is unfit for use. 

Spirits of turpentine are always good in proportion to 
tb(!ir inflammability — that which burns most readily 
being the best. The smell, too, of the inferior kind 
is m.)re unpleasant and less powerful than that of the 
Ujtter sort. 

When doubts are entertained as to its purity, pour 
about two table-spoonfuls into a saucer, and place it to 
evaporate in the sun, which it ought to do entirely in the 
course of two or three hours ; if a greasy residuum or a 
soft, sticky mucus is left, it is a proof that the turpentine 
is adulterated, and ought to be rejected. 

Another method of judging of the comparative good- 
ness of different sorts both of spirits of wine and spirits 
of turpentine, is by weighing quantities of two kinds, 
equal in measure, one against the other : the lightest 's 
always the best. 

The number of different varnishes to be obtained by 
various methods of mixing together the substances from 
which they can be manufactured, is endless, and it would 
be altogether from the purpose and nature of this little 
^ork to attempt any thing like a description of them. 
Many of them, indeed, are only useful to the artist, and 
arc therefore not entitled to a place here; while others are 
merely proofs of the ingenuity of chemical students, and, 
from the expense or sacrifice of time attending their pre- 
paration, are not adapted for practical purposes. Almost 
every vamisher, too, has at least one or two composi- 
tions peculiar to himself, the superior value of which 


rosta chiefly in his own opinion. In large towns and 
cities, moreover, the varnishes in common use can easily 
be purchased ready made ; but for the benefit of those 
who may not have this convenience, or who prefer pre- 
paring their own varnishes, I shall here add a few simple 
recipes, from modern <ind approved sources, for making 
those that are in the most general use. 

Shell-lac Varnish, 

The best of the common spirit varnishes is that made 
with shdl-lac. Hitherto the use of it has been limited, in 
consequence of its possessing a brown-yellowish colour, 
which made it unfit for all articles which that tint would 
injure ; but Professor Hare, of Philadelphia, has made 
the arts a valuable present of the following method of 
producing it perfectly colourless : Dissolve, in an iron 
kettle, one part of pearlash in about eight parts of water ; 
add one part of shell-lac, and heat the whole to ebullition. 
When the lac is dissolved, cool the solution, and impreg- 
nate it with chlorine till the lac is all precipitated. The 
precipitate is white, but its colour deepens by washing 
and consolidation ; dissolved in alcohol, lac bleached by 
the above process yields a varnish which is as free from 
colour as any copal varnish. Chlorine (oxy-muriatic 
acid) may be formed by mixing intimately eight parts 
of common salt and three of the black oxide of manga- 
nese in powder: put this mixture into a retort; then 
pour four parts of sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal 
weight of water and afterwards allowed to cool, upon 


die saliand manganese; the gas will then be immediately 
liberated, and the operation may be quickened by a mo- 
derate heat. A tube leading from the mouth of the 
retort must be passed into the resinous solution, when 
tlie gas will be absorbed, and the lac precipitated. 

It is to be presumed that, now that shell-lac varnish 
is thus rendered universally applicable, it will be the 
most used of any; as it possesses all the properties of a 
good spirit varnish in a higher degree than any of the 
other resins, and costs at the same time much less. 

Shell-lac Varnish of various colours may be made by 
using any colour in fine powder with the varnish, in the 
following manner : Rub up the colour with a little alco- 
hol, or spirits of turpentine, till it becomes perfectly 
smooth ; then put it into the cup with the varnish. 

Red Shell-lac Varnish 

Is best made from good Dutch sealing-wax (which is 
itself chiefly composed of seed lac). This is the lac usea 
to varnish glass or wood for electrical purposes. Three 
or four coats will make a perfect covering. 

Turjjtntine Varnish. 

'J^ake five pounds of clqar good rosin, pound it well 
and put it into a gallon of oil of turpentine ; boil the 
luixture over a stove, till the rosin is perfectly dissolved j 
and when cool, it will be fit for use 


Linseed Oil Varnish. 

Boil auy quantity of linseed oil for an h )ur, and to 
every pound of oil add four ounces of good clear rosioi 
well powdered; keep stirring it till the rosin is per- 
fectly dissolved, and when this is done, add one ounce of 
spirits of turpentine for every pound of oil, and when 
drained and cool, it will be fit for use. 

This varnish is much used for common purposes. It 
Is cheap, is a good preservative of wood, and not liable 
to sustain injury from the application of hot water. 

Copal Varnish. 

Take one ounce of copal and half an ounce of shell- 
lac; powder them well, and put them into a bottle or 
jar containing a quart of spirits of wine. Place the 
mixture in a warm place, and shake it occasionally, till 
you perceive that the gums are completely dissolved, 
5ind when strained, the varnish will be fit for use. 

1 have given the above as the simplest, and therefore 
the most usual method of making common copal varnish ; 
but it may be prepared in a variety of ways, where par- 
ticular uses may be required. 

GcM-*:oloured Copal Vamis/i. 

Take one ounce of powdered copal, two ounces of 
essential oil of lavender, and six ounces of essence of 
turpentine. Put the oil of lavender into a niatras of a 


proper size, placed on a sand bath subjected id a mode- 
rate beat. When the oil is very warm, add the copal 
from time to time, in very small quantities, and stir the 
mixture with a stick of white wood, rounded at the end. 
When the copal has entirely disappeared, put in the 
turpentine in almost a boiling state, at three different 
times, and keep continually stirring the mixture till the 
solution is quite completed. 

When this varnish is required to be colourless, as h 
frequently the case, it will be necessary to use the rec- 
tified spirit of turpentine — the common essence sold at 
the shops being generally high-coloured 

Camphorated Copal Varnish. 

Take copal in powder, four ounces; essential oil of 
lavender, twelve ounces; camphor, a quarter of an ounce, 
and as much spirit of turpentine as will give the varnish 
the consistency required. Heat the oil and the camphor 
in a small matras, stirring them, and putting in the 
copal and turpentine in the manner directed in the 
preceding varnish. 

This varnish is particularly well adapted for articles 
which require transparency and pliability, united to great 
durability, such as the varnished wire-gauze used in 
ships instead of glass. 

Copal Varnish in Imitation of Tortoise- SheU. 

Take of amber-coloured copal, six ounces ; of ahell-lac 
or Venice turpentine, an ounce and a half; twenty four 


ounces of clear linseed oil, and six ounces of essence of 
tui*pentine. Place the copal in a matras, and. expose it 
to a moderate heat till it is liquefied; then add the linseed 
oil in a boiling state, afterwards the shell-lac or Venice 
turpentine, also liquefied, and lastly the spirit of turpen- 
tine in small portions. If the varnish prove too thick, 
dilute it with spirit of turpentine. 

This varnish is principally used for watch-cases, though 
it is also applied to other imitations of tortoise-shell. 

All the above methods, however, of preparing copal 
require long boiling and careful filtering in the prepara- 
tion, and consequently are not so convenient as the pro- 
sess first mentioned: they are therefore seldom used, 
unless where the nature of the substance to be varnished 
•enders oil of turpentine decidedly preferable to spirits 
>f wine. 

An excellent copal varnish may be made by putting 
an ounce of copal of an amber colour, finely powdered, 
into a flask containing four ounces of ether ; corking the 
mixture with a glass stopper, and shaking it for half an 
hour; then allowing it to rest till the liquor becomes 
perfectly clear. 

It is unfortunate that the great volatility of ether and 
lUi very high price do not allow the use of this varnish 
for common purposes. Indeed, its employment is almost 
confined to repairing accidents in enamel, and restoring 
tae smooth surface of paintings that have been cracked 
or shattered. It has some admirable properties, which 
Ulong to no other varnish in existence. It presents 


great resistance to the friction of hard bodies^ possossea 
remarkable solidity, has a peculiar drying quality, and 
a very fragrant smell. 

Oopal, and other varnishes, prepared with essence of 
turpentine, will not admit of being applied to purely 
white grounds, unless the turpentine has been highly 
rectified; and even then it is not unattended with risk. 
For coloured grounds, which require solidity, they are 

The varnishes prepared with copal are some of the 
most useful and valuable known, and their composition 
has been much improved of late years. They are rich, 
splendid, and solid, bear friction well, and are of great 
service in preserving articles exposed to damp or rain. 
Mathematical and philosophical instruments are gene- 
rally varnished with them. 

Amber Varimh. 

Put eight ounces of amber, finely powdered, into a 
vessel containing half a pint of the best spirits of tur- 
pentine ; (if for very fine purposes, rectified spirits of 
turpentine should be used;) place the vessel over a 
stove or fire till the amber is quite melted; then put 
it into two ounces of shell-lac powdered, and place it on 
the fire again ; keep stirring it till the gum is completely 
dissolved, and then add to the whole an ounce of clear 
cold-drawn linseed oil. Stir it well together, and when 
strained, it will be fit for use. 

Like copal varnish, this varnish may likewise be pre 


pared in various ways ; but the one here given is the 
cheapest and readiest^ and the other methods of making 
it do not in any case possess advantages over this^ 
Some varnishers prefer using more spirits of turpentine 
and a smaller proportion of linseed oil. 

Some years since, amber varnish was in very general 
use; but of late, copal, on account of its being lestt 
coloured, has obtained a preference. 

CaoutclumCy or Gum-dastic Varnish. 

Take eight ounces of gum-elastic, pound it well, and 
put it upon the fire, in a vessel containing half a pound 
of boiling linseed oil. When the gum is dissolved, add 
half a pound of spirits of turpentine. Let them continue 
boiling together till the mixture becomes clear; and 
when it is cool, strain it for use. 

This varnish is brilliant and durable ; but it has the 
fault of drying very slowly, for which reason it is not 

Mastic Varnish, 

This varnish, which is used principally for pictures in 
oil, is usually prepared by dissolving the mastic in spirits 
of turpentine, by means of a sand-bath, then straining it 
through a fine sieve, and afterwards placing it, for two 
or three weeks, in a bottle well corked, where the light 
of the sun may act freely upon it, which causes a large 
precipitation of mucilaginous matter, and leaves the var- 
nish as clear as water. But to procure a mastic varnish 


that can be perfectly depended upon, the following ob- 
servations must be attended to : Let all the mastic bo 
bruised by a muller on a grinding-stone ; this will sepa- 
rate the soft or oily tears, as they are called, and enable 
you to throiii^ them aside : whereas, if the mastic is put in 
a mass into the turpentine, the tears remain imbodied 
with it, and prevent the varnish from drying hard, leaving 
a greasy or tacky surface. The next point of importance 
is to make use only of turpentine which has been twice 
distilled, or which is at all events quite clear and colour- 
less : you must take ca,re not to have it served to you 
through an oily measure, (as is too often the case,) but 
poured out of the carboy without being shaken or dis- 
turbed. When the mastic and turpentine are thus ob- 
tained perfectly pure, they may be dissolved in a clean 
bottle without heat, and hy half an hour^s shaking in the 
hand. I^t them then be strained and treated in the 
usual way, as above mentioned. 

A varnish similar to this is occasionally made, in 
which frankincense or sandrac is employed, instead of 
mastic, and is very well adapted for mixing up colours. 

The French sometimes prepare this resin in pure alco- 
hol ; but mastic varnish thus prepared is liable to chill on 
the picture, and produces, in time, a kind of white scale 
over it, which injures its lustre. 

Varnish for Violins, dec. 

Take a gallon of rectified spirits of wine, twelve 

'jUDces of mastic, and a pint of turpentine varnish; pufi 

• 6 


them in all together in a tin can, and keep it in a verj 
warm place, shaking it occasionally, till it is pcrfectlj 
dissolved ; then strain it, and it is fit for use. If joa 
find it necessary, you may dilute it with turpentine 

This varnish is also very useful for furniture of plum- 
tree, mahoganv, or rosewood. 

White hard Varnish. 

Take one pound of mastic, four ounces of gum anima, 
and five pounds of gum sandrac : put them altogether, 
to dissolve, into a vessel containing two ounces of rec- 
tified spirits of wine, which should be kept in a warm 
place and frequently shaken till all the gums are quite 
dissolved; then strain the mixture through a lawn 
sieve, and it will be fit for use. 

Varnishes for Paling and coarse Wood-work, 

Grind any quantity of tar with as much Spanish brown 
as it will bear, without becoming too thick to be used as 
a paint or varnish ; then spread it on the wood with a 
large brush. It soon hardens by keeping. The work 
should be kept as free from dust and insects as possible*, 
till the varnish is thoroughly dry. 

This varnish is an excellent preserver of the wood 
from damp; on which account, as well as its being 
cheaper, it is to be preferred to painting, not only foi 
paling, but for weather-boarding, and all coarser kinds 
of painting on wood. 


The colour may be made a grayish instead of a glossy 
ftrown, by mixing a small proportion of white lead, or 
of whiting and ivory black, with the Spanish brown. 

Varnish for Coloured Drawings. 

Mix together one ounce of Canada balsam and two 
ounces of spirits of turpentine. Before applying the 
composition, size the drawing or print with a solution of 
isinglass in water; when this is dry, apply the varnish 
with a earner s-hair brush. 

The use of this varnish gives to coloured drawings 
and prints an appearance resembling that of oil paint- 

Varnish for Glass. 

Reduce a 4uantity of gum tragacanth to powder, and 
let it dissoh e for twenty-four hours in the white of eggs 
well beat up; then rub it gently on the glass with a 

Black Varnish for old Straw or Chip Hats. 

Take half an ounce of the best black sealing-wax, 
pound it well, and put it into a four-ounce phial con- 
taining two ounces of rectified spirits of wine. Place it 
in a sand-bath, or near a moderate fire, till the wax is 
dissolved ; then lay it on warm, with a fine soft hair 
brush, before a fire or in the sun. It gives a good stiff- 
ness to old straw hats, and a beautiful gloss equal to 
'ftew. It likewise resists wet. 


Varnish for Drawings and Card-icork. 

Boil some clean parchment-cuttings in water, io ai 
glazed pipkin, till they produce a very clear size. Strain 
it, and keep it for use. 

Changing VarnisJies. 

Varnishes of this description are called changing, be- 
cause, when applied to metals, such as copper, brasrf, or 
hammered tin, they give them a more agreeable colour. 
Indeed, the common metals, when coated with them, 
acquire a lustre approaching to that of the precious me- 
tals ; and hence these varnishes are much employed in 
manufacturing imitations of gold and silver. 

It would be an endless task to enumerate all the 
various kinds of changing varnishes that can be made, 
and the methods of preparing them. One simple mode 
of mixing I shall, however, mention here, by which all 
the different tints that can be required for changing 
varnishes may be certainly obtained. 

Put four ounces of the best gum gamboge into thirty- 
two ounces of spirits of turpentine ; four ounces of dra- 
gon's blood, into the same quantity of spirits of turpen- 
tine as the gamboge ; and one ounce of anatto into eight 
ounces of the same spirits. The three mixtures should 
be made in different vessels. 

.They should then be kept for about a fortnight, in a 
warm place, and as much exposed to the sun as possible. 


xVt the end of that time they will be fit for ufee ; and you 
^an procure any tints you wish by making a composition 
from^them, with such proportions of each liquor as prac- 
tice and the nature of the colour you are desirous of 
obtaining will point out. 

Olianging varnishes may likewise be employed^ with 
▼ery good effect, for furniture. — See Lacquers, 

Mordant Varnishes^ 

These are a species of varnishes chiefly employed when 
a coating of some other substance is to be entirely or in 
part laid over them. 

Compositions of this kind ought neither to be too thick 
nor too fluid, as either of these faults injures the delicacy 
of the gilding. 

They should likewise be of rather a fat nature, because 
they must be so prepared as not to dry till the gilding 
is completed. 

Various compositions arc employed as mordants, and 
almost every workman has a favourite one of his own. 
One of the best is the following : — 

Dissolve one ounce of mastic, one ounce of sandrac, 
half an ounce of gum gamboge, and a quarter of an ounce 
of turpentine, in six ounces of spirits of turpentine. 

Another good mordant may be obtained by exposing 
boiled oil to a strong heat in a pan, and, when you per- 
ceive a black smoke disengaged from it, setting it on 
fire, and extinguishing it in a few moments by putting 
on the cover of the pan. Then pour the matter, while 


it is warm, into a heated bottle, and add to it a t.lilv, oil 
of turpentine. 

Both the above mordants have something of a drying 
nature, and are therefore objectionable when the work to 
be done, after the application of the mordant, is of a kind 
that requires it to be a long time before drying. In such 
cases, the best mordant is formed by adding a little red 
lead to the copal varnish prepared with camphor and oil 
of lavender, as before directed. 

The choice of mordants must in some measure be 
guided by the tone which you desire to give to your 
work, whether deep or light, red or yellow. For bronz- 
ing or very pale gilding, a mixture of asphaltum and 
drying oil, diluted with oil of turpentine, is much re- 

One of the simplest mordants is that procured by 
dissolving a little honey in thick glue. It has the e£fect 
of great;ly heightening the colour of the gold, and the 
leaf sticks to it extremely well. 


It is a common practice, in the manufacture of spirit 
varnishes, to mix glass or sand with the gum or resin, 
for the purpose of enabling the alcohol to penetiate more 
readily into all parts of the mass. M. Ferrari, however, 
recommends (^Giomale de Fimca, ix., p. 36) that in 
place of those substances, a coarsely-powdered charcoal 
should be used ; for the glass or sand generally tends to 


afi;gregate the gum or resin at the hottom of the vcsselfl 
and to protect it from the solvent ; whilst, on the con- 
trary, the charcoal rather tends to raise and divide it. 
The most advantageous proportion appears to be one 
ounce of charcoal to one pound of the spirit or the oil of 
turpentine used. The uses to which different varnishes 
ve to be applied must, of course, determine the choice 
of them. Good varnishes, prepared with spirits of wine, 
are very clear, brilliant, and delicate, and may be applied 
with success to furniture, and to fancy ornaments 
which are kept within doors, and admit of re-varnishing 
easily ; but they have not body nor durability enough 
for coloured grounds — not even wainscoting, ceiling 
ornaments, &c., or any articles exposed to the weather. 
If you attempt to renovate them by rubbing, they 
become of a mealy appearance. Their inferiority to oil 
varnishes, is evident from the circumstance that oils will 
of themselves form varnishes by repeated application, 
whereas spirits of wine alone, so applied, disappear 
without leaving any trace. 

Varnishes made with turpentine or other "^ils arc 
much superior yi many respects to those prepaied with 
spirits of wine. They are pliable and smooth, as wel) 
as brilliant and durable. They yield better to the ope 
ration of polishing, and are less liable to crack. 

Oil of poppips, nut oil, and linseed oil are used for 
making fat varnishes ; oil of turpentine, and oil of la- 
vender for the drier ones. The other oils are either too 
fat, too much coloured, or too dear to answer the purpose 
of the varnisher. 


Oil of turpentine might be employed on all o.^casion& 
instead of spirits of wine, in the composition of varnishes, 
were it not for the strong and disagreeable smell arising 
from it. The oil obtained from the coarse or common 
turpentine ought never to be used in the preparation of 
varnishes. A slight coating of spirits of wine varnish 
laid over one coat of turpentine, when dry, is of great 
use in removing the offensive odour. 

Varnishes are usually kept in large strong glass bottles 
with a wide mouth, for the convenience of taking ihem 
out } but as the light is frequently found to act strongly 
upon them, and render them thick, I would recommend 
wrapping up the bottles in sheep-skin, or moist parch- 
ment, folding it round the neck, and tying it with seve- 
ral turns of pack-thread. 

The best vessel for holding your varnish while using 
it, is a varnish-pan, which may be had at any colour- 
shop. It is made of tin, with a false bottom ; the in- 
terval between the two bottoms is filled with sand, which, 
being heated over the fire, keeps the varnish fluid, and 
makes it flow more readily from the brush. There is a 
tin handle to the pan, and the false bottom comes sloping 
from one end to the other, which causes the varnish tu 
run to one end. 

Very great caution is required in the making of var- 
nish — a process in which most serious accidents have 
frequently occurred. 

As heat in many cases is necessary to dissolve the 
gums used in making varnish, the best way, when pi-ac- 
Ucable, is to use what the chemists call a sand-bathj, 


which is simply placing the vessel in which the yarnish 
is in another filled with sand and placed on the fire ; this 
will generally be sufficient to prevent the spirits catching 
fire ; but in case of such accidents, (which not unfre- 
qucntly happen,) it will be best to take a vessel so large 
that there shall be little danger of spilling any — indeed, 
the vessel should never be more than two-thirds filled ; 
but in case of accidents, have ready at hand a piece of 
board sufficiently large to cover the top of the vessel, in 
case of its taking fire, as also a wet wrapper, in case it 
should be spilt when on the fire, as water by itself 
thrown on it only increases the mischief. The person 
who attends the varnishpot should also have his handa 
covered with gloves, and if these are made of leather, 
hud rather damp, it will effectually prevent injury. 



The ccmpositions used for polishing are different, ac« 
(*i)rdiDg to the nature of the varnish for which they are 
employed. Some of the most useful I shall insert here. 

Varnish Polish. 

Take two ounces of tripoli, reduced to fine powder; 
;^ut it into an earthen pot or basin, with w?ter to cover 
it ; then take a piece of fine flannel, four times doubled^ 
lay it over a piece of cork or rubber, and proceed to 
polish your varnish, always wetting it with the tripoli 
and water. You will know when the process is com- 
pleted, by wiping a part of the work with a sponge and 
observing whether there is a %ir and even gloss. Take 
a bit of mutton-suet and flour, and clean off the 

Or, the powdered tripoli may be mixed up with a 
little pure oil, and used upon a ball of serge, or of 
ehamois leather, which is better. The polishing may 
afterwards be completed with a bit of serge or cloth, 
without tripoli. 

Putty jDowder, and even common, whiting and water, 
are sometimes used for polishing ; but they produce a 
very inferior effect to tripoli, except in the case of ivory, 


for which pnttj and water, used upon a rubber made of 
a hat, forms the best and quickest polish. 

Putty and water may likewise be used, in the same 
manner as just mentioned for ivory, in finishing off the 
polish of pearl-work, after it has first been polished very 
smooth with pumice-stone, finely powdered, and well 
washed to free it from impurities and dirt. 

Polish for Dark<oloured Woods, 

Take one ounce of seed-lac, two drams of gum-guai- 
acum, two drams of dragon's blood, and two drams 
of gum mastic : put them into a vessel containing a pint 
of spirit of wine : stop the vessel close, and expose the 
mixture to a moderate heat till you find all the gums 
dissolved : strain it off into a bottle for use, with a quar- 
ter of a gill of linseed oil, to be shaken up well with it. 

The dragon's blood, which is apt to give a red tinge, 
renders this polish improper for light-coloured woods. 

Polish for Tunhridge*ware Goods, <Scc, 

Take half an ounce of gum sandrac and two ounces 
ef gum benjamin ; put them into a glass bottle, with a 
pint of spirits of wine. Cork the bottle, and place it in 
a sand-bath, or in hot water, till you find the gums dis- 
solved, shaking it in the interim from time to time. 
When it IS all dissolved, strain it through a musliB 
dcvci and bottle it for use. 



Carvej^s Polish, 

In a pint of spirits of wine, dissolve two ounces of 
^ed-lac and two ounces of white resin. 

The principal use of this polish is for the carved parts 
df cabinet-work, such as standards, pillars, claws, ^. 
It should be laid on warm; and if the work can also be 
warmed at the time, it will be still better; but all 
moisture and dampness should be carefully avoided. 

French Polish, 

Take one ounce of shell-lac, a quarter of an ounce of 
gum Arabic, and a quarter of an ounce of gum oopal. 
Bruise them well, and sift them through a piece of mus- 
lin : then put them, along with a pint pf spirits of wine, 
into a closely-corked vessel : place it in a very warm 
situation, and shake it frequently every day till the 
gums are dissolved : then strain it through a piece of 
muslin, and keep it tight corked for use. 

Water-proof Polish, 

Put two ounces o^ gum benjamin, a quarter of an 
ounce of gum sandrac, and a quarter of an ounce of gum 
Q-nima, into a pint of spirits of wine, in a closely stopped 
bottle. Place the bottle either in a sand-bath or in hot 
water, till the gums are dissolved ; then strain off the 
mixture, shake it up with a quarter of a gill of the best 
clear poppy oil, and put it by for use. 


Plnishing Polish, 

Put two drams of shell-lac and two drams of 
gum benjamin into half a pint of the very best rectified 
spirits of wine, in a bottle closely corked. Keep the 
bottle in a warm place, and shake it frequently till the 
gums are dissolved ] when cold, shake up with it two 
tea-spoonfuls of the best clear poppy oil, and it will be 
fit for use. 

This polish may be applied with great advantage after 
any of those mentioned in the foregoing recipes have 
been used. It removes the defects existing in them, 
increases their lustre and durability, and give^ the bui< 
face a most brilliant appearance. 



True Gold Powder. 

Put some gold leaf, with a little honey or thick giim- 
water, into an earthen mortar, and pound the mixture 
till the gold is reduced to very small particles. Then 
wash out the honey or gum repeatedly with wjirm water* 
and the. gold will be left behind in the state of powder, 
which, when dried, is fit for use. 

Another, and perhaps better ixethod of preparing gold 
powder, is to heat a prepared amalgam* of gold in a 
clean open crucible, continuing a very strong heat till 
all the mercury has evaporated, stirring the amalgam all 
the while with a glass rod. When the mercury has en 
tirely left the gold, grind the remainder in a Wedge- 
wood's mortar, with a little water; and, when dried, it 
will be fit for use. The subliming the mercury is, how- 
ever, a process injurious to the health. 

Colour-hewhtening Compositions, 

For Yellow Gold, dissolve in water six ounces of salt- 
petre, two ounces of copperas, one ounce of white vitriol, 

^ An amalgam of any metal is formed by a mixture of quick- 
ii)vor with that mntal. 


and one ounce of alum. If wanted redder, add a small 
portion of blue vitriol. 

For Green Gold, dissolve in water a mixture consist- 
ing of an ounce and a half of saltpetre, vitriol, and sal- 
ammoniac, an ounce and a quarter each, and one ounce 
of verdigris. 

For Red Gold, take an ounce and a half of red ochre 
in fine powder, the same quantity of calcined verdigris, 
half an ounce of ^calcined borax, and four ounces of 
melted yellow wax. The verdigris must be calcined, 
or else, by the heat applied in melting the wax, the 
vinegar becomes so concentrated as to corrode the sur- 
face, and make it appear speckled. 

Mosaic Gold. 

Mosaic Gold, or Aurum Mosaicum, is used for inferior 
articles. It is prepared in the following manner : A 
pound of tin is melted in a crucible, and half a pound 
of purified quicksilver added to it : when this mixture 
is cold, it is reduced to powder, and ground with half a 
pound of sal-ammoniac and seven ounces of flower of 
stlphur, till the whole is thoroughly mixed. They are 
then calcined in a matras ; and the sublimation of the 
other ingredients leaves the tin converted into the Aurum 
Mosaicum, which is found at the bSttom of the glass, like 
a mass of bright flaky gold powder. Should any black 
ur discoloured particles appear, they must be removed. 
The sal-ammoniac used here must be very white and 
elear, and the mercury quite pure and unadulterated. 
When a shade of deeper red is required, it can easily do 


obtained by grinding a very small quantity of red lea(I 
along with the above materials. 

Dutch or German Gold, 

A gilding powder is sometimes made from Dutcb 
Gold, which is sold in books at a very low price. This 
is treated in the same way as the real gold leaf in making 
the true gold powder. It is necessary, when this inferior 
powder is used, to cover the gilding with a coat of clear 
varnish, otherwise it soon loses its metallic appearance. 
The same remark applies, though in a less degree, to 
Mosaic gilding. 

Ethereal Solution of Gold, 

The following mode of effecting this solution (used 
chiefly for gilding steel) is recommend by Mr. H. Mill, 
in the " Technical Repository," as being superior to any 
previously made known. " The instructions," he says, 
" given in most elementary works on chemistry for this 
purpose are either erroneous or not sufficiently explicit." 
The process answers equally well for either gold or 

Dissolve any quantity of gold or platina in nitro-muri- 
atic acid, (aqua regigt,) until no further effers^escetice is 
occasioned by the application of heat. Evaporate the 
solution of gold or platina, thus formed, to dryness, in a 
gentle heat, (it will then be freed from all excess of acid, 
which is essential,) and re-dissolve the dry mass in as 
little water as possible : next take an instrument which 


18 used by chemists for dropping liquids, known by the 
name of a sepnrating funnel, having a pear-shaped body, 
tapering to a fine sharp point, and a neck capable of be- 
ing stopped with the finger or a cork, which may contain 
a liquid ounce or more ; fill it with the liquid about one- 
quarter part,- and the other three parts must be filled 
with the very best sulphuric ether. If this be rightly 
managed, the two liquids will not mix Then place the 
tube in a horizontal position, and gently turn it round 
with the fihger and thumb. The ether will very soon 
be impregnated with the gold or platina, which may be 
known by its changing its colour : replace it in a perpen- 
dicular position, and let it rest for twenty-four hours ; 
having first stopped up the upper orifice with a cork. 
The liquid will then be divided into two parts — the 
darkest colouring being underneath. To separate them^ 
take out the cork and let the dark liquid flow out : when 
it has disappeared, stop the tube immediately with the 
cork, and what remains in the tube is fit for use, and 
may be called gilding liquid. Let it be put into a bottle, 
and tightly corked. 

The muriate of gold or platina, formed by digesting 
these metals in nitro-muriatic acid, must be entirely free 
from all excess of acid ; because it will otherwise act too 
forcibly on the steel, and cause the coating of gold to 
peel oflP. Pure gold must be employed : the ether must 
not be shaken with the muriate of gold, as is advised in 
chemical publications, for it will be sure, then, to contain 
acid 5 but if the two liquids be brought continually into 
contact by the motion described, the affinity between 



etber and gold is so strong as to overcome the obstacle 
of gravity, and it will hold the gold in solution. The 
ethereal solution may also be concentrated by gentle 

Gold Oil-colour, or Size. 

The English method of preparing the colour in size, 
which serves as the ground on which the gold is laid, ia, 
to grind together some red oxide of lead with the thick* 
est drying oil that can be procured — the older the better. 
To make it work freely, it is mixed, before being used, 
with a little oil of turpentine, till it is brought to a 
proper consistence. (See, also. Mordant Varnishes.^ 

Gold Water Size, 

One pound of Armenian bole, two ounces of red lead, 
and a sufficient portion of black lead, are ground sepa- 
rately in water, and then mixed, and re-ground with 
nearly a spoonful of olive oil. The gold size is tempered 
by mixing it in parchment size which is clear and clean, 
and has been passed through a fine sieve to clear it of 
all foreign matters. The parchment size is made by 
boiling down pieces of white leather, or clippings of 
parchment, till they are reduced to a stiff jelly. 

Preparatory/ Size, 

Boil a handful of the leaves of wormwood and two or 
(hree heads of garlic in a quart of water, until the liquid 
is reauced to one-half; then strain it through a clutkf 


&U(1 add half a handful of common salt, an i nearly half 
a pint of vinegar. The design of th/j composition 
(usually employed in gilding looking-gl and picture 
frames) is to obviate the greasiness of the wood, and 
prepare it the better to receive the coats which are to be 
laid on, and to preserve it from the ravages of worms 
When used, it is mixed with a sufficient portion of good 
glue, boiling hot. In applying it to the gilding of 
plaster or marble, the salt must be left out of its cum- 
position; as, in damp situations, this would produce a 
white saline efflorescence on the surface of the gold. 

White Coating. 

A quart of strong parchment size and half a pint of 
water are to be made quite hot, and to this are to be 
added (in small portions from time to time) two good 
handfuls of common whiting passed through a fine sieve; 
this mixture is to be left to infuse for half an hour, when 
it is to be stirred carefully so that the amalgamation 
moy be perfect. 

Colouring Yellow, 

Half a pint of parchment size is taken, which must be 
clean, white, and clear, and of one-half the sj;rength of 
that used for the white coating; this is warmed, and 
there is mixed with it two ounces of yellow ochre, very 
finely ground in water ; it is then left at rest, and the 
clear portion decanted, which gives a fine yellow colour, 
that serves, in water gilding, to cover those deep recosse? 


into which the gold cannot be made to enter : it servea 
also as a mordant for the gold size. 


This is a liquid which gives to the gold a warm re- 
flection. It is composed of two ounces of anotto, one 
ounce of gamboge, one ounce of vermilion, half an ounce 
of dragon's blood, two ounces of salt of tartar, and 
eighteen grains of good saffron. The whole is to be 
boiled in a quart of water, over a slow fire, until it if 
raduced to one-fourth, when the liquor is passed through 
K strainer of silk or muslin. 




Painter's Cream. 

This is a preparation sometimes employed by paintcrt 
^hen they are obliged to leave work unfinished for a 
length of time. They cover the parts already painted 
with it, which preserves the freshness of their colours^ 
and can be easily removed when they return to their 
work. It is made as follows : — 

Take half an ounce of the best mastic, finely powdered, 
and dissolve it over a gentle fire,, in three ounces of very 
clear nut-oil. Pour the mixture into a marble mortar; 
with two drams of pounded sugar of lead at the bottom 
of it. Stir this with a wooden pestle, and keep adding 
water in small quantities till the whole is of the appear- 
ance and thickness of cream, and refuses to admit more 
water, so as to mix freely. 

Rotten Stone. 

Rotten Stone is sometimes harsh and gritty; the best, 
way of trying it is to take a little between the teeth, 
g^hen the least portion of grit may be detected. Careful 
workmen will always wash it before they use it. This 
is effected by stirring the fine powder in a considerable 
quantity of water, then allowing it to remain at rest for 
a few seconds, and pouring the water into a glazed 


earthen vessel ; the powder which then precipitates will 
be perfectly fine and smooth ; by washing the remainder, 
the whole of the finer parts may be separated from the 

Glue and Isinglass. 

Good glue should swell when kept in cold water for 
three or four days : it should be semi-transparent, of a 
brown colour, and free from cloudiness. Before using 
it it should be broken into small pieces, covered with 
cold water for some hours to soften it, then boiled till 
dissolved, and again allowed to congeal by cooling. The 
books in general recommend, as a size for gilding and 
bronzing, a solution of isinglass ; but one of good clear 
common glue is much cheaper, and answers equally well. 
Isinglass, though a pur^r gelatine than glue, is not so 
easily diss.'^lved. 

Common Size, 

The size used by painters for most sorts of common 
work is prepared by boiling in water pieces of parch- 
ment and of the skins of animals and fins of fish, and 
evaporating the solution to a proper consistency. It only 
differs, however, from a solution of glue in containing 
fewer foreign ingredients and in not being so strong. 



The following directions for the grinding of colouri 
will be found of use to those who may not find it conve- 
nient to have a mill for the purpose, such as that we 
have described in a former part of our work. 

In grinding, place yourself in such a situation, with 
respect to the grinding-stone, that you may be able with 
ease to exercise the full length and strength of your 
arms in the use of the muller. Then place upon the 
stone a small quantity of the colour you are about to 
grind, not above two-thirds of a common saucer full at 
most. Novices are apt to entertain an idea that the 
work would be hastened by grinding a great deal at once, 
but this is a mistake. The less you grind at a time the 
easier will be the process and the finer the colour. One 
of the most essential points in the preparation of a c<>- 
lour is its being reduced into as small parts as possible. 
The beauty of its appearance and the profit arising from 
it equally depend upon this : and a good workman will 
not therefore grudge the time employed in the operation 
When you have laid your colour on the stone, pour upon 
it a little of the oil or varnish with which you intend 
to grind it, being careful not to put too much at first 


Mix the oil and the colour together; then place tlui 
muller upon them, and turn it a few times about. If 
you find there is not oil enough, add a little more, and 
continue to grind till the colour becomes of the consist- 
ence of an ointment. Be careful not to add too much 
oily so as to make the colour too thin and cause it to run 
about the stone; for then it will be necessary to add 
more solid matter, which would occasion a great waste of 
time and labour. When the colour is rendered thinner 
than it should be, the grinding is less fatiguing, but it 
occupies more time; when thicker, the work is more 
laborious, but more speedily executed. Experience will 
teach you to judge correctly in this matter. 

8hould the colour spread during the grinding, you 
must bring it together with your palette-knife or voider. 
When you have ground it sufficiently fine, which you 
may determine by the difficulty of raising the muller 
from the stone, and by the noise occasioned by the grind- 
ing at first almost entirely subsiding, take up the muller : 
then if you find the colour completely smooth like but- 
ter, without any grittiness, take it off the stone with a 
palette-knife or spatula, and put it into your pot or pan. 
Afterwards lay more colour upon the stone, and continue 
grinding in the same manner till the necessary quantity 
is ground. 

It is always desirable to grind at one time as much 
of a 3olour as is required for the work you have in hand : 
if you prepare it at intervals, in different quantities, you 
will often find some difficulty in procuring exactly the 
samue. shade or tint; and if you fail in this, the appear* 


ance of tne work will be sadly disfigured. Should any 
colour happen to be left which you are desirous of pre- 
serving, you have only to cover it with water and deposit 
it in a cool place. It is likewise advisable to take the 
/3a me precaution with your colours, if you have occasion 
to rest for a time, as it will prevent their drying, even 
in the hottest weather. 

It is not unusual with painters and varnishers, who 
have much business, to grind or prepare at once quan- 
tities of different colours or varnishes sufficient to serve 
them for a long while. These, as the best mode of pre- 
serving them, they keep tied up close in ox or sheep 
bladders, so as to be always ready when wanted. 

Colours that are of a coarse and sandy nature can 
seldom be ground to a proper degree of fineness. Where 
common work only is required, this is not very material; 
but in cases where superior delicacy is necessary, such 
colours, after being ground, must undergo the operation 
of washing. 

The chief of these are yellow ochre, charcoal, bone- 
black, Spanish brown, red lead, white chalk, verditer, 
and Saxon blue. 

In washing colours, put the ouantity you wish to clean 
into a vessel of clear water, and stir it till the water be- 
comes coloured ; skim off any filth you observe swim- 
ming at the top ; and when you think the grossest pari 
of the colour is settled at the bottom, pour off the water 
into a second vessel, large enough to hold four or five 
times as much water as the first ; then pour some more 
water into the first vessel, and pr3ceed as before. Keep 


repeatiug this till you find all the fine part of the colour 
drawn off, and none but the gritty particles remaining 
in the bottom of the first vessel. Let the water in thf 
larger vessel stand till it be quite clear and all the co- 
lour settled at the bottom ; then pour the water off from 
it, and the colour at the bottom, when completely driedj 
will be fit for use. 

Colours, whether you grind them yourself, a.s above 
directed, or purchase them ready ground, will, in that 
state, be too thick for use, and it will be necessary to 
dilute them with the varnish or oil you propose to em- 
ploy, in order to bring them to a proper consistence. 
In doing this, extremes must be carefully avoided. If 
the colour be made too thin, it runs, and does not cover 
the article to be painted equally or exactly ; if too thick, 
it forms lumps, is hard to spread, occasions more expense, 
disfigures the work, and fatigues the hand which applies 
it. If, when the brush is taken from the pot and 
turned two or three times round in the hand, being held 
obliquely, so as to check the thread which is formed, the 
colour do not drop from it, it will then be as stiff as it 
can be well wrought with ; and this is the proper state 
for use, as both expedition and durability are gained by 
it. If it be thin enough to allow the ground on which it 
is laid to be at all seen through it, it cannot be good ; and 
though it may work more easily at the time, it will re- 
quire repeated coatings to make it perfect and substan- 
tial, when one of a proper thickness would have been 
sufficient. I may here remark, that many jobs being 
contracted for by painters at so> much a yard, and tbo 

ANJ) varnisher's companion. R7 

work to be coloured three tnnes over, some are in the 
haliit, with a view of sparing paint and labour, of mak- 
ing their colounngs so thin as not to be altogether equal 
to one good coating. But this is a practice which no 
tradesman; who values his own character or that of the 
work turned out of his hands, will adopt 



The principal end aimed at bj the Painter, Varnislicr, 
or Gilder, and especially by the last two, is to beautify ^ 
and, without the strictest cleanliness, it is obvious this 
end can never be answered. 

Every surface to which colour, varnish, or gilding is 
to be applied should first be thoroughly cleaned; it 
should be rubbed, brushed, and even washed, if neces- 
sary ; in the last case, however, it must be well dried 

When any surface which is to be varnished or painted 
has been previously varnished, and is found to be in- 
crusted with dust or dirt, soap and water must be ap- 
plied gently with a sponge, and great care taken every 
time, after the sponge has been rubbed over the varnish^ 
to rinse it in clean water, and to squeeze it th(»:oughlv 
out before it be again dipped into the soap and watei. 

In grinding colours, after you have ground as much 
of any one sort as you want, before you proceed to place 
any other kind upon the stone, let it be perfectly cleaned 
from the former colour, by first rubbing it with a cloth 
and fine dry ashes or sand, and afterwards with a little 
spirit of turpentine; then let it bo well wiped with a 
rag, or with leather shavings. 


But of all things in which cleanliness is essential, 
brushes and pencils are, perhaps, the most to be con- 
Hidered. With regard to the painter, where the very great- 
est nicety is required, a separate brush or pencil should be 
assigned to each colour, wiped when the work is done, 
and preserved by covering it with water. With artists, 
this is an invariable rule, but the occupations of the 
mechanical painter are hardly ever of such extreme deli- 
cacy as to require him to adopt it. In general, it is 
sufficient for him to carefully wash out ever}' brush or 
pencil after he has done with it, or before he employs it 
for any other colour than that with which he has been 
previously using it. This washing out should be first 
in the oil with which the colour has been ground or 
mixed, (but neat linseed oil, or oil of turpentine, will 
always sufficiently answer for general purposes,) and 
afterwards in warm soap-suds. Brushes that have been 
used for varnishing may, on an emergency, be tolerably 
washed out with boiling water and yellow soap only. 
It is, however, much better to wash them well first with 
spirit of wine, if the varnish has been compounded with 
spirits, or with oil of turpentine, if it has been prepared 
with any description of oil ; and, in either case, to clean 
them thoroughly with warm soap and water. The spi- 
rits used for washing varnish brushes are not thereby 
rendered unfit for use in preparing varnishes for common 
purposes. Remember, if either oil or colour be once 
allowed to dry in a brush or pencil, it is spoiled for 
ever. For coloured varnishes, kept in small quantities, 
a brush may be appropriated to each exclusively, and 


left in the bottle ; but in this case the cork ijbould be 
perforated so as to fit the handle, and the points of the 
hairs should dip into the varnish ; the brush will then 
be always ready for ase. A common mustard bottU 
will in general answer the purpose. 



A Painter will consult durability in preference to 
beauty of appearance, or the reverse, according as his 
work is to be more or less exposed to the weather. In 
out-door work, durability is, of course, of the most 
consequence; and as it is likewise the simplest kind 
of painting, I shall begin with noticing the manner of 
executing it. 

Before attempting to lay any colour upon your work, 
you must carefully fill up with putty, so as to make the 
whole surface perfectly level, all flaws, cracks, openings, 
nail-holes, &c. ; for, if this be not done, the rain and snow 
will be sure to penetrate into these places, and quickly 
destroy the fruits of your labour. All knots and uneven- 
nesses must likewise be carefully removed. When these 
points are accomplished, proceed to the priming of the 
work J that is, laying on the colour which is to serve as 
a ground for the succeeding coatings. The nature of the 
priming will, of course, be regulated by that which the 
surface is ultimately to receive. Sufficient time must be 
allowed for this to dry, according to the state of the 
weather: from two to three days will generally be 
enough. When the wood is new, or great solidity rc- 
({uired in the work, it may be proper to repeat the first 
priming ; otherwise, when that is dry proceed to put >* 


the first coat of your proposed colour, and afterwards tlie 
others in succession, as each of the preceding ones be- 
comes dry. The number of coats applied will depend 
upon the agreement made, and upon how far the work 
19 wanted to be finished and substantial. 

When the wood you are about to colour is new, the 
priming should be laid on as thin as possible ; because, 
in this case, the quantity of oil which necessarily sinks 
into the wood is very useful in preserving it. This thin- 
ness of the priming in new wood is also the reason why. 
as before observed, it is proper to repeat it. But as the 
thinness tends to delay its drying, if the priming colour 
be one that is naturally hard to dry, do not mix it with 
plain linseed oil, but with one part of drying oil and two 
parts of linseed oil ; or if the priming colour be white oi 
blue, mix it with linseed oil as usual, but grind a small 
portion of white copperas along with it, because the two 
colours just mentioned are afifected in their tints by the 
drying oil. 

No new coating of colour ought ever to be applied till 
the former is perfectly dry, which can never be the case 
while the least stickiness is felt on applying the hand to 
it. The neglect of this precaution is certain to ruin all 
the beauty of painting. Great care should likewise be 
taken to brush ofi* any dust which may have settled upon 
the former coat before applying a new one ; for, if it be 
allowed to remain and mix with the colour, the uni- 
formity of the tint will be destroyed, particularly in 
bright colours. The workmen ought to be very careful 
that every coating is of the same thickness throughout, 


or tJie work; when done; will have an unfinished and 
Blovenly appearance. This forms an additional reason for 
always mixing as much colour at once as is necessary 
for the job to which it is to be applied. The proper 
thickness of each respective coating can only be learned 
by habit and experience. If too thin, it often cracks in 
drying; if too thick, it becomes blistered, wrinkled, and 
unequal. The first coating, however, may always allow- 
ably be made much thinner than any of the succeeding 

Practice, too, is necessary, in order to obtain even the 
proper use of the brush, and to learn the art of varying 
its strokes according to circumstances. Sometimes long 
strokes are to be employed to extend the colour in a. 
uniform manner ; at otbci* times the colour should be 
laid on in repeated dabs, for the purpose of incrusting 
it in recesses and places where the surface is unequal. 
The test of the complete workman in this respect is to 
leave no marks of the brush behind him. 

The same general directions that are given for outside 
painting will apply to inside work ; but, in this latter, 
more finish and delicacy of execution are necessary than 
in the former ; and, as it is not so much exposed to in- 
jury from the effects of weather and the state of the 
atmosphere as the work done without-doors, the pamte/ 
is not obliged to pay so much attention to durability, 
but, in the choice and application of his colours, prin 
cipally to regard beauty and effect. In inside work, the 
surfaces to be painted are frequently composed of fir oj 
deal, in which kinds of wood, particularly when new, 


there are usually a great many resinous knots. If these 
be permitted to remain, the colour will run into them 
and not adhere. Before beginning to paint, you should^ 
therefore, saturate these knots with a mixture of red 
lead and litharge with a small quantity of oil of tur- 

The panelling of wainscot, and other similar parts 
af inside work, will give you frequent occasion to em- 
ploy very small brushes or pencils. In using these, you 
should not take your colours out of a pot or pan, but 
have those that you want disposed upon a palette. 
There is more than one advantage attached to this. In 
the first place, if your pencil bo only dipped into a pot 
of colour, it brings out with it no more than hangs on 
the outside — a quantity, from the small size of the brush, 
that will go but a little way in working ; whereas, if you 
work and temper the colour by rubbing the pencil about 
in it upon the palette, it will imbibe a considerable 
quantity of the colour. In addition^ to this, you will 
likewise, by this method, be able to work yoiu* pencil to 
a point, which is a great advantage in fine painting and 
drawing lines, and which you could never obtain by 
taking your colour upon it out of a pot. 

Painting in Distemper. 

The leading difference between oil-painting and paint- 
ing in distemper is, that in the latter the colours, instead 
of being prepared with oil, are mixed with size and wa- 
(<>r. This circumstance renders many colouring sobi 


aianceS; particularly some that contain chalk or clayey 
earth; or are extracted from vegetable matter, propei for 
the purpose of distemper, which cannot be used ii* 
painting in oil. 

Almost all colouring substances which can be used iu 
oil-painting are applicable in distemper ; but the reverse, 
as will appear from the remarks I have just made, is far 
from being the case. In speaking of colours, care has 
been taken to notice particularly such as, from their 
nature, can be employed only in distemper. 

In painting in distemper, it is advisable to apply all 
Uie coatings, except the last, warm ; not, however, in a 
boiling state, for that is injurious, and may cause wood 
to split. Besides, if the size be too much heated, it 
becomes fat, and will not adhere. In putting on fresh 
coatings, be very careful to preserve an equal thickness 

Without the utmost attention to having the ground 
you are to work upon perfectly dean, no pleasing effect 
can ever result from distemper. Grease and lime on the 
surface that is to receive it would ruin all. They must 
be removed by scraping if the surface be a wall, and by 
a solution of pearlash if it be wood. Canvas must be 
cleaned by means of a ley. 

When the wall or surface is very smooth, a coating of 
warm glue is first applied ; but if rough, a coat of Span- 
ish white, or chalk mixed with a solution of glue, is era^ 
ployed to render the surface smoother ; and when the 
eoating is dry, it is scraped as clean and as oven as pos- 
sible. A level surface is indispensable to receive di» 


temper. If there are any considerable inequalities or 
holes, they must be filled up with gypsum, and time 
allowed, before applying any coat, for that gypsum to 
gain body, which will not be the case before it is 
thoroughly dry. 

Tu painting in distemper, the thickness of the colour, 
contrary to the observation I made on that head in oil- 
painting, should be such that it may run or drop from 
the brush in a thread when taken from the pot. If the 
colour do not form a thread, it is too thick, and the work 
is likely to become scaly. 

Distemper is much used in the interior of houses, and, 
when well executed, has a very delicate and beautiful 
appearance. It is likewise free from the disagreeable 
smell which usually arises from the turpentine in oil- 
painting. It is, however, far inferior to oil, both as to 
the durability of the colours and to the preservation of 
the surfaces on which it is applied. In some cases, too, 
it is attended with the inconvenience of not enabling the 
workman to see what effect a particular mixture will 
produce when it is dry. When this happens, the only 
method of obviating the evil is to try each mixture on 
pieces of prepared wood having the same tint as the 
ground on which you are working, so as to obtain the 
real tint. 

A kind of distemper, called by the French badif/eon, 
is sometimes used in out-door work, to give a uniform 
tint to houses rendered brown by time, and to churches 
where it is required to render them brighter. It has 
generally a yellow tint. The best kind is made by mix- 


ing the saw-dust or powder of the same kind of stone 
and slaked lime, in a bucket of water containing a pot^nd 
of alum in solution. The composition is applied with 
a brush. 

Painting in Milk, 

In consequence of the injury which has often resulted 
to sick and weakly persons from the smell of common 
paint, the following method of painting with milk has 
been adopted by some workmen, which, for the interior 
of buildings, besides being as free as distemper from any 
offensive odour, is said to be nearly equal to oil-painting 
in body and durability. 

Take half a gallon of skimmed milk, six ounces of 
lime newly slaked,* four ounces of poppy, linseed, oi nut- 
oil, and three pounds of Spanish white. Put the lime 
into an earthen vessel or clean bucket, and having 
poured on it a sufficient quantity of milk to make it 
about the thickness of cream, add the oil in small quan- 
tities at a time, stirring the mixture with a wooden spa 
tula. Then put in the rest of the milk, and afterwards 
the Spanish white. 

It is, in general, indifferent which of the oils above- 
mentioned you use ; but, for a pure white, oil of poppy 
is the best. 

The oil in this composition, being dissolved by the 

• Limo is slaked by dipping it into water, then taking the 
pieces out immediately and allowing them to slake in the open 


lime, wholly disappears; and, uniting with the whoU 
of the other ingredients, forms a kind of calcareous 

In putting in the Spanish white^ you must be careful 
that it is finely powdered and strewed gently over the 
surface of the mixture. It then, by degrees, imbibes 
the liquid and sinks to the bottom. 

Milk skimmed in summer is often found to be cur- 
dled ; but this is of no consequence in the present pre- 
paration, as its combining with the lime soon restores it 
to its fluid state. But it must on no account be sour; 
because, in that case, it would, by uniting with the lime, 
form an earthy salt, which could not resist any degree 
of dampness in the air. 

Milk paint may likewise be used for out-door objects 
by. adding to the ingredients before-mentioned two 
ounces each more of oil and slaked lime, and two ounces 
of Burgundy pitch. The pitch should be put into the 
oil that is to be added to the milk and lime, and dis- 
solved by a gentle heat. In cold weather, the milk and 
lime must be warmed, to prevent the pitch from cooling 
too suddenly, and to enable it to unite more readily with 
the milk and lime. 

Time only can prove how far this mode of painting is 
to be compared, for durability, with that in oil ; for the 
shrinking to which coatings of paint are subject depends 
in great measure upon the nature and seasoning of the 

The milk paint used for in-door work dries in about 
an hour; and the oil which is employed in preparing it 


entirely loses its smell in the soapy state to which it is 
reduced by its union with the lime. One coating will 
be suflScient for places that are already covered with any 
colour, unless the latter penetrate through it and produce 
spots. One coat will likewise suffice, in general, for 
ceilings and staircases; two will be necessary for new 

Milk painting may be coloured, like every other in 
distemper, by means of the different colouring substances 
employed in common painting. The quantity I have 
given in the receipt will be sufficient for one coat to a 
surface of about twenty-five square yards. 

100 ^<7r>v THE PAINTEB, Q ^C^JSR. 

VvV. v A 


Before beginning to varnish, you must fill up an^ 
knots or blemishes with cement of the same colour as 
the ground. Have your varnish in a pan, such as I 
have before described, with a piece of wire running dia- 
metrically across the top, and slackened downwards, ^o 
stroke your brush against. Be careful that the brush 
be dean and free from loose hairs; dip it in the varnish, 
stroking it across the wire, and give the work a thin re- 
gular coat ; soon after that, another ; and so continue ; 
always taking care not to pass the brush twice over tho 
same place in any one coat, as that would render it 

The greatest difficulty of the operation consists in 
preventing the different strokes of the brush from being 
visible. To avoid this, let the brush be perfectly flat 
and as large as the nature of the work will permit. 
Draw it gently over the surface, in taking your strokes, 
and be careful not to load the brush with too much 
varnish at once. 

Turned articles are always best varnished while in the 
lathe, by means of heat ; because the extension of the 
varnish is then more uniform and the operation facili- 
tates the polishing afterwards. 

When varnish is applied to painting in distemper, it 
its necessary to allow sufficient time to elapse bctwcoti 


the application of the distemper and that of the vamlrfh 
to let the wood become perfectly dry, if this be not 
done, the varnish will penetrate into the size, and at last 
bring off the coat of colouring beneath along with it, in 
thin pieces. 

For ordinary purposes, shell-lac varnish does not re- 
quire to be rubbed down and polished ; but, when it is 
wished to produce a very even surface, these processes 
are necessary : for rubbing down, pumice-stone in fine 
powder is used. A piece of woollen rag is made wet, 
and a portion of the powder put upon it ; this is rubbed 
carefully and equally over every part of the varnished 
surface until it appear perfectly even. Great care is 
requisite to avoid rubbing through at some parts before 
others are rendered smooth, particularly if there are 
sharp edges or projecting mouldings. When this takes 
place, the whole process of varnishing must be repeated. 
A little practice will, however, enable any one to avoid 
this, provided the article varnished have an even surface 
and the number of coats have been sufficient to give the 
I'equisite thickness of resin. When the surface to be 
polished is flat, the cloth may, when used, be wrapped 
round a piece of cork or wood ; and the same method 
may be adopted in rubbing down mouldings. 

When a surface is well prepared by the pumice-stone, 
it is very easily polished. This is effected by fine rotten - 
etone, used exactly in the same way as the pumice- 
stone, excepting that sweet oil is used instead of water. 
The oil may be removed from the surface by a fine rag 
and some dry rotten stone -, and if a little be then rubbed 



on by the palm of the hand, this will give a high polish 
to the surfi\ce. 

The gloss upon the shell-lae which has been polished 
IS less brilliant than that of the unpolished varnish, but 
this gloss may be given by using a coat of seed-lao 
varnish, which will abstract but little from the perfect 
surface given by polishing. 

In some cases, hard bodies may be allowably employed 
in polishing varnishes, but only when these varnishes 
are themselves hard, such as those resulting from the 
solution of amber and oopal in drying olJ; or even in oil 
of turpentine. 

When it is required to clean and polish '^Id furniture, 
first wash it thoroughly with hot %oft water to get the 
dirt off ; then take a quart of stale beer or vinegar, put 
in a handful of common salt and a table-rpoonful of 
spirits of salt, and boil it for a quarter of an hour ; keep 
it in a bottle, and warm it when wanted for use. Thi? 
mixture should be applied as long as necessary after the 
furniture has been washed with the hot water. 

French Polish. 

There is a mode of using shelUac varnish which is 
sometimes denominated the German, but more commonly 
the French mode. It merits to be generally known, a? 
the process is easy and economical, and the effect beau- 
tiful. It has been much employed by cabinet and mu- 
sical instrument makers, but is not yet so extensive!) 
practised as it merits to be. 


The varnish is applied by means of what is called a 
rubber, made by rolling up a piece of thick woollen oloth, 
which has been torn off so as to have a soft, elastic edge. 
The varnish, put into a narrow-mouthed bottle, is ap- 
plied to the middle of the flat face of the rubber by lay- 
ing the rubber on the mouth of the bottle and quickly 
shaking the varnish at once, as the rubber will thus 
imbibe a sufficient quantity to varnish a considerable 
extent of surface. The rubber is then enclosed in a 
soft linen cloth doubled, the remainder of the cloth being 
gathered together at the back of the rubber to form a 
handle to hold it by ) and the face of the linen cloth 
must be moistened with a little raw linseed-oil, which 
may either be coloured with alkanet root or not, applied 
with the finger to the middle of it. 

The work to be varnished should be placed opposite 
to the light, in order that the effect of the polishing may 
be better seen, and a surface of from ten to eight feet 
square may be varnished at once. 

The rubber must be quickly and lightly rubbed upon 
the surface of the article to be varnished, and the rub- 
bing continued until the varnish becomes nearly dry. 
The coil of woollen cloth must then be again wotted with 
the varnish, (no more oil need b< applied to the surface 
of the linen cloth,) and the ruLoing renewed till the var- 
nish becomes nearly dry as before ] a third coat must be 
applied in the same manner, then a fourth with a littlo 
oil. which must be followed by two others without oil, as 
before. You proceed thus until the varnish has acquired 
Bome thiv'kness; which will be after a few repetition* 


of tho series. Apply then a little alcoli(yI to the inside 
of the linen cluth, and wet the coil with the varnish : 
after which, ruh very quickly, lightly, and uniformly, 
over every part of the varnished surface, which will tend 
to make it even, and very much conduce to its polish. 
The linen cloth must now be wetted with a little alcohol 
and oil, without varnish; and the varnished surface 
being rubbed over, with the precautions last mentioned^ 
until it is nearly dry, the effect of the operation will be 
seen. If it be found not complete, the process must be 
continued, with the introduction of alcohol in its turn 
as directed before, until the surface becomes smooth and 
of a beautiful lustre. 

The preceding process is that in general use ; but Dr. 
Jones recommends, in the Franklin Journal, a rubber 
of a different sort, as well as a simpler mode of em- 
ploying it. He takes a piece of thick woollen cloth, six 
or eight inches in diameter, and upon one side of this 
pours a tea-spoonful of the varnish ; he then collects the 
edges together, so as to enclose the varnish in the cloth 
and form a handle by which to hold it : this is finally 
covered with a piece of oiled linen cloth, and the rubber 
is ready for use. More varnish is added as often as it is 
required ; and when it becomes occasionally too thick to 
ooze through, a little alcohol is poured into the cloth. 

Some difficulties may be at first experienced in per- 
forming this process ; but Dr. Jones states that a very 
little practice will enable any handy person to surmount 
them. The peculiar advantage said to attend it is, that a 
beautiful polish may be at once obtained by a contiiiuecl 


%ppjicatk)n of the rubber in this way ; while, according 
to the method previously described, successive coats of 
varnish, which require considerable time to dry, must be 
used, and a great deal of additional trouble incurred. 

In varnishing recesses or carved work, where parts 
of the surface are difficult to reach with the rubber, r» 
spirit varnish, made with or without lac of the usual gum 
resins, and considerably thicker than that used for the 
rest of the work, may be applied to those parts with a 

brush or hair pencil 



In some instances, the application of wax merely is 
preferred to any varnish; particularly in the case of 
chairs, tables, &c., of walnut-tree wood, in daily use. 

Waxing resists percussion and friction, but it does not 
possess, in the same degree as varnish, the property of 
giving lustre to the bodies to which it is applied, and of 
heightening their tints. The lustre created by wax is 
but dull ; but this inconvenience is balanced by the ease 
with which any accidents that may have effected its 
polish can be replaced by rubbing it with a piece of 
fine cork. 

In waxing, it is of great importance to make the coat- 
ing as thin as possible, in order that the veins of the 
wood may be more distinctly seen. I consider the 
following preparation the best for performing thw 
operation : — 

Put two ounces of white and yellow wax over a mode- 
rate fire, in a very clean vessel, and, when it is quite 


melted, add four ounces of the best spirits of turpentine. 
Stir the whole untilit is entirely cool, and you will have 
a pomade fit for waxing furniture, which must be rubbed 
over it according to the usual method. The oil soon 
penetrates the pores of the wood, brings out the colour 
of it, causes the wax to adhere better, and produce a 
lustre equal to that of varnish, without being subjoct tc 
uiy of its incoQTeniences. 

Axv vabnisher's companion. 107 


Gilding Carved Wood vrith Water Size.. 

Mix with your preparatory size a sufficient portion of 
good glue, boiling hot, and lay it upon the wood with a 
brush, the bristles of which are short. Then apply six, 
eight, or ten coats, equal in quantity, of the white coat- 
ing, and be particularly careful that the projecting parts 
are well covered, as the beauty of the burnish on the 
gold depends much on this. The first coat should be 
laid on quite hot, dabbing it with the brush in such a 
way that it may not be thicker in one place than 
another. The lower parts of the carving must be covered 
by dabbing it with a smaller brush. After putting on 
one coat of white, and before following it with a second, 
the work should be examined, any lumps in it reduced, 
and small hollows filled up by a cement consisting of 
whiting and glue kneaded together. Let the whole be 
now rubbed with fish-skin, which will remove every sort 
of roughness. The second, third, and remaining coats 
of white should have the size stronger than in the first 
coat, yet all of the same strength, otherwise a strong 
superior coat will cause a weaker one under it to scale 
oft* : the operation of dabbing with the brush must be 
repeated in every successive coat, in order to unite the 
whole, so that they may form a single compact body 


Each coat must also be perfectly dry before a new one 
is laid on. The whitened surface is now to be wetted 
with the brush which has been used for putting on the 
whiting, dipped in fresh cool water. Only a small portion 
should be wetted at once, which should then be rubbed 
down with pumice-stone, made flat for the parts which 
require to be of that form, and round or hollow, as may 
be necessary, for the mouldings. Little sticks are Tased 
for clearing out those members of the mouldings which 
may have been filled up by the whiting. The whitened 
parts are to be rubbed lightly, so as to render the sur- 
face smooth and even to the touch. At the same time, 
a brush which has become soft by using it with the 
whiting is employed to clear out all the dirt which has 
been found in the rubbing. The moisture is now to be 
dried up with a sponge, and any small grains which may 
remain removed by the finger — a delicate and very im* 
portant operation. The whole work is finally to bo 
wiped with a piece of cle^n linen. 

The work should now be returned to the carver, to 
have the fine and delicate cutting of the sculptured parts 
restored. If the workman be skilful, he will be able to 
re-produce on the whiting every characteristic trait which 
may happen to have been obliterated. Where bas-re- 
liefs cast from moulds are laid on a flat or carved sur- 
face, instead of the wood itself being carved, as is now 
very commonly the case, this repairing process is un- 

A moistened cloth is now to be passed over the parts 
vhich are to be matted or burnished, and a soft moist- 


cDed brush over those which have been repaired. The 
whole is then to be washed with a soft sponge, and every 
speck and hair carefully removed. All the even parts 
should next be smoothed with rushes, taking care not to 
rub oflf the whiting. The colouring yellow is now to be 
applied very hot, with a soft clean brush, so as to cover 
the whole work. This application must be lightly made, 
so as not to disturb the whiting. The yellow tint serves 
to cover those deep recesses into which the gold cannot 
be made to enter : it serves also as a- mordant for the 
gold size. When this yellow covering becomes dry, the 
whole surface is to be again gently rubbed with rushes, 
to remove all specks or hairs which may be found or 
it, and to give a uniform surface without the slightesf 

The gold size, which is the next thing to apply, you 
must temper by mixing it with some parchment size 
that has been passed through a fine sieve. It is to be 
laid on warm, with a small brush, the bristles of which 
are fine, long, and soft l theie are brushes made for the 
express purpose. Three coats of the size will be suffi- 
cient. It is to be applied generally to the work, but 
you need not force it into the deeper parts. When the 
three coats of size are quite dry, the larger and smoother 
parts, which are intended to appear matted, are to be 
rubbed with a piece of new dry linen : this will cause 
the gold to extend itself evenly, and the water to flow 
over the sized surface without forming spots. To those 
parts which are not thus rubbed, but which are intended 
to be burnished, you must apply two additional c(»ats of 



Uie same tempered gold size, to which a little water haa 
been added to render it thinner. 

The work is now ready for Gilding. — Take a book of 
leaf gold, place the leaves upon a cushion, cut them to the 
required size, and lay them on the work by means of 
hair pencils of different sizes ; first wetting the part (but 
that only) on which the gold is to be applied with fresh 
and cool water. The deep recesses should be gilt before 
the more prominent parts. When the leaf is deposited 
in its place, water is applied, to make it spread easily, 
by means of a pencil behind it, but so as it may not 
flow, as this would occasion spots; it should also be 
breathed on gently, and any waste water removed with 
the point of a pencil. 

Those parts of the gilding which it is wished to pre- 
serve of a matted appearance should have a slight coat 
of parchment size, which will prevent the gold from 
rubbing off. The size should be warm, but not hot, 
and its strength half as great as that used with the co- 
louring vellow. 

The parts to which it is desired to give a more bril- 
liant appearance are burnished with a burnisher made 
of wolves' or dogs' teeth, or agate, mounted in iron or 
wooden handles, which must be kept, throughout the 
process, perfectly dry. The operation of burnishing \h 
very simple. Take hold of the tool near to the tooth or 
Btone, and lean very hard with it on those parts which 
are to be burnished, causing it to glide by a backward 
and forward movement, without once taking it off the 
piece When it is requisite that the hand should pass 


over a large surface at once, without losing its point of 
support on the work-bench, the workman, on taking hold 
ot the burnisher, should place it just underneath his 
•iitle finger ; by this means the work is done quicker, 
and the tool is more solidly fixed in the hand. 

It will sometimes happen in gilding that small spots 
on the deeper parts are overlooked, or that the gold is 
removed in some parts in applying the matting size. 
When this is the case, small pieces of leaf gold are to 
be put on by meann of a pencil, after moistening the 
deficient places with a small brush ; when dry, each of 
these spots should be covered with a little size. 

When it is desired to give the work the appearance 
of or niovluj dip a small fine pencil into the vermilion- 
ing composition, and apply it delicately into the inden- 
tations and such other parts, where it will, by being 
reflected, give a good effect to the gold. 

To hind and finish the work well, a second coat of the 
matting size should be passed over the matted parts, and 
hotter than the first. 

Gilding Plaster or Marble with Water Size. 

The chief difference to be observed when plastei or 
marble has to be gilt instead of wood, is to exclude the 
gait from the composition of the preparatory size, as in 
damp situations this would produce a white efflorescence 
upon the surface of the gold. Two coats of this size 
should be laid on ; the first weak, that it may sink into 
the plaster or marble and moisten it perfectly; the 
«e»Hin(l, strong. 


Gilding Wood in (XL 

The wood must first be covered, or primed, with twc 
ur three coatings of boiled linseed oil and carbonate of 
lead ] and, when dry, a thin coating of gold oil size laid 
upon it. In about twelve hours this sizing, if good, 
will be dry, when you may begin to apply the gold-leaf, 
dividing it, and laying it on in the same manner as in 
the case of the water-gilding ; with this difference, that 
it is to be gently pressed down with a ball of soft cot- 
ton, when it will instantly adhere so firmly to the size, 
that, after a few minutes, the gentle application of a 
large camel's-hair brush will sweep away all the loose 
particles of the leaf without disturbing the rest. 

The advantages of this oil-gilding are, that it is easih 
and quickly done, is very durable, is not readily injured 
by changes of weather, even when exposed to the open 
air, and, when soiled, may be cleaned by a little warm 
water and a soft brush. It cannot, however, be bur- 
nished, and is, therefore, deficient in lustre. 

To (jild Steel 

Pour some of the ethereal solution of gold into a wine- 
glass, and dip into it the blade of a new penknife, lancet, 
or razor; withdraw the instrument, and allow the ethei 
to evaporate : the blade will then be found covered with 
a beautiful coat of gold. The blade may be moistened 
with a clean rag, or a small piece of very dry sponge 


dipped into the ether, and th? same effect will bo pro- 

To gild Copper, Brass, d^. 

The gilding of these inferior metals and alloys of them 
is effected by the assistance of mercury, with which the 
gold is amalgamated. The mercury is evaporated, while 
the gold is fixed, by the application of heat ; the whole 
is then burnished, or left mat, in whole or in part, ac- 
cording as required. 

In the large way of gilding, the furnaces are so con- 
trived that the volatilized mercury is again condensed, 
and preserved for further use, so that there is no loss in 
the operation. There is also a contrivance by which the 
volatile particles of mercury are prevented from injuring 
the gilders. 

Gilding Glass and Porcelain. 

Dissolve in boiled linseed oil an equal weight eithei 
of copal or amber, and add as much oil of turpentine as 
will enable you to apply the compound or size thus 
formed, as thin as possible, to the parts of the glaijs in- 
tended to be gilt. The glass is to be placed in a stovo 
till it is so warm as almost to burn the fingers whei 
handled. At this temperature the size becomes adhesive, 
and a piece of leaf gold, applied in the usual way, wiL 
immediately stick. Sweep off the superfluous portions 
ef Ibe leaf; aB^d, when quite cold it may be burnished, 



taking care to interpose a piece of India paper between 
the gold and the burnisher. 

It oometimes? happens, when the varnish is not very 
good, that by repeated washing the gold wears off; on 
*his account the practice of burning it in is sometimea 
had recourse to. For this purpose, some gold-powde? 
is ground with borax, and in this state applieU to the 
clean surface of the glass by a camel's-hair pencil; when 
quite dry, the glass is put into a stove, heated to about 
the temperature of an annealing oven ; the gum bums 
off, and the borax, by vitrifying, cements the gold with 
great firmness to the glass ; after which it may be bur- 

The gilding upon porcelain is in like manner fixed by 
heat and the use of borax; aud this kind of ware, being 
neither transparent nor liable to soften, and thus to be 
injured in its form in a low red heat, is free from the 
risk and injury which the finer and more fusible kinds 
of glass are apt to sustain from such treatment. Porce- 
lain and other wares may be platinized, silvered, tinned, 
or bronzed, in a similar manner. 

Gilding Leather. 

In order to impress gilt figures, letters, and other 
marks upon leather, as on the covers of books, ed^^ings 
for doors, &c., the leather must first be dusted ovei with 
very finely-powdered yellow resin, or mastic gum. The 
iron tools, or stamps, are then arranged on a racK Lcibfc 
« clear fire, so as to be well heated, without beet ming 


red hot. Vf the tools are letters, they have an alphabetl 
cal arrangement on the rack. Each letter or stamp 
must be tried as to its heat, by imprinting its mark on 
the raw side of a piece of waste leather. A little prac- 
tice will enable the workman to judge of the heat. Tlio 
tool is now to be pressed downwards on the gold leaf, 
which will, of course, be indented and show the figure 
imprinted on it. The next letter or stamp is now to be 
taken and stamped in like manner, and so on with the 
others; taking care to keep the letters in an even line 
with each other, like those in a book. By this opera- 
tion the resin is melted ; consequently the gold adheres 
to the leather. The superfluous gold may then be 
rubbed oflf by a cloth, tlie gilded impressions remaining 
on the leather. In this, as in every other operation, 
adroitness is acquired by practice. 

The cloth alluded to should be slightly greasy to 
retain the gold wiped off; (otherwise there will be a great 
waste in a few months;) the cloth will thus be soon 
completely saturated or loaded with the gold. When 
this is the case, these cloths are generally sold -to the 
refiners, who burn them and recover the gold. Some of 
these afford so much gold by burning as to be wo^'tL 
from a guinea to a guinea and a half. 

Gilding Writings^ Drawings, dec, on Paper or Parch- 

Letters written on vellum or paper are gilded in three 
wayp. In the first, a little size is mixed with the ink 


and the letters are written as usual; when they are dry, 
a slight degree of stickiness is produced by breathing 
on them, upon which the gold leaf is immediaieiy ap- 
plied, and by a little pressure may be made to adhere 
with sufl&cient firmness. In the second method, some 
white lead or chalk is ground up with strong size, and 
the letters are made with this by means of a brush. 
When the mixture is almost dry, the gold leaf may be 
laid on, and afterwards burnished. The third method 
is to mix up some gold powder with size, and to form 
the letters of this by means of a brush. 

Gilding the Edges of Paper, 

The edges of the leaves of books and letter paper arc 
gilded whilst in a horizontal position in the bookbinder*? 
press, by first applying a composition formed of four 
parts of Armenian bole and one of candied sugar, ground 
together with water to a proper consistence and laid on 
by a brush with the white of an egg. This coating, 
when nearly dry, is smoothed by the burnisher. It is 
then slightly moistened by a sponge dipped in clean 
water, and squeezed in the hand. The gold leaf is now 
taken up on a piece of cotton, from the leathern cushion, 
and applied on the moistened surface. When dry, it 
IS to be burnished by rubbing the burnisher over it re- 
peatedly from end to end, taking care not to wound the 
surface by the point. 



The general nature of the compositions employed for 
lacquering has already been explained under the head of 
Cnanging Varnishes. I shall in this place give some 
particular receipts for preparing the lacquers in most 
general use. 

Lacquer for Brass. 

Seed-lac, six ounces; amber or copal, ground on por 
phyry or very clean marble, two ounces; dragon's bloody 
forty grains ; extract of red sandal-wood, thirty grains ; 
oriental saffron, thirty-six grains; pounded glass, four 
ounces; very pure alcohol, forty ounces. 

Articles, or ornaments of brass, to which this varnish 
is to be applied, should be exposed to a gentle heat and 
then dipped into the varnish. Two or three coatings 
may be thus applied, if necessary. 

Articles varnished in this manner may be cleaned 
with water and a bit of dry rag. 

Lacquer /or Philosophical Instruments, 

Gamboge, an ounce and a half; gum sandrac, four 
oances; gum elemi, four ounces ; best dragon's blood, 


^wo ounces ; terra merita,'*' an ounce and a half; oriental 
saffron, four grains ; seed-lac, two ounces; pounded glass^ 
six ounces; pure alcohol, forty ounces. 

The dragon's blood, gum elemi, seed-lac, and gam- 
boge are all pounded and mixed with the glass. Over 
them is poured the tincture obtained by infusing the 
saffron and terra merita in the alcohol for twenty-four 
hours. This tincture, before being poured over the dra- 
gon's blood, &c., should be strained through a piece of 
clean linen cloth, and strongly squeezed. 

If the dragon's blood gives too high a colour, the 
quantity may be lessened according to circumstances. 
The same is the case with the other colouring matters. 

This lacquer has a very good effect when applied to 
many cast or moulded articles used in ornamenting fur- 

Gold-coloured Lacquer for Brass Watch-cases, Watch' 

keys, &c. 

Seed-lac, six ounces; amber, two ounces; gamboge, 
two ounces; extract of red sandal-wood in water, twen* 
ty-four grains; dragon's blood, sixty grains; oriental 

* Terra merita is the root of an Indian plant ; it is of a roc* 
colour, and much used in dyeing. In varnishing, it is only eir.- 
ploycd in the form of a tincture, and is particularly well adapted 
for the mixture of those colouring parts which contribute the 
most towards giving metals the colour of gold. In chooting it 
00 earoful to observ' that it is sound and compact 


saffron, thirty-six grains; pounded 'glass, four. ounces; 
pure alcohoi, tbirty-six ounces. 

The sc^d-lac, amber, gamboge, and dragon's blood 
roust be j;ounded very fine on porphyry or clean marble, 
and mixed with the pounded glass. Over this mixture 
is poured the tincture formed by infusing the saffron 
and tiie extract of sandal- wood into the alcohol, in the 
manner directed in the last receipt. The varnishing is 
completed as before. 

Metal articles that are to be covered wit! *his varnish 
are heated, and, if they are of a kind to admit of it, are 
immersed in packets. The tint of the varnish may be 
varied in any degree required, by altering the propor- 
tions of the colouring quantities according to circum- 

To make Lacquer of various Tinta* 

For this purpose, make use of the receipt given under 
the head of Changing Varnishes. 

To clean old Brass Work for Lacquering. 

First boil a strong lye of wood-ashes, which you may 
strengthen with soap-lees; put in your brass work, and 
the lacquer will immediateiy come off; then have ready 
a pickle of aqua-fortis and water, strong enough to take 
off the dirt; wash it immediately in clean water, dry it 
well^ and lacquer it. 



Tflis art is nothing but a species of painting ; but far 
from being of the most delicate kind. The principal 
ingredients made use of in it are the true gold powder, 
the German gold, the aurum mosaicum, (all before 
described,) and copper powder. This last may be pro- 
cured by dissolving filings or slips of copper with nitrous 
acid in a receiver. When the acid is saturated, the 
slips are to be removed; or, if filings be employed, the 
solution is to be poured off from what remains undis- 
solved. Small bars are then put in, which will preci- 
pitate the copper from the saturated acid, in a powder 
of the peculiar appearance and colour of copper; and 
the liquid being poured from the powder, this is to be 
washed clean off the crystals by repeated levigations. 

The choice of these powders is, of course, to be deter- 
mined by the degree of brilliancy you wish to obtain. 
The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, 
and laid on with a brush or pencil; or, a coating of gold- 
size, prepared with a due proportion of turpentine, is 
first applied; and when not so dry as to have still a 
certain clamminess, a piece of soft leather, wrapped 
round the finger, is dipped in the powder and rubbed 
over the work. When the work has, in either of these 
ways, be^n all covered with the bronze, it must be left 


to dry, and any loose powder then cleared away by a 
hair pencil. 

Bronzing in wood may be effected by a process some- 
what differing from the above. Prussian blue, patent 
yellow, raw amber, lamp-black, and pipe-clay are ground 
s(iparately with water on a stone, and as much of them 
as will make a good colour put into a small vessel, three- 
fourths full of size, not quite so strong as what is called 
clean size. This mixture is found to succeed best on 
using about half as much more pipe-clay as of any of the 
other ingredients. The wood being previously cleaned 
and smoothed, and coated with a mixture of clean size 
and lamp-black, receives a new coating with the above 
compound twice successively, having allowed the first 
to dry. Afterwards the bronze-powder is to be laid on 
with a pencil, and the whole burnished or cleaned anew, 
observing to repair the parts which may be injured by 
this operation. Next, the work must be coated over 
with a thin lather of Castile soap ; which will take off 
the glare of the burnishing, and afterwards be carefully 
rubbed with a woollen cloth. The superfluous powder 
may be rubbed off when dry. 

In bronzing iron, the subject should be heated to a 
greater degree than the hand can bear; and German 
gold, mixed with a small quantity of spirit-of-wine var- 
nish, spread over it with a pencil. Should the iron be 
already polished, you must heat it well and moisten it 
with a linen rag dipped in vinegar. 

There is a method of bronzing casts of plaster of Paris 

analogous to that which we have above given for brons- 



mg wood ; but it is not in much repute. Such figure 
may be beautifully varnished by means of the following 
composition, recommended by Dr. Johns, of Manchester, 
England, in the Mechanics^ Magazine, vol. iv. pp. 303, 
352. Of white soap and white wax, take each half an 
ounce; of water, two pints; boil them togther for a 
short time in a clean vessel. This varnish is to be 
applied when cold, by means of a soft brush. It doer, 
not sink in; it readily dries ;Nand its effect may K 
neigbtcned by lightly using a silk pocket handkernhiel 



All wood work intended to be japanned muct bo 
prepared with size, and some coarse material mixed with 
it to fill up and harden the grain of the wood, (such as 
may best suit the colour intended to be laid on,) which 
must be rubbed smooth with glass paper when dry. In 
cases of accident, it is seldom necessary to re-size the 
damaged places, unless they are considerable. 

Be very careful, in japanning, to grind your colours 

smooth in spirit of turpentine ; then add a small quan- 

' tity of turpentine and spirit varnish ; lay it carefully on 

with a camel-hair brush, and varnish it with brown or 

white spirit varnish, according to the colour. 


Colours required in Japanning. 

Flake white, red lead, vermilion, lake, Prussian blue, 
patent yellow, orpiment, ochres, verditers, Vandyke, 
brown, umber, lamp-black, and siennas raw and burnt 
With these you may match almost any colours in gene- 
ral use in japanning. For a black japan, it will be 
found sufficient to mix a little gold-size with lamp-black j 
this will bear a good gloss, without requiring to be var- 
nished afterwards. 


To prepare a fine Tortoise-shell Japan (/round by metiru 

of Hisat, 

Take one gallon of good linseed oil, and half a pound 
of umber ; boil them together till the oil becomes very 
brown and thick : then strain it through a coarse cloth, 
and set it again to boil; in which state it must be con- 
tinued till it acquire a consistence resembling that of 
pitch ; it will then be fit for use. 

Having thus prepared the varnish, clean well the sub- 
stance which is to be japanned. Then lay vermilion 
tempered with shell-lac varnish or with drying oil very 
thinly diluted with oil of turpentine, on the places in- 
tended to imitate the more transparent parts of the tor- 
toise-shell. When the vermilion is dry, brush the whole 
over with black varnish, tempered to a due consistence 
with the oil of turpentine. When set and firm, put the 
work into a stove, where it may undergo a very strong 
heat, which must be continued a considerable time ; if 
even three weeks or a month it will be the better. 

This tortoise-shell ground is not less valuable for m 
great hardness, and enduring to be made hotter than 
boiling water without damage, than for the superioi 
beauty and brilliancy of its appearance. 



tYiLS are thin plates or leaves of metal that are put 
under stones, or compositions in imitation of stones, 
when they are set, either to increase the lustre and play 
of the stones, or more generally to improve the colour, 
by giving an additional force to the tinge, whether it be 
natural or artificial, by a ground of the same hue. 

There are two kinds of foils. One is colourless, 
where the effect of giving lustre to the stone is produced 
by the polish of the surface, making it act as a mirror, 
and, by reflecting the light, preventing the deadness 
which attends a duller ground under the stone, and 
bringing it nearer to the effect of the diamond. The 
other is coloured with some pigment or stain, either of 
the same hue as the stone, or of some other, which is 
intended to change the hue of the stone in some degree; 
thus, a yellow foil may be put under green which is too 
much inclined to blue, or under crimson, where it is de- 
sired to have the appearance of orange or scarlet. 

Foils may be made of copper or tin. Silver has been 
sometimes used, and even gold mixed with it ; but the 
expense of either is needless, as copper may be made to 
answer the same end. 

Copper intended for foils is prepared by taking cop- 
per plates beaten to a proper thickness, passing them 
betwixt a pair of fine steel rollers very closely set, and 


drawing them as thin as possible. They are polished 
with very fine whiting, or rotten-stone, till they shine, 
and have as much brightness as can be given them, and 
then they will be fit to receive the colour. If they are 
intended for a purple or crimson colour, the foils should 
first be whitened in the following manner : Take a small 
quantity of silver, and dissolve it in aqua-fortis ; men 
put bits of copper into the solution, and precipitate the 
silver ; which being done, the fluid must be poured otf, 
and fresh water added to it to wash away all the re- 
mainder of the first fluid ] after which the silver must 
be dried, and an equal weight of cream of tartar and 
common salt ground with it, till the whole is reduced tc 
a very fine powder. With this mixture, the foils, 
slightly moistened, must be rubbed by the finger, or a 
bit of linen rag, till they are of the degree of whiteness 

The manner of preparing foils, so as to give colourless 
stones the greatest degree of play and lustre, by raising 
80 high a polish or smoothness on the surface as in many 
instances to nearly resemble the effect of diamonds, I 
shall nut here detail, as it is not one in which the gene- 
ral occupations of the Painter, Varnisher, or Gilder, 
would be of assistance. The method of colouring these 
substances I shall hero describe. 

To Colour Foils, 

Two methods have been indented for colouring foils ; 
the one by tinging the surface of the copper with the 


colour required by means of smoke, the other by slain, 
ing or paiutiDg it with some cokmring substance. 

The colours used for painting foils may be mixeti 
with either oil, water rendered glutinous by gum-arabic, 
size, or varnish. Whe^^ deep colours are wanted, oil 
k most proper, 1}ecause some pigments become wholly 
transparent in it, as lake or Prussian blue: the yellow 
and green may be better laid on in varnish, as these 
colours may be had in perfection from a tinge wholly 
dissolved in spirit of wine, in the same manner as in 
the case of lacquers; and the most beautiful green is to 
be produced by distilled verdigris, which is apt to lo?o 
its colour and turn black with oil. In common ca'&es, 
however, any of the colours may be, with the least 
trouble, laid on with isinglass size, in the same manner 
as the glazing colours used in miniature painting. 

Where the ruh^ is to be imitated, a little lake used 
in isinglass size, carmine, or shell-lac varnish, is to. be 
employed, if the glass or paste be of a full crimson, 
verging towards the purple 3 but if the glass incline to 
the scarlet, or orange, very bright lake, not purple, may 
be used alone in oil. 

For garnet, redj dragon's blood dissolved in seed-lac 
varnish may be used ; and for the vinegar ganiet, the 
orange lake, tempered with shell-lac varnish, will be 
found excellent. 

For the amethystj lake, with a little Prussian blue^ 
used with oil, and very thinly spread on the foil, will 

For hlue^ where a deep colour or sapphire is wanted, 


Prussian blue, not too deep, should be used in oil, and 
be spread more or less, thinly on the foil, according to 
the lightness or deepness of the colour required. 

For eagU marine, common verdigris, with a little 
Prussian blue, tempered in shell-lac varnish. 

Where a full ydlow is desired, the foil may be co- 
loured with a yellow lacquer, laid on as for other pur- 
poses. For light yelloics, the copper ground of the foil 
itself, properly burnished, will be sufficient. 

For green, where a deep hue is required, the crystals 
of verdigris, tempered in shell-lac varnish, should be 
used ; but where the emerald is to be imitated, a little 
yellow lacquer should be added, to bring the colour to a 
truer green, and less verging to the blue. 

The stones of more diluted colour, such as the awie- 
thystj topaz J vinegar garnet, and eagle marine, may be 
very cheaply imitated by transparent white glass or 
pa«te, even without foils. This is to be done by tem- 
pering the colours above mentioned with turpentine and 
mastic, and painting the socket in which the counterfeit 
stone is to be set with the mixture, the socket and stone 
itself being previously heated. In this case, however, 
the stone should be immediately set, and the socket 
closed upon it before the mixture cools and grows hard. 
The orange lake, mentioned under the head of garnet 
red, was invented for this purpose, in which it has a 
beautiful effect, and has been used with great success. 
The colour it produces is that of the vinegar garnet, 
which it affords with great brightness. 

The colours before directed to be used in oil should 


bo extremely well ground in oil of turpentine, and tem- 
pered with oil — nut or poppy oil ; or, if time can be 
given for their drying, with strong fat oil, diluted with 
spirits of turpentine, which will gain a fine polish of 
itself. The colours used in varnish should be likewise 
thoroughly well ground and mixed ; and in the case of 
dragon^s blood in the seed- lac varnish and the lacquer^ 
the foils should be warmed before they are laid out. 
All the mixtures should be laid on the foils with a broad 
soft brush, which must be passed from one end to the 
other, and no part should be crossed or twice gone over 
— K)r, at least, not till the first coat be dry ; when, if the 
cciuur does not lie enough, a second coat may bo gi\eD 



Various coarse paints, applicable to out-door work, 
and of great cheapness and durability, may be mad a 
with fish oil, according to the following processes : — 

To prepare the Oil, 

Into a cask which will contain about forty gallons, put 
fchirty-two gallons of good common vinegar; add to this 
twelve pounds of litharge, and twelve pounds of white 
copperas in powder : bung up the vessel, and shake and 
roll it well twice a-day for a week, when \^ will be fit to 
put into a ton of whale, cod, or seal oil, (but the South- 
ern whale oil is to be preferred, on account of its good 
colour and little or no smell :) shake and mix all to- 
gether, when it may settle until the next day; then 
pour off the clear, which will be about seven-eighths of 
the whole. To clear this part, add twelve gallons of 
linseed oil, and two gallons of spirit of turpentine ; shake 
them well together, and, after the whole has settled two 
or three days, it will be fit to grind white lead and all 
fine colours in; and, when ground, cannot bo distin- 
guished from those ground in linseed oil, unless by the 
superiority of colour. 

If the oil be wanted only for coarse purposes, the lin- 
seed oil and oil cf turpentine may be added at the same 


time that the prepared vinegar is put in; and, after 
being well shaken up, is fit for immediate use, without 
being suffered to settle. 

The residue or bottom, when settled by the addition 
of half its quantity of fresh lime-water, forms an excel- 
lent oil for mixing with all the coarse paints for preserv- 
ing outside work. 

All colours ground in the above oil, and used for in- 
side work, must be thinned with linseed oil and oil of 

Gain hy the above process. 

One ton of fish oil, or 252 gallons . . $151 20 

32 gallons of vinegar, at 12 J cents per gallon . 4 00 

12 lbs. litharge, at 7 cts. per lb. . • 84 

12 lbs. white copperas, at 8 cts. ditto . . 96 

12 gallons of linseed oil, at 90 cts. per gallon 10 8C 

2 gallons of spirit of turpentine, at 40 cts. 80 

$168 6C 

252 gallons of fish oil 
12 ditto linseed oil 
2 ditto spirit of turpentine 
32 ditto vinegar 

298 gallons, at 90 cts. per gallon $268 20 
Deduct the expense . . 168 60 

$99 60 


Preparation and Cost of particular Colours, 

I. — Subdued Green, 

F/esh lime-water, 6 gallons . . . . $ 00 

Road dirt, finely sifted, 112 pounds . . 10 

Whiting, 112 ditto 1 12 

Blue-black, 30 ditto . . . . 1 50 

Wet blue, 20 ditto . . . 4 00 

Residue of the oil, 3 gallons . . 1 50 

Vcllow ochre in powder, 24 pounds . . 1 20 

«9 48 

This composition will weigh three hundred and sixty- 
eight pounds, which is a little more than two and a half 
cents per pound. To render the above paint fit for use, 
to every eight pounds add one quart of the incorporated 
oil, and one quart of linseed oil, and it will be found a 
paint with every requisite quality, as well of beauty as 
of durability and cheapness, and in this state of prepara- 
tion does not cost five cents per pound. 

The following is the mode of mixing the ingredients : — 
First pour six gallons of lime-water into a large tub, 
then throw in one hundred and twelve pounds of whit- 
ing ; stir it round well with a stirrer, let it settle for 
about an hour, and stir it again. The painter may then 
put in the one hundred and twelve pounds of road dirt, 
mix it well, and add the blue-black, after which the 


ycllovT ochre ', and when all is tolerably blended, take it 
out of the tub, and put it on a large board or platform, 
and, with a labourer's shovel, mix and work it about as 
whey do mortar. Now add the wet blue, which must bo 
previously ground in the incorporated oil, (as it will not 
grind or mix with any other oil.) When this is added 
to the mass, you may begin to thin it with the incorpo- 
rated oil, in the proportion of one quart to every eight 
pounds, and then the linseed oil in the same proportion, 
and it is ready to be put into casks for use. 

IT. — Lead Colour. 

Whiting, 112 pounds 

Blue-back, 6 ditto 

Lead ground in oil, 28 ditto 
Road dirt, 66 ditto ..... 
Lime-water, 5 gallons . • . . 
Residue of the oil, 2} ditto .... 

Weighs 256 pounds 

To the above add two gallons of the incorporated oil. 
and two gallons of linseed oil to thin it for use, and it 
will not exceed two cents and a quarter. 

The lime-water, whiting, road dirt, and blue-black 
must be first mixed together; then add the ground lead, 
first blending it with two gallons and a half of the pre* 
pared fish oil ; after which, thin the whole with the two 
gallons of Unseed oil and tvro gallons of incorporated oil, 














and it will be fit for use. For garden doors and . .*s..w 
work liable to be in constant use, a little spirits ./i tui- 
pentine may be added to the paint whilst laving on^ 
which will have the desired effect. 

III. — Bright Green, 

112 pounds yellow ochre in powder, at 5 cents 

per pound 

168 ditto road dust 

112 ditto wet blue, at 20 cts. per pound 
10 ditto blue-black, at 5 cts. ditto 

6 gallons of lime-water .... 
4 ditto fish oil, prepared. .... 

7 J ditto incorporated oil . . . 
H ditto linseed oil, at 90 cts. per gallon 

592 pounds weight 

$5 60 


22 40 



2 40 

4 28 

6 75 

42 24 

It will be seen that the bright green costs but about 
seven cents per pound, ready to lay on; and the inventor 
challenges any colourman or painter to produce a green 
equal to it for five times the price. 

After painting, the colour left in the pot may Iw 
covered with water to prevent it from skinning, and th« 
brushes, as usual, should be cleaned with the painting- 
knife and kept under water. 

A brighter green may be formed by omitting the blue 

A lighter green may be made by the addition of teir 
pounds of ground white lead. 


A variety of greens may be obtained by varying the 
proportions of the blue and yellow. 

Observe that the wet blue must be ground with the 
incorporatedv oil, preparatory to its being mixed with the 

IV. — Stone Colour. 

I.ime-water, 4 gallons 

. » 04 

Whiting, 112 pounds . 

. 1 12 

White lead, ground, 28 pounds . 

2 24 

Road dust, 66 pounds . 


Prepared fish oil, 2 gallons 

1 20 

Incorporated oil, 3} gallons . 

. 2 00 

Linseed oil, 3 J ditto .... 

8 15 

Weighs 293 pounds 

»9 85 

The above stone colour, fit for use, is not three and 
a half cents per pound- 

V. — Brown Red, 

Lime-water, 8 gallons 

« 08 

Spanish brown, 112 pounds . 

. 3 36 

Road dust, 224 pounds . 


4 gallons of fish oil ... . 

. 2 40 

4 ditto incorporated oil . 

2 28 

4 dil to linseed oil . 

. 3 60 

W'ighs 501 pounds 

$12 12 


This paint is scarcely two and a half cents per pound 
The Spanish brown must be in powder. 

VI. — A good chocolate colour is made by the addition 
of blue-black, in powder, or lamp-black, till the colour 
is to the painter's mind ; and a lighter brown may be 
formed by adding ground white lead. By ground lead, 
is meant white lead ground in oil. 

Vn. — Yellow is prepared with yellow ochre in pow- 
der, in the same proportion as Spanish brown. 

Viil. — Black is also prepared in the same proportion 
asing lamp-black or blue-black. 



In the production of figures on glass; fragmeiits of 
Ov-loured glass are used, which are cut in pieces of the 
proper shape, and united by lead. In this way are 
formed the ground tints, skies, draperies, ornaments, 
&c. The shades, heads, hands, &c., are then painted 
in vitrifiable colours, which, after being laid on, are burnt 
or fired into the glass. The precaution should be ob- 
served in joining the pieces of coloured glass, that the 
lead joints do not interfere with the effect of the picture. 
That which characterizes painting on glass, and dis- 
tinguishes it from painting on porcelain, is that the 
artist makes use of both surfaces of the glass. The sui* 
face placed towards the spectator receives all the shades, 
^hich are thus rendered more life-like and better de- 
fined. All the shading colours are likewise placed on 
this side; all the lights of the picture are thrown on 
the other side. By this means colours may be used 
which would be injured by contact with each other, 
and the superposition of which would produce peculiar 
tints not desirable. 

The pigments used in painting on glass are principally 
metallic oxides and chlorides, and as, in most of these, 
ihe colour is not brought out until after the painting 
is submitted to heat, it is necessary to ascertain before- 
hand if the colours are properly mixed, by painting on 



slips cf glass, and exposing them to heat in the muffle. 
The painter is guided by these trial pieces, in laying on 
his colours. As the effect of a picture on glass is pro- 
duced by transmitted and not by reflected light, it is 
necessary that the colours, after being burnt on^ should 
be more or less transparent. 

As the coloured glass which forms tlie ground on 
which the artist works is manufactured in glass-works, 
and is an article of commerce, it is necessary to consider 
here only the colours which are burnt on in the muffle. 
The temperature at which these are burnt on is never 
raised above the melting point of silver. 

In oil and water-colour paintings, the pigments ar^i 
rubbed up with oil, solutions of gum, water, &c. In 
painting on glass, it is necessary to have a proper vehicle 
for the colours, which will become liquid at a red heat, 
and which performs the same function as oils, &c., in or- 
dinary painting. This vehicle is called a flux. It en- 
velops the colour which is mechanically mixed with it,, 
and glues it, as it were, to the glass. The colour and 
the flux are often confounded, however, under the name 
of vitrlfiahle colour Sy which are mixtures of colour and 
flux. The vehicle or flux varies with colour, but these 
variations are very limited, as the colours ought to be 
capable of mixing with each other. The flux ordinarily 
employed is a simple silicate of lead, or a mixture ot 
silicate of lead and borax. Experiment has shown that 
potash and soda cannot be substituted for borax. The 
following are the proportions of the ingredients of varb 
ous fluxes: — 


Ko, 1. 

Minium or red lead . . ,3 parts 
White sand washed . . . 1 part. 
This mixture is melted, by which it is converted ink 
« greenish-yellow glass. 

No. 2. — Gray Flux, 

Of No. 1 8 parts. 

Fused borax in powder , 1 part. 

This mixture is melted. 

No, 3. — Flux for Carminns and Greens 

Fused borax . . . . 5 parts. 

Calcined flint .... 3 *^ 

Pure minium .... 1 part 
This mixture is also melted. 

The various colours used in glass-painting are obtained 
from the following substances : — 

The hliie on glass is produbed with cobalt; the purplcsj 
violetSy and carmines, with the purple of Cassius; the 
redsy browns, &c., with the peroxide of iron ; the greenk 
with the silicate of copper, sometimes with the oxide of 
chromium, (in glass-painting, greens of copper are pre- 
ferred to those of chromium, on account of their greater 
transparency,) often with a mixture of blue and yellow ; 
the Hacks, grays, &c., with the oxides of manganese. 


cobalt, and iron ; the yellows with the oxide of uianium, 
the chromate of lead, certain combinations of silver; 
6nally, the compounds of antimonious acid, and of ox- 
ide of lead, or of the subsulphate of iron. 

Beautiful yellow tones may be produced on glass by 
placing on its surface a layer of three parts of pipe-clay, 
well burnt and pounded, and rubbed up with one part of 
chloride of silver. The glass is then submitted to heat 
in a muffle. After cooling, the layer of clay is removed, 
and the glass is stained yellow. The tint depends on 
the nature of the glass and the proportion of chloride 
of silver. Glass, containing about eight or, ten per cent, 
of alumina, takes a more beautiful tint than glass con- 
taining only two or three per cent. 

The following are some of the colours used in the 
celehrated porcelain manufactory of Sevres, and the pro- 
portions in which they are compounded. These colours, 
though intended for painting on porcelain, are nearly all 
applicable to painting on glass. 

Blues are obtained with the silicate of cobalt 
The oxide of cobalt must be in the state of silicate, .o 
order that the blue colour be developed. The colour, 
DDce produced, is unalterable at all temperatures. 

No. 1. — Indigo Blue. 

Oxide of cobalt ... .1 part. 
Flux No. 3 . . . 2 parts 



JVb. 2. — Turqiioise Blue. 

Oxide of cobalt . . '. . 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc , . , 3 or 4 parts. 

Flux No. 3 . . . . 6 " 

Melt and pour out. If it is not sufficiently gre«4i, 
increase the zinc and flux. 

No. 3. — Azure Blue, 

Oxide of cobalt .... 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc .... 2 parts 

Flux No. 2 8 " 

Melt them together, 

iV^. 4. — Deep Azure Blue, 

Oxide of cobalt . ... 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc . . . .2 parts. 

Flux No. 2 5 " 

The beauty of this colour depends on the proportion 
of flux. As little as possible is to be used ; it must, 
however, be brilliant. Sometimes less is used than tho 
proportion indicated. 

No. 6. — SIcy Blue, for the Browns. 

Oxide of cobalt .... 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc .... 2 parts. 

Flux No. 2 12 « 

Pound up, melt^ and pour out. 


No 6. — Violet BluBy for ground colour. 

Blue No. 5 4 parts. 

Violet:ofgold, No. 31 . . 2 « 
More or less of the violet of gold is added. Triturate 
ivithout melting. 

iVb. 7. — Lavender Blue, for ground tint. 

Blue No. 5 4 parts. 

Violet of gold, No. 31 . . 3 « 
Sometimes a little carmine is added. Pulverize with- 
out melting. 

Greens are obtained with the oxide of chromium; 
or with the deutoxide of copper, or with mixtures of 
oxide of chromium and silicate of cobalt, when bluish 
tones are wished. When these greens contain the oxide 
of copper, they require a previous fusion, for it is only 
in the state of silicate or of salt that this oxide gives a 
green. The greens of copper disappear entirely at a high 

When the colours are required to be transparent, 
'Jie oxide of copper is used instead of the oxide of 

No. 8. — Emerald Green, 

Oxide of copper .... 1 part. 
Antimonic acid . . . 10 parts. 
Flux No. 1 . . ,30 " 

J'ulverize together, and melt. 


No, 9. — Bluish Green, 

Green oxide of chromium . . 1 part. 

Oxide of cobalt . . .2 parts. 

Triturate^ and melt at a high heat. The product is a 
outton slightly melted, from which is removed the por- 
tion in contact with the crucible. This button is pounded 
up, and three parts of flux No. 3, for one of the button, 
are added to it. 

No. 10. — Grass Green. 

Green oxide of chromium . . 1 part. 
Flux No. 3 .... 3 parts. 
Triturate, and melt. 

Nos. 10, 11, 12. — Drayon, Pisiache, and Olive Green 

They are prepared with the oxide of chromium, mixed 
with flux No. 3, with additions of deep or clear yellow 
No. 15 or 16, ascertaining the proportions by trial. 

Yellows are commonly obtained by means of 
antimonic acid and the oxide of lead, (litharge.) It 
is the Naples yellow, or very nearly so. Sometimes 
stannic acid (peroxide of tin) is added, and oxide of 
sine, and often also some subsulphate of the peroxide of 
iron, prepared by exposing to the air weak solutions of 
the protosulphate of iron, (copperas.) 

These colours do not change in the muflle, but thcj 
disappear almost entirelv at a high heat. They arc 


easily altered by smoke, by which the oxide of lead ii 
reduced; which produces a dirty gray. 

Yellows are made with the chromate of lead, but 
their use is too uncertain. In Germany, the oxide of 
uranium is employed, which gives a beautiful yellow ; but 
in France it is found to produce no better yellow tMau 
^hose already known. 

No, 13. — Sulphur Yellow, 

Antimonic acid .... 1 part. 
eSubsulphate of the peroxide of iron 8 parts. 
Oxide of zinc . . . 4 " 

Flux No. 1 . . . . 36 " 
Rub up together, and melt ; if this colour is too dc^p, 
the salt of iron is diminished. 

No. 14. — Fixed Yellow /or touches. 

Yellow No. 13 . . . .1 part 

White enamel of commerce . 2 parts. 

Melt, and pour out. If it is not sufficiently fixed, a 
little sand may be added. 

No. 15. — Yellow for Browns and Greens. 

Antimonic acid . . . .2 parts. 
Subsulphate of iron ... 1 part. 
Flux No. 1 . •. . . 9 parts. 

This colour is melted, and sometimes a little Naples 
yellow is added if it is too soft, (i. e. melts too easily.) 


No 16. — Deep Tellmoj to mix with the Chromium 


Antimonic acid .... 2 parts. 
Subsulphate of iron . . 1 part. 

Flux No. 1 .... 10 parts. 
Melt, and pour out. The subsulphate of iron maj U 
*» creased a little : the proportions of flux vary. 

No, 17. — Jonquille Yellow for flowers. 

Litharge . . .18 parts. 

Sand ..... 6 " 
The product of the calcination of 

equal parts of lead and tin . 2 " 

Carbonate of soda ... 1 part. 

Antimonic acid ... 1 " 
Rub together or triturate, and melt. 

No. \^,— Wax Yellow, 

Litharge . . . . .18 parts 

Sand 4 " 

Oxide of antimony . . . 2 *' 
Sienna earth . . . 2 " 

Molt. If it is too deep, the proportion of Sienna 
earth may be decreased. 

No. 19. — Fixed Wax Yellow. 

No. 18 mixed, without melting, with white enamel or 
sand; in order to harden it. The quantity depends en 
the greater or less fusibility of the yellow. 




No, 20. — Nankin Yellow for grounds. 

Subsulphate of iron . • . 1 |iait. 
Oxide of zinc . . . 2 parU 

Flux No. 1 . . . . 10 " 

No, 21. — Deep Nankin Yellow, 

Subsulphate of iron ... 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc ... 2 parta. 

Flux No. 2 . . . . 8 " 

Triturate without melting. 

No, 22.— Pale Yellow Ochre. 

Subsulphate of iron . . . 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc . . . 2 part». 

Flux No. 2 . . . 6 " 

Triturate without melting. 

No, 23. — Deep Yellow Ockre^ called YeUcw Br&wn 

Subsulphate of iron ... 1 part. 

Oxide of zinc ... 1 " 

Flux No. 2 .... 5 parts. 
Triturate without melting. 

No, 24. — Brown Yellow Ochre. 

Yellow ochre, No. 23 . . 10 parts. 
Sienna earth . . .1 part. 

Mix without melting. 


No. 25. — Isabella Yellow^ for grounds. 

Vellow for browns, No. 15 

20 parts 

Blood red, No. 28 

1 part. 

No. 26. — Orange YdJoto^ for grot^ivds. 

Chromate of lead 

1 part 

Minium ..... 

3 parts. 

No. 21,— Brick Red, 

Yellow No. 23 . 

12 parts. 

Red oxide of iron . 

1 part 

No, 2S.—I)eep Blood Red. 


Bubsulphate of iron, calcined in a 

muffle until it becomes a beauti- 

ful capucine red 

1 part. 

Flux No. 2 .... 

3 parts. 

Mix without melting. 

Colours of Gold. — ^These are carmine reds, purples, 
and violets, made by means of the precipitated purple 
of Cassius. These colours are very delicate, and are 
the only ones which change their tints in the fire. Un- 
burnt, they are of dirty violet tint, but are changed into 
I. lively and pure tone by a moderate burning. In a 
stronger fire, these colours become yellowish, and even 
completely disappear. It is necessary to mix the purple 
of Cassius with considerable flux, and this mixture must 


be made while the purple precipitate is still moist. It 
it was suflfered to dry, the colour would be spoiled. 
With one part of purple of Cassius, six parts of flux 
arc mixed. The purple powder of Cassius gives a purple 
by itself. Mixed with chloride of silver, which gives 
to it a yellow, a carmioe tone is produced. With a 
little cobalt blue, it is rendered violet. 

No. 29. — Hard Carmine. 

It is the purple of Cassius mixed with flux No. 8, and 
chloride of silver, previously melted with ten parts of 
flux No. 3. The proportions vary. The whole is ground 
on a glass, the precipitate of gold being still moist. 

No. 30. — Pare Purple. 

The purple powder of Cassius mixed while moist 
with flux No. 3, and sometimes a little chloride of 
silver previously melted with flux No. 3. If the purple, 
when prepared, does not melt sufficiently easy, some flux 
may be added when it is dry. 

No. 31. — Deep Violet. 

The purple of Cassius ; in place of flux No. 3, flux 
No. 1 is mixed with it. Sometimes a little of blue 
No. 6 is added. 

Colours of Iron. — Besides the subsulphate of the 
peroxide, the peroxide itself is employed to produce rose 
tints, reds, violet tones, and browns. The pure peroxide 


can produce the first three tones, and it is easily imagined 
when we know that its shade varies from rose to deep 
violet, according to the temperature to which it has been 
submitted. Slightly heated, it is rose or red 3 at a forge 
heat, it becomes violet. As to the browns of iron, 
they require some mixtures. These colours are unalter- 
able in the muffle, but they disappear in great part at a 
bign heat. In the first case the oxide remains free, 
and in the second it is united with the silica. A too 
fusible flux or glass produces the same effect. 

No. ^2.— Flesh Red, 

The sulphate of iron, put in small crucibles and lightly 
calcined, produces a suitable red oxide. Those which 
have the desired tone are selected. All the flesh reds 
are made in this way, and vary only in the degrees of 
heat which they receive. 

Browns may be obtained with various mixtures of 
peroxide or subsulphate of iron with the oxide of man- 
ganese, silicate of cobalt, or silicate of copper. These 
colours, unalterable in the heat of the muffle, lose their 
intensity at a high heat. 

No. 33. — Clove Brown, 

The basis of this brown is yellow ochre No. 23, to 
which is added either the oxide of cobalt in smaUq^ian- 
titles, or umber or sienna earth. Proportions are tried 
according to the tone required. 



No. 34. — Wood Brovm. 

The same process as the clove brown, only without 
•.he oxide of cobalt. 

No. 35. — Hair Brmon» 

Yellow ochre, No. 23 . . 16 parts. 
Oxide of cobalt ... 1 part. 

Well triturated and calcined, in order to give the 
tone to it. 

No. 36. — Liver Brown, 

Oxide of iron made of a red brown, and mixed with 
three times its weight of flux No. 2. A tenth of sienna 
earth is added to it, if it is not sufficiently deep. 

No. 37. — /Sfepia Brovm. 

Deep yellow ochre . . .16 parts. 

Oxide of cobalt . • . .1 part. 
A little manganese is added if it is not sufficiently 
deep. All the ingredients are well mixed, and calcined 
m order to produce the tone. 

No. 38.— White. 
The white enamel of commerce in cakes. 

No. 39. 

Another white is prepared by mixing equal parts of 
fluxes No. 1 and No. 3. 


No, 40. — Tdlowish- Gray for Browns and Reds, 

Yellow, No. 16 . . . 1 part. 
Blue, No. 5 . . . . 1 " 

Oxide of zinc . . . 2 or 3 parts. 
Flux, No. 2 . . . . 5 '* 

Sometimes a little black is added, according to tlie 
tone which the mixture produces. The proportions of 
the blue and yelld^ vary. 

No. 41. — Bluish- Gray for Mixtures. 

Blue previously made by melting 

together three parts of flux No. 

1, and one part of the mixture of 
Oxide of cobalt ... 8 parts. 

Oxide of zinc . • . . 1 part. 
Sulphate of iron calcined at a forge 

heat 1 " 

Flux, No. 2 3 parts. 

Triturate, and add a little manganese in order to ren- 
der it more gray. 

No, 42. — Grayish'hlaclc for Mixtures. 

Yellow ochre. No. 23 . .15 parts. 

Oxide of Cobalt .... 1 part. 
Triturate and calcine in a crucible until it has ♦he 
desired tone. A little oxide of manganese is added in 
order to make it blacker; sometimes a little more of 
3xido of cobalt. 


J^o. 43,— Deep 


Ojcide ol cobalt 

2 parti 

" " copper . 

. 2 " 

" " manganese . 

. 1 " 

Flux, No. 1. 

. 6 " 

Fused bofAX 

i part 

Melt, and add 

Oxide of manganese . 

1 " 

• * 

" " copper . 

. 2 parts. 

Triturate without melting. 


The colours thus prepared, after having been rubbed 
up on a plate of ground glass with the spirits of turpen- 
tine or lavender, thickened in the air, are applied 
with a hair pencil. Before using them, however, it is 
necessary to try them on small pieces of glass, and ex- 
pose them to the fire, to ascertain if the desired tone of 
colour is produced. The artist must be guided by these 
proof pieces in using his colours. The proper glass for 
receiving these colours should be uniform, colourless, and 
difficult of fusion. For this reason, crown glass made 
with a little alkali or kelp is preferred. 

A design must be drawn upon paper, and placed beneath 
Jie plate of glass ; though the artist cannot regulate his 
lints directly by his palette, but by specimens of the 
•solours producible from his palette pigments after they 
*re fired. The upper side of the glass being sponged 
over with gum-water, afibrds, when dry, a surface proper 



for receiving the colours, without the risk of their run- 
ning irregularly, as they would be apt to do on the 
slippery glass. The artist first draws on the plate, with 
a fine pencil, all the traces which mark the great outlines 
and shades of the figures. This is usually dope in 
black, or at least some strong colour, such as brown, 
blue, green, or red. In laying on these, the painter is 
guided by the same principles as the engraver, when he 
produces the effect of light and shade, by dots, lines, or 
hatches; and he employs that colour to produce the 
shades which will harmonize best with the colour which 
is afterwards to be applied ; but for the deeper shades, 
black is in general used. When this is finished, the 
whole picture will be represented in lines or hatches 
similar to an engraving, finished up to the highest efiect 
possible ; and afterwards, when it is dry, the vitrifying 
colours are laid on by means of larger hair pencils ; 
their selection being regulated by the burnt specimen 
tints. When he finds it necessary to lay two colouri 
adjoining, which are apt to run together in the muflle 
he must apply one of them to the back of the glas? 
The yellow formed with chloride of silver is generally 
laid on the back of the glass. After colouring, the artist 
proceeds to bring out the lighter efiects by taking off the 
colour in the proper place, with a goosequill cut like a 
pen without a slit. By working this upon the glass, 
he removes the (jolour from the parts where the lightg 
should be the strongest ; such as the hair, eyes, the re- 
flection of bright surfaces and light parts oi draperie? 


The blank pen may be employed either to maka th« 
lights by IJQeB, or hatches and dota, as is most suitable 
to the subject. 

Tu tire the paintiDgs, a furnace' with a muffle is used. 
Tlie muffles are made of refractory clay. They have 
been made of cast iron, but these are no longer employed. 
Pig. 4 is an elcTation and transverse section of the fiir- 

Fig. 4. 

d its muffle in place. Fig. 5 is a longitndiiml 
Figr. 6 and 7, views of the muffle ; n is tbo 


iloor of llie ashpit e; p the door of the furnace/; y, f 
*re the small arches of the dome of the fnrnaco woii-l 


Bupports the mufile. c, c are the flues through whick 
the flame escapes ; n is a pipe or tube on the top of the 
muffle to allow vapours to escape ; r, r, tubes in the door 
©f the muffle, through which the proof pieces are passed. 
In the interior of the muffle, small brackets or projec^- 
tions t, i are placed, which support bars of iron encased 
in porcelain, on which the plates of glass which are to be 
burned rest. Dry pulverized lime is sometimes laid on 
the bottom of the muffle and the glass rested on the lime. 
Several layers of glass may be placed in the muffle to- 
gether, with layers of lime between them. This is the 
better arrangement. As the paintings retain consider- 
able oil, it is necessary, when the muffle is first charged, 
to heat gently, in order to volatilize or decompose this 
oil, leaving the muffle open. When the oil is driven oflF, 
the muffle is closed, and the fire increased. A greater 
or less intensity of heat is directed from one part to 
another of the muffle, by opening or closing the flues c, 
so as to cause the flames to pass over any point desired. 
The temperature suitable for burning is judged of by 
placing in the muffle pieces of glass painted with a little 
,:armine. The heat should not be carried beyond the point 
at which the carmine is well developed. These pieces 
arc fastened to iron wires, by which they may be passed 
in or out of the muffle through the tubes r, r. In this 
way the progress of the burning may be closely watched. 
When the carmine is well developed, the fire should be 
arrested, and the muffle allowed to cool. When the 
muffle has entirely cooled, the glass is withdrawn. If 

ANi> vaunisher'r companion. 157 

any parts are defective, they may be retouched and put 
in the muffle a second time. Sufficient time should be 
allowed for the glass to become entirely cool, before 
withdrawing it. 



Every one must have observed that certain colours, 
when brought together, mutually set each other off tc 
advantage, while others have altogether a different effect. 
This must be carefully attended to by every painter who 
would study beauty or elegance in the appearance of his 

Whites will set off wcil w.rh any colour whatever. 

Reds set off best with whites, blacks, or yellows. 

Elites with whites or yellows. 

Greens with blacks and whites. 

Gold sets off well either with blacks or browns. 

In lettering or jedging with gold, a white ground has 
a delicate appearance for a time, but it soon becomes 
dingy. The best grounds for gold are Saxon blue, vcr 
mil ion, and lake. 





Though the whole of the following subjects and re- 
ceipts cannot be strictly said to relate to the trades of 
the Painter, Gilder, or Varnisher, yet most of them are 
so intimately connected with them, and also so useful to 
him, that the present Manual could not be considered 
complete without their being introduced. 

To increase the Strength of common Rectified Spirits of 
Winej so as to make it equal to that of the best. 

Take a pint of the common spirits, and put it into a 
bottle which it will only fill about three-quarters fall. 
Add to it half an ounce of pearlash or salt of tartar, 
powdered as much as it can be without occasioning any 
great loss of its heat. Shake the mixture frequently for 
about half an hour, before which time a considerable 
sediment, like phlegm, will be separated from the spirits, 
and will appear along with the undissolved pearlash oi 


Bait at the bottom of the bottle. Then pour the spirit 
off into another bottle^ being careful to bring none of the 
sediment or salt along with it.'*' To the quantity just 
poured off add half an ounce of pearlash, powdered and 
heated as before, and repeat the same treatment Con- 
tinue to do this as often as you find necessary till you 
perceive little or no sediment : when this is the case, an 
ounce of alum, powdered and made hot, but not burned^ 
must be put into the spirits, and suffered to remain some 
hours, the bottle being frequently shaken during the 
time } after which the spirit, when poured off, will be 
found free from all impurities, and equal to the best 
rectified spirits of wine. 

To Silver hy Heat. 

Dissolve an ounce of pure silver in aqua fortis. and 
precipitate it with common salt ; to which add half a 
pound of sal-ammoniac, sandever, and white vitriol, and 
a quarter of an ounce of sublimate. 

Or dissolve an ounce of pure silver in aqua fortis, and 
precipitate it with common salt; and add, after washing, 
six ounces of common salt, three ounces each of sandever 
and white vitriol, and a quarter of an ounce of sublimate. 
These are to be ground into a paste, upon a fine stone, 
with a muUer; the substance to be silvered must 1?€ 
rubbed over with a sufficient quantity of the paste, and 

* For this purpose, you had better use what is called a wparat 
%ng funnel, if you can procure it 


C'Zposed to a proper degree of heat. When the silver 
runs, it is taken from the fire and dipped into weskk 
spirits of salts to clean it. 

To Tin Copper and Brass. 

Boil six pounds of cream of tartar, four gallons oi 
water, and eight pounds of grain tin or tin shavings. 
After the materials have boiled a sufficient time, the 
substance to be tinned is put therein, and the boiling 
continued, when the tin is precipitated in its metallic 

To Tin Iron and Copper Vessels. 

Iron which is to be tinned must be previously steeped 
in acid materials, such as sour whey, distiller's wash, 
Ac. ; then scoured and dipped in melted tin, having been 
first rubbed over with a solution of sal-ammoniac. The 
surface of the tin is prevented from calcining by cover- 
ing it with a coat of fat. Copper vessels must be well 
cleansed ; and then a sufficient quantity of tin with sal- 
ammoniac is put therein, and brought into fusion, and 
the copper vessel moved about. A little resin is some- 
times added. The sal-ammoniac prevents the copper 
from scaling, and causes the tin to be fixed wherever it 
touches. Lately, zinc has been proposed for lining ves- 
sels instead of tin^ to avoid the ill consequencefi which 
bave been unjustly apprehended. 



To paint Sail' Oloth, so as to maJce it Pliant j Durahle^ 

and Water-proof. 

Grind ninety-six pounds of English ochre with boiled 
oil; and add to it sixteen pounds of black paint. Dis- 
solve a pound of yellow soap in one pail of water on the 
^Q, and mix it while hot with the paint. Lay this 
composition, without wetting it, upon the canvas, as stiff 
ap can conveniently be done with the brush, so as to 
form a smooth surface ; the next day, or the day after, 
(if the latter, so much the better,) lay on a second coat 
of ochre and black, with a very little, if any, soap; allow 
this coat a day to dry, and then finish the canvas with 
black paint. 

To make Oil- Cloth, 

The manner of making oil-cloth, or, as the vulgar 
sometimes term it, oilskin^ was at one period a mys- 
tery. The process is now well understood, and is equally 
simple and useful. 

Dissolve some good resin or gum-lac over the fire in 
dicing linseed oil, till the resin is dissolved, and the oil 
brought to the thickness of a balsam. If this be spread 
upon canvas, or any other linen cloth, so as fully to 
drench and entirely to glaze it over, the cloth, if then 
suffered to dry thoroughly, will be quite impenetrable 
ro wet of every description.* 

* This preparation will likewise be found both useful and ccodu 
mica] in securing timber from the efiects of wet. 

AND varnisher's ^mpanH)N. 163 

This varnisli may either be worked by itself or with 
Bome colour added to it : as verdigris for a green ; umber 
for a hair colour; white lead and lamp-black for a gray; 
indigo and white for a light blue, &c. To give the 
colour, you have only to grind it with the last coat of 
varnish you lay on. You must be as careful as possible 
to lay on the varnish equally in all parts. 

A better method, however, of preparing oil-cloth is 
first to cover the cloth or canvas with a liquid paste, 
made with drying oil in the following manner: Take 
Spanish white or tobacco-pipe clay which has been com- 
pletely cleaned by washing and sifting it from all impu- 
rities, and mix it up with boiled oil, to which a drying 
quality has been given by adding a dose of litharge 
one-fourth the weight of the oil. This mixture, being 
brought to the consistence of thin paste, is spread over 
the cloth or canvas by means of m iron spatula equal 
in length to the breadth of the cloth. When the first 
coating is dry, a second is applied. The unevennesses 
occasioned by the coarseness of the cloth or the unequal 
application of the paste are smoothed down with pumice- 
stone reduced to powder, and rubbed over the cloth with 
a bit of soft serge or cork dipped in water. When the 
last coating is dry, the cloth must be well washed in 
water to clean it ; and, after it is dried, a varnish com 
posed of gum-lac dissolved in linseed oil boiled with tur 
pentine is applied to it, and the process is complete 
The colour of the varnished cloth thus produced is yel 
low ; but difi*erent tints can be given to it in the mannai 
already pointed out. 


An improved description of this article, intended fo? 
figured and printed varnished cloths, is obtained by using 
% finer paste, and cloth of a more delicate texture. 

To prepare Varnished Silk. 

Varnished silk, often employed for umbrellas, cover* 
ing to hats, &c., J)eing impenetrable to wet, is prepared, 
and the operation performed, in the same manner as I 
have described in the second method of preparing oil- 
cloth, but with a different kind of varnish or paste. 

The paste used for silk is composed of linseed oil 
boiled with a fourth part of litharge ; tobacco-pipe clay, 
dried and sifted, sixteen parts ; litharge, ground on por- 
phyry or very fine marble, and likewise dried and sifted, 
three parts ', lamp-black one part. After the washing 
of the silk, fat copal varnish is applied instead of that 
used for oil-cloth. 

To paint Oloth, Cambric^ Sarcenet, &c., so as So render 

them Transparent. 

Grind to a fine powder three pounds of clear white 
resin, and put it into two pounds of good nut oil, to 
which a strong drying quality has been given ; set the 
mixture over a moderate fire, and keep stirring it till 
all the resin is dissolved ; then put in two pounds of 
the best Venice turpentine, and keep stirring the whole 
well together ; and, if the cloth or cambric be thorough- 
ly varnished on both sides with this mixture, it will b« 
quite transparent. 


I ghould remark that in this openition, as well as in 
the preparation of oil-cloths and varnished silks, the 
surfaces upon which the varnish or paste is to be applied 
must be stretched tight, and made fast during the ap- 

This mode of rendering cloth, &c. transparent is ex- 
cellently adapted for window-blinds. The varnish will 
likewise admit of any design in oil colours being exe- 
cuted upon it as a transparency. 

To thicken Linen Cloths for Screens, 

Grind whiting with flowers of zinc, and add a little 
honey to it ; then take a soft brush, and lay it upon the 
cloth, repeating the operation two or three times, and 
giving it time to dry between the different coatings. 
For the last coat, smooth it over with linseed oil nearly 
boiling, and mixed with a small quantity of the litharge 
of gold — the better to enable the cloth to stand the 

Printers^ Ink. 

Printers' ink is a real black paint, composed of lamp- 
black, and linseed oil which has undergone a degree ol 
heat superior to that of any of the common drying oils. 

The manner of preparing it is extremely simple. Boil 
linseed oil in a large iron pot for eight hours, adding to 
it bits of toasted bread, for the purpose of absorbing 
the water contained in the oil. Let it rest till the fol- 
lowing morning, and then expose it to the same de^^ree 


of heat for eight hours more, or till it has acquired the 
consistence required ; then add lamp-black worked up 
with a mixture of oil of turpentine and turpentine. 

The consistence depends on the degree of heat givcL 
Co the oil; and the quantity of lamp-black mixed up with 
it; and this consistence is regulated by the strength of 
the paper for which the ink is intended. 

The preparation of printers' ink should take place in 
the open air, to prevent the bad effects arising from the 
vapour of the burnt oil, and, in particular, to guard 
against accidents by fire. 

Sticking, or Court Plaster, 

This plaster is well kpown from its genei-al use and 
its healing properties. It is merely a kind of varnished 
silk, and its manufacture is very easy. 

Bruise a sufficient quantity of isinglass, and let it 
soak in a little warm water for four-and-twenty hours: 
expope it to heat over the fire till the greater part of 
the water is dissipated, and supply its place by proof 
spirits of wine, which will combine with the isinglass. 
Strain tbe whole through a piece of open linen, taking 
care that the consistence of the mixture shall be such 
that, when cool, it may form a trembling jelly. 

Extend the piece of black silk, of which you propose 
making your plaster, on a wooden frame, and fix it in 
that position by means of tacks or pack-thread. Then 
upply tho isinglass (after it has been rendered liquid by 
A goutlo heat) to the «ilk with a brush of fine hair, 


(badger's is the best.) As soon as this first coatin^r Js 
dried, which will not be long, apply a second ; and af- 
terwards, if you wish the article to be very superior, a 
third When the whole is dry, cover it with two or 
three coatings of the balsam of Peru. 

This is the genuine court plaster. It is pliable, ami 
never breaks, which is far from being the case with many 
of the spurious articles which are sold under that name. 
Indeed, this commodity is very frequently adulterated 
A kind of plaster, with a very thick and brittle cover- 
ing, is often sold for it. The manufacturers of this, 
instejid of isinglass, use common glue, which is much 
cheaper; and cover the whole with spirit varnish, in 
stead of balsam of Peru. This plaster cracks, and hag 
none of the balsamic smell by which the genuine court 
plaster is distinguished. Another method of detecting 
the adulteration is to moisten it with your tongue on 
the side opposite to that which is varnished ; and, if the 
plaster be genuine, it will adhere exceedingly well. 
The adulterated plaster is too hard for this : it will not 
stick, unless you moisten jt on the varnished side. 

To imitate Tortoise-shell toith Horn. 

Mix up an equal quantity of quicklime and red lead 
with strong soap-lees ; lay it on the horn with a small 
brush, in imitation of the mottle of tortoise-shell ; when 
it is dry, repeat it two or three times. 

Or, grind an ounce of litharge and half an ounce of 
quicklime together, with a sufficient quantity of liquid 


salt of tartar to make it of the consistence of paint. Pui 
It on the horn with a brush, in imitation of tortoise* 
shell, and in three or four hours it will have produced 
the desired effect 3 it may then be washed off with clean 
water ; if not deep enough, it may be repeated. 

There is still another mode of effecting this imitation. 
Take a piece of lunar caustic, about the size of a pea, 
grind it with water on a stone, and mix with it a suffi- 
cient portion of gum-arabic to make it of a proper con- 
sistence, then apply it with a brush to the horn in imi- 
tation of the veins of tortoise-shell. A little red lead, 
or some other powder, mixed with it to give it a body, 
is of advantage. It will then stain the horn quite 
through, without hurting its texture and quality. In 
this case, however, you must be careful, when the horn 
is sufficiently stained, to let it be soaked for some hours 
in plain water, previous to finishing and polishing it. 

A Vaimuh to preserve Glass from tTie Rays of the Sun 

Reduce a quantity of gum-tragacantb to fine powder, 
and let it dissolve for twenty-four hours in white of 
eggs well beat up ; then rub it gently on the glass with 
a brush. 

To imitate Rosewood. 

Take half a pound of logwood, boil it with three pints 
of water till it is of a very dark red, to which add about 
half an ounce of salt of tartar; and, when boiling hct^ 
gtain your wood with two or three coats, taking care 


tiiat il is nearly dry between each ; then with a stiff flat 
brush, such as you use for graining, make streaks with a 
Tcry deep black stain, which, if carefully executed, will 
he very near the appearance of dark rosewood. 

The following is another method : Stain your wood 
all over with a black stain, and when dry, with a brush 
as above, dipped in the brightening liquid, form red 
veins in imitation of the grain of rosewood ; which will 
produce, when well managed, a beautiful effect. 

A han4y brush for the purpose of veining may be 
made by taking a flat brush, such as you use for varnish- 
ing, and cutting the sharp points off the hairs, and ma- 
king the edge irregular; by cutting out a few hairs here 
and there, you will have a tool which, without any 
trouble, will imitate the grain with great accuracy. 

To Imitate Black Rosewood. 

The work must be grounded black 3 after which take 
some red lead well ground, and mixed up as before di- 
rected, which lay on with a flat stiff brush, in imitation 
of the streaks in the wood ; then take a small quantity 
of lake, ground fine, and mix it with brown spirit-varnish, 
carefully observing not to have more colour in it than 
will just tinge the varnish j but should it happen, on 
trial, to be still too red, you may easily assist it with a 
little umber, ground very fine, or a small quantity of 
Vandyke-brown, which is better j with which pass over 
the whole of the work intended to imitate black rose- 
wood, and it will have the desired effect : indeed, if well 



done, when it is varnished and polished, it will scared) 
be known from rosewood. 

A fine Black Varnish for Coaches and Iron work. 

Take two ounces of bitumen of Palestine, two ounco5 
ff resin, and twelve ounces of umber ; melt them sepa- 
rately, and afterwards mix them together over a moderate 
iire. Then pour upon them, while on the fire, six ounce? 
of clear boiled linseed oil, and keep stirring*the whole 
from time to time; take it off the fire, and, when pretty 
cool, pour in twelve ounces of the essence of turpentine. 

A Varnish to Imitate the Chinese, 

Put four ounces of powdered gum-lac, with a piece of 
camphor about the size of a hazlenut into a strong bottle, 
with a pound of good spirits of wine. Shake the bottle 
from time to time, and set it over some hot embers to 
mix for twenty -four hours, if it be in winter; in sum- 
mer time, you may expose it to the sun. Pass the whole 
through a fine cloth, and throw away what remains upon 
it. Let it settle for twenty-four hours, and you will find 
a clear part in the upper part of the bottle, which you 
must separate gently, and put into another vial ; and 
the remains will serve for the first layers or coatings. 


To clean Silver Furniture. 

Lay the furniture piece by piece upon a charcoal 
fire ; and when they are just red, take them off and boil 


them in tartar and water, and your silver will have the 
same beauty as when first made. 

To colour the Backs of Ghimnei/s with Lead Ore, 

Clean them with a very strong brush, and carefully 
rub off the dust and rust 3 pound about a quarter of a 
pound of lead ore into a fine powder, and put it into a 
vessel with half a pint of vinegar; then apply it to the 
back of the chimney with a brush. When it is made 
black with this liquid, take a dry brush, dip it in the 
same powder without vinegar, then dry and rub it with 
this brush, till it becomes as shining as glass. 

To clean Marhky Sienna, Jasper, Porphyry, dec. 

Mix up a quantity of the strongest soap-lees with 
quicklime, to the consistence of milk, and. lay it on the 
stone, &c., for twenty-four hours; clean it afterwards 
with soap and water, and it will appear as new. 

This may be improved by rubbing or polishing it 
afterwards with fine putty powder and olive oil. 

A white for inside Painting, which, in ahovifour hours 

dries and leaves no smell. 

Take one gallon of spirits of turpentine and two 
pounds of frankincense ; let them simmer over a clear 
fire till dissolved, then strain and bottle it. Add one 
quart of this mixture to a gallon of bleached linseed 
oil, shake them well together, and bottle them likewise 
Grind any quantity of white lead very fine with spintii 


of turpentine, then add a sufl&cient quantity of the lasi 
mixture to it till you find it fit for laying on. If it 
grows thick in working, it must be thinned with spirit 
of turpentine : it gives a flat or dead white. 

To take Ink Spots out of Mahogany. 

Apply spirits of salt with a rag, until the spot disap- 
pears, and immediately wash with clear water. Or, to 
half a pint of soft water put an ounce of oxalic acid, and 
half an ounce of butter of antimony ] shake it well, and 
when dissolved it will be very useful for extracting stains 
out of mahogany, as well as ink, if not of too long stand- 

To make Paste for Furniture, 

Scrape four ounces of beeswax into a pot or basin ] 
then add as much spirits of turpentine as will moisten it 
through ; at the same time, pound a quarter of an ounce 
of resin and add to it : when it is dissolved to the con- 
sistence of paste, add as much Indian red as will bring 
it to a deep mahogany colour : stir it up, and it is fit 
for use. 

Another sort of paste may be made as follows : — 
Scrape four ounces of beeswax as before ] then take 
a pint of spirits of turpentine in a clean glazed pipkin, 
to which add an ounce of alkanet root; cover it close, and 
put it over a slow fire, attending it carefully, that it may 
not boil or catch fire ; and when you perceive the colour 
1-0 be drawn from the root, by the liquid being of 8 deep 


red, add as much of it to the wax as will moisten it 
through; at the same time, add a quarter of an ounce of 
powdered resin, cover it close, and let it stand six hours, 
and it will be fit for use. 

To make Oil for Iktmtture. 

Take linseed oil ; put it in a glazed pipkin, with ah 
much alkanet root as it will cover; let it boil gently, and 
you will find it become of a strong red colour ; let it 
cool, and it will be fit for use. Or, boil together cold 
drawn linseed oil and as much alkanet as it will cover, 
and to every quart of oil add two ounces of the best rose 
pink ; when all the colour is extracted, strain it oiF, and 
for every quart add a gill of spirits of turpentine ; it will 
be a very superior composition for soft and light maho- 

To brown Gun Barrels, 

Rub the barrel, after it is finished, with aqua-fortis, or 
spirit of salt diluted with water. Lay it by for a week, 
till a complete coat is formed. Then apply a little oil 
and, after rubbing the surface dry, polish it with a hara 
brush and a little beeswax. 

To clean Pictures. 

Having taken the picture out of its frame, take a 
?.lean towel, and making it quite wet, lay it on the face 
«»f your picture, sprinkling it from time to time with clear 
joft water : let it remain wet for two or three days ; take 



the cloth oflf, and renew it with a fresh one ; atW wip. 
ing your picture with a clean wet sponge, repeat the 
process till you find all the dirt soaked out of your pic- 
ture ; then wash it well with a soft sponge, and let it 
get quite dry ; rub it with some clear nut or linseed oil, 
and it will look as well as when freshly done. 

Another Method. 

Put into two quarts of strong lye a quarter of a 
pound of Genoa soap rasped very fine, with about a pint 
of spirits of wine ] let them simmer on the fire for half 
an hour, then strain them through a cloth; apply it 
with a brush to the picture, wipe it off with a sponge, 
and apply it a second time, which will effectually removo 
all dirt; then, with a little nut oil warmed, rub the pic- 
ture, and let it dry ; this will make it look as bright as 
when it came out of the artist's hands. 

Varnish for Clock Faces j &c. 

Take of spirits of wine one pint ; divide it into four 
parts ; mix one part with half an ounce of gum mastic, 
in a bottle by itself; one part of spirits and half an 
ounce of gum sandrac in another bottle; and one part of 
spirits and half an ounce of the whitest part of gum ben- 
jamin; mix and temper them to your mind ; if too thick, 
add spirits ; if too thin, some mastic ; if too soft, some 
sandrac or benjamin. When you use it, warm the sil- 
<rered plate before the fire, and with a flat camel-hair pen- 
cil stroke it over till no white streaks appear; which will 
preserve the silveiiing for many years. 


Varnish for Balloons. 

Take some linseed oil, rendered drying by boiling \{ 
with two ounces of sugar of lead and three ounces «jf 
litharge for every pint of oil till they are dissolved, 
which may be in half an hour. Then put a pound of 
Dirdlime and half a pint of the drying oil into an iron oi 
copper vessel, whose capacity should equal about a gal- 
ion, and let it boil very gently over a slow charcoal fire, 
till the birdlime ceases to crackle, which will be in about 
half or three-quarters of an hour; then pour upon it two 
pints and a half more of the drying oil, and let it boil 
about an hour longer, stirring it frequently with an iron 
or wooden spatula. As the varnish, whilst boiling, and 
especially when nearly ready, swells very much, care 
should be taken to remove, in those cases, the pot from 
the fire, and to replace it when the varnish subsides j 
otherwise, it will boil over. Whilst the stuff is boiling, 
the operator should occasionally examine whether it has 
boiled enough, which may be known by observing whe- 
ther, when rubbed between two knives, which are then 
to be separated from one another, the varnish forma 
threads between them, as it must then be removed from 
the fire. When nearly cool, add about an equal quantity 
of oil of turpentine. In using the varnish, the stuff 
must be stretched, and the varnish applied lukewarm 
In twenty-four hours, it will dry. 

As the elastic resin, known by the name of Indian 
rubber, has been much extolled for a varnish for ba^- 


loons, the following method of making it, as practised 
by M. Blanchard, may not i)rove unacceptable : Dissolve 
elastic resin cut small in five times its weight of recti- 
fied essential oil of turpentine, by keeping them some 
days together. Then boil one ounce of this solution in 
eight ounces of drying linseed oil for a few mixtufjea j 
iirain the solution, and use it warm. 




The business of a paioter and varnisher is generally 
and not without reason, considered an unhealthy one. 
Many of the substances which he is necessarily in the 
habit of employing are of a nature to do injury to the 
constitution ; and great caution and care are required to 
prevent these from producing serious consequences. 
Much, however, of the mischief that is done arises from 
the want of proper precaution ; the being ignorant of the 
symptoms of disorder, or want of due attention to them 
in the beginning; and, more than all, the use of improper 
remedies, from being unacquainted with those that ought 
to be used. I think, therefore, that I shall be rendering 
an acceptable service to the painter and varnisher by 
mentioning the principal diseases to which their occupa- 
tions render them more liable than persons differently 
employed, with the proper means of remedy. 

Painters Colic, 

This disease, the most common and the most danger- 
ous to which painters are liable, arises with them from 
breathing in the fumes and handling the different pro 


parations of white lead. It is a violent species of colio, 
and may be produced by other causes ; but when it 
proceeds from lead, it is always the most obstinate, and 
the most tedious and difficult of cure. 

The first symptoms are a pain at the pit of the stomach, 
gradually increasing and proceeding downwards to she 
bowels ; it is particularly violent round the navel. Thf*. 
person is likewise afflicted with frequent belching, slight 
sickness at the stomach, continued thirst, a quick short 
pulse, a confinement of the bowels, and repeated attempts 
to obtain a stool without effect. 

When some or all of these symptoms are experienced, 
a strong dose of castor oil should be immediately taken 
and repeated till it opens the body freely. If it will not 
act, calomel pills must be taken in turn with the castor 
oil ; and should both these fail to purge eflfectually, a 
clyster must also be employed, composed of ten ounces 
of senna and three grains of opium in solution. The 
warm bath, as well as warm fomentations in flannel cloths 
of the lower part of the stomach, are extremely service- 
able in relieving the spasms ; and should the symptoms 
continue, a blister applied to the abdomen may prove 

The person affected should be kept as quiet as possible^ 
both in body and mind : he should take no wine, spirits, 
malt liquor, nor any kind of solid food ; but should con- 
fine himself to broth diet, and copious draughts of weak 
diluting drinks, such as barley-water. 

Where the bowels are very obstinately confined, anU 
the person is joung and of a full habit, it may be advii 


able to begin with taking from bini a quantity of blood, 
according to circumstances, in order to prevent inriam* 
mat ion. 

I have not mentioned the strength of the doses lo '»e 
employed as purgatives, because that must be detei mined 
by the constitution of the sick person and the manner iu 
which the medicines operate. In a general way, re- 
member never to give too strong a dose at once, as it can 
always be repeated as often as may be found necessary. 

If the remedies I have mentioned prove successful in 
removing the early symptoms of the dry belly-ache, 
which will generally be the case, the person who has 
suffered, on returning to his work, should, if possible, 
entirely avoid, for some time, all parts of his business in 
which preparations of lead are employed. He should, 
also, long after he may seem to feel quite well, keep to 
the light diet I have mentioned above, or he may bring 
on a relapse worse than the first attack of the disorder. 

Few distempers grow more rapidly worse, and it is of 
the utmost importance to attend to its first symptoms, 
for if these are neglected, the most frightful consequences 
ensue. The violence of the pains increases beyond de- 
scription; the outside of the belly feels pain at the slight- 
est touch, and the muscles inside become wrapped into 
knots; a difficulty of making water, sometimes amount- 
ing to almost a total stoppage, takes place; and the 
bowels are so contracted by spasms as scarcely to admit 
a clyster. If these symptoms proceed, the spasms become 
more frequent and violent ; and either the costiveness 
'sannot be o^rcome, (in which case inflammation in th« 


bowels succeeds, and the patiences death is certain,) or, 
if his life be saved, he generally remains a victim, in a 
(greater or less degree, to the palsy. 

I have mentioned these fatal circumstances to show 
the necessit} of immediately attending to the first ap- 
pearance of this dangerous disorder. In an advanced 
state of it, I do not pretend to prescribe — the best medi- 
cal assistance must immediately be obtained. The re- 
medies I have recommended are only designed for that 
2arly stage of the distemper of which the symptoms 
have already been described. They may then be used 
with advantage, and, if persevered in, will prevent the 
danger of severer suffering. 

Weakness of tJie Wrists, 

This is a partial kind of palsy, which sometimes re- 
mains after the painter's colic is cured. In some case?, 
too, it comes on without any previous attack of that dis- 
order, where the injury has been more owing to handling 
lead than inhaling its fumes. 

Where this weakness of the wrists is experienced by 
a painter, let him take, three or four times a-day, a dose 
of nitrate of silver, of from one to three grains, according 
to the manner in which it may operate. Before taking 
each of these doses, he should also take some castor oil. 
If it purge him too violently, let a little opium be mixed 
with the dose, lest bloody stools should be brought on. 
It is better to give the nitrate of silver in solution than 
in a solid form 


Where the Dowels are so weak as to make any strong 
pargc dangerous, this weakness of the wrists has often 
been cured by rubbing a drachm of strong mercurial 
ointment upon them every night and morning till the 
Qiouth became sore. Indeed, this will always be found 
a useful application. 

One of the best methods in the weakness of the wrista 
arising from the handling of lead is, in addition to the 
taking of medicine or the application of mercurial oint- 
ment, to make use of a splint, made something like a 
battledore, fastened under the forearm, and continued 
to the extremities of the fingers. This has, in many in* 
stances, restored the strength of the wrists, even where 
the weakness amounted to complete palsy. 

I have already observed that confirmed palsy may bo 
nhe effect of a violent attack of the painter's colic. The 
remarks, however, which I made under that head apply 
here. I shall not venture to prescribe for that melan- 
choly state of disease. My object is not to point out 
remedies for those extreme cases, but to suggest the best 
means of preventing them. 

Effects of Poisonous Substances used in Pointing and 


These are principally lead, quicksilver, arsenic, and 
verdigris. Of the injurious effects of lead I have already 
Bp(»ken. Arsenic is found in some particular colours, 
especially in orpiment and realgar; and the circumstance 
is a strong objection to the use of them. Quicksilver 



enters into the composition of various amalgams em* 
ployed in lacquering and gilding. The poisonous pro- 
perties of verdigris are well known. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the mind of 
the painter or varnisher that mineral poisons of every 
description are as effectually taken into the system of the 
body by handling them, or inhaling their fumes, as by 
actually swallowing them; and that the consequences^ 
though not so immediately fatal, are as certainly inju- 
rious. Care should therefore be taken not to handle 
them more than is absolutely necessary ; and likewise, 
by keeping a thorough draft of air, and leaning as little 
as possible over such substances during their preparation, 
to avoid, as much as in your power, the breathing in the 
fumes arising from them. 

But as you cannot entirely escape these, it will be 
well to know how to distinguish their respective cha- 
racters. The effects of lead are sufficiently distinguished 
by the peculiar diseases it produces, which have been 
noticed before. Arsenic and quicksilver are attended 
with different consequences. When the former has 
found its way into the stomach, it will occasion a prick- 
ing and burning sensation, with thirst and sometimes 
vomiting. A pain will likewise be felt in the bowels, 
but without producing purging. K, after using colonra 
which contain a mixture of arsenic, you experience any 
of these symptoms, a little fresh charcoal, powdered fine, 
in small doses repeated, will be found very serviceable 
An emetic should also be taken, and the body kept wel 


- The fume? or handling of quicksilver produce, besidoa 
the symptoms mentioned in speaking of arsenic, saliva- 
tion in a greater or less degree, bad breath, griping 
pains in the stomach, and severe purging. White of 
egg, dissolved in water and filtered, and diluted as cir- 
cumstances require, is one of the best remedies when 
these symptoms are violent. A very good emetic, in 
euck cases, is one ounce of sub-carbonate of magnesia 
dissolved in a pint of water; a glassful of the mixture 
being taken every few minutes, at such intervals as are 
needful to promote vomiting. 

Verdigris is readily distinguished by its nauseous and 
corroding effects upon the stomach. If you have reason 
to think you have suffered from the frequent use of this 
colour, common sugar, taken in such quantities as to 
open the bowels frequently, will be found the very best 

I strongly recommend to every painter andvamisher, 
when engaged in any part of his business which requires 
him to employ a poisonous substance, whether lead or 
any other, the use of tobacco — T mean cheiohig it. It is 
the most powerful check to a substance acting to pK)duce 
spasms, by suspending the muscular action in the sto- 
mach. In short, tobacco possesses in this respect the 
advantages without the danger of opium, and has been 
found of the greatest service to persons in the trades 
above mentioned. At the same time, persons who use 
it for the purpose I have stated, should be careful not to 
indulge in the practice too freely; for the excessive 
chewing of tobacco will not onl}' occasion a fe ^ling of 


Rtupid languor^ which unfits a man for exertion^ hufc maj 
in time bring on a disease almost as much to be dreaded 
as the evils which it is intended to guard against. 


Oil of turpentine, burnt oils of several descriptions, 
and some other substances used in painting and varnish- 
ing, give out fumes, which, though not of a poisonous 
nature, are apt to occasion a slight sickness at the sto- 
mach, accompanied with a headache and a fainting sen- 
sation, to persons whose nerves are not strong: and 
these effects are frequently felt by young people before 
they become accustomed to the business. In many 
cases, removing for a short time from the offensive fumes 
into a pure air, and drinking a very little spring water, 
will dissipate these feelings. If they return, some open- 
ing medicine, or an emetic should be taken, which, if a 
foul stomach, as often happens, has been the cause, will 
remove it. But if you are a beginner in the business, 
and find yourself constantly affected in this manner on 
such occasions, I would advise you to turn to some other 
occupation ; for a person of decidedly weak nerves will 
be subject to constant ill health as a painter. 

Bums and Scalds, 

In no business are these accidents more liable to occur 
to the persons engaged in it than in painting, varnish- 
ing, and gilding. 

In all scalds and burns, it is of the first importance to 


upplj a remedy at the instant. Spirit of wine or turpen- 
fme, applied at the moment, generally prevents the rising 
of blisters ; if it be rectified spirits, it is so much the 
better. Spirit of wine or turpentine is decidedly the best 
immediate remedy when the skin is broken. If the vio- 
lence or size of the bums or scalds render the application 
cf the spirit in the common way too painful, cover the 
injured parts with pieces of bladder softened by dippinir 
them in warm water, and keep the outer surface con- 
stantly wetted with the spirit. 

When the burn is considerable, fresh yolk of egg (if 
spirit is not at hand) applied to it will relieve the pain 
and forward the cure. A salve composed of one part of 
yellow wax and three parts of olive oil, which you can 
easily make yourself and carry about you, in case of an 
accident, will likewise be extremely useful if applied at 
the moment of its happening. 

Scraped potato is very often applied to a scald or 
burn. Some have pronounced it a certain cure, others 
have called it injurious : both parties are wrong. The 
feet is, it does nothing towards curing the burn ; hut if 
applied at the first moment y it prevents its becoming 
worse, and relieves the pain. It is therefore very right 
to apply it, if no other remedy be near, till a better can 
be procured. Water, however, is almost always to be 
obtained, and, in the absence of other remedies, should 
instantly be had recourse to. The part or parts which 
have been injured should, without a moment's delay, be 
plunged into very cold water, or plentifully pumped 
upon, and an astonishingly rapid change from torture to 


ease will take place. After the immersion has coofciDued 
a proper length of time, the parts injured should be co- 
vered with linen rags continually kept wetted with water 
and streams of air passed over them from time to time 
by a pair of bellows, till the person feels a freezing 

Water is always serviceable in burns; and where tha 
skin is not broken, many eminent surgeons considcor ii 
aa the best of remedies. 



I SHALL conclude this subject with a few gejeral re« 
niark^; principally respecting the diet and manner of 
living of the painter ; on which^ indeed, his exemption 
from the diseases which so severely affect many in hia 
trade mainly depend. 

He should avoid all acid drinks; such as cider and 
effervescing liquors ; and abstain as much as possible 
from sours both in food and drink^even the use of vine- 
gar ; for acids have a particular tendency to combine 
with any portion of lead that he may have imbibed, and 
will act upon the stomach in a most inj urious manner. 

When a griping feeling is experienced by the painter, 
he often has recourse to a glass of raw spirits, with the 
idea of obtaining relief. Now, he cannot commit a 
greater error. This feeling indicates the commencement 
of that dangerous disorder, the dry belly-ache, and spirit- 
uous liquors will both bring it on more rapidly and ag- 
gravate the symptoms. There is, besides, a vulgar bul 
most mistaken notion that spirits taken inwardly are 
useful in guarding against the fumes of lead and other 
poisonous substances. And it is melancholy to see the 
number of persons engaged in the painting and varnish- 
ing line who, from this false idea, are led to adopt the 
pernicious practice of drinking drams in 'he moraing ; 


and not unfrequently, from the hold this destructive habit 
gains upon thejn, at other times of the day too. Now, 
so far from this practice being serviceable, I can assure 
the dram-drinking paintor that^ whenever he is attacked 
by that disease, so dangerous to those in* his trade, he 
will find it rendered far more violent by his previous use 
of spirituous liquors and more likely to terminate in in- 
flammation or palsy. Ardent spirits in a raw, state 
should never be touched by the painter; and when 
taken mixed, they should rather be weak than otherwise. 

I have had frequent occasion to observe that painters 
in general are partial to a great deal of solid and high- 
seasoned food. Now, it will be perceived that the disor- 
der from which they have most to fear, and which is 
most common among them, is always attended by a con- 
fined state of the bowels, from which its principal danger 
arises. A painter who regards his health should always 
prefer such food as is light and easy of digestion ; and 
if he take any solids, it should be in small quantities, and 
not frequently. For the same reason, though I do not 
condemn malt liquor to a painter in good health, 1 
should advise him not to take it in large quantities at a 
time, as it is heavy on the stomach. The lead which 
he cannot avoid more or less imbibing has a tendency to 
make him costive ; and his business is not, like some 
others, accompanied with strong exercise to promote 

I need scarcely remark on the advantages of cleanli* 
ocss in his parson to him, since the handling of prepara> 


tions of lead is one of the injurious parts of his occu- 
pation. • 

In conclusion, let me once more impress upon him 
the importance and necessity of Temperance. The 
neglect of it in a workman of any other description 
mci/ bring him to sickness, must bring him to poverty/ ; 
but the intemperate and drunken Painter or Varnisher 
makes the most rapid strides in his power to bring upon 
himself painful sickness, and very often premature 



1.— OAK. 

Imitation of Oak being so much in demand, it is 
)f importance that the pupil should practise upon it 
before any other wood; for that purpose you will 
require the following tools : — 


Grutta percha is the best material for making combs ; 
it is cheap, wears well, is easily cut into any size or 
form, and makes clean work. Purchase a piece of 
gutta percha, one foot square and one-eighth of an 
inch thick, cut it into squares, varying from one to 
four inches, and be particular in cutting the edges 
straight; take one of the squares, and with a pen- 
knife cut the edge to the depth of a quarter of an 
inch, leaving a small space between each tooth. If 
you cut in a slanting direction each way, you will 
thereby form the teeth of the comb and the space 
together; by this method you can make them fine or 


isoarse, to suit your work, l^'or very particular work 
T use two or three combs made of cork; they are 
objectionable for general use, as they soon wear out. 
Take a flat piece of fine-grained cork, as free from 
holes as possible, square it as truly as you can, cut 
ihe square edge into teeth to the sizes you want^ 
leaving the teeth as square and evenly cut as possible ; 
these, with two or three of the finest cut steel comba, 
are all you require. 


1. Common pound-brush and sash-tool. 

2. Long hog*s-hair overgrainer. 

3. Badger-hair softener. 

4. Sponge. 

Colours, (Sec. 

Vandyke brown, both ground in oil and water. 

Raw and burnt sienna, do. 

Turkey umber raw and burnt, ground in oil. 

Oxford ochre, do. 

Sugar of lead, do. 

Blue black, ground in water. 

Bees-wax, linseed oil, and turpentine. 

The above colours are all that are necessary for any 
description of oak. 

You will require a few smooth boards for practising 
upon Bastard mahogany or baywood is the best 
wood to make them of, as it is not so liable to wai^p 
as deal. The best size is about two feet by one foot 


Prepare them with four coats of paint in the usual 
?iBj, taking care to get them up as smooth as possible : 
the best ground colours are made fi'om the following 
colours mixed with white lead : — 

For light oak — Oxford ochre and white. 

Middle shade — Oxford ochre, with a little Venetian 

Dark oak — Oxford ochre, orange chrome, Venetian 
red, and burnt umber. 

Graining Colour. 

For light oak, mix two-thirds linseed oil with one- 
third turpentine; add a little Vandyke brown or 
burnt umber. If you want a warm colour, add burnt 
sienna; if a yellow colour, add raw sienna or Oxford 
ochre. Melt bees- wax in oil, and mix a small quan- 
tity with the colour : this is to prevent the colour from 
running when you have combed it. You must take 
particular care that it is well mixed together. Add to 
the above a quantity of sugar of lead or other dryers, 
then strain it through a double fold of fine muslin. 

Your graining colour being now prepared, brush 
over your board with it, taking care not to put too 
much on; if you do so you will make dirty work : lay 
it quite level, and uniform in colour. Now take a 
gutta percha comb, and draw it straight down the full 
breadth of the comb, beginning at one side of the 
board ; by slightly inclining the comb you will make 
the grain finer. Now take a fine steel comb, and go 
over the whole of tho previous combing in a slightly 


waving or zigzag manner; practice will soon enable 
yoii to do this with ease. You must get a piece of reft' 
oaky and endeavour to imitate the natural grain ; it 
you can get a piece full of figure or veins, so much 
I ho better, as it will be the best guide you can have 
Vour board being combed, you must now take a piece 
of soft rag and double it over your thumb, holding it 
tignt on the end of the nail, and try to imitate the 
figuring on the real oak. You may make some excel- 
lent figuring by using the blank end of the steel comb 
with the rag over it. You will find it very difficult to 
do this at first, but you must in this, as in every thing 
else, adopt the motto, " that if at first you don't suc- 
ceed, try, try, try again." Do not practise too much 
from one piece of oak, as by doing so you are apt to 
acquire a stiff and formal style, but endeavour to vary 
it as much as possible. You have now combed and 
figured it : when dry it is ready for overgraining ; for 
that purpose you will want a sponge, a basin and 
plate, fuller's earth, Vandyke brown, a little blue 
black, some stale beer, badger-hair softener, and over- 
grainer. Put some water into the basin, dissolve a 
little fuller's earth in it; wet your sponge with this 
and rub over your board; now take a little of the 
Vandyke brown, with a small quantity of the Hue 
black, and mix them together with weak beer in the 
plate; dip your overgraicer into this mixture, and 
draw it straight down or across the board ; soften it a 
little with the badger : this, if properly done, will give 
it a natural and pleasing appearance. By Leaking the 



ground and graining colours darker, you can produce 
any shade of oak in the same manner. To produce a 
rich dark old oak you must proceed as above, and then 
glaze it over as follows > — Mix some black japan with 
turpentine and a little boiled oil ; add a little burnt 
sienna or Victoria lake, and go over the whole of the 
work with it. This mixture will give it an exceed- 
ingly rich appearance when varnished. 


This colour is not so good as oil colour, but is very 
useful at times on account of its quick drying quali- 
ties. It is made as follows : — G-rind a quantity of the 
best washed whitening in turpentine, mix with it 
either Vandyke brown, burnt umber, or Oxford ochre, 
ground in oil, in quantity according to the shade you 
want; add to this a sufficient quantity of turpentino 
varnish to bind or fasten the colour ; thin it with tur- 
pentine ; rub your panel in and comb it quickly, or it 
will set before you can do so. It dries quite dead 
when it has stood a short time. Take a flat hog's- 
hair fitch, dip it into a solution of Scotch soda and 
water with a little burnt sienna mixed with it ; mark 
out your figure with this, taking care not to put too 
much on, or it will run ; and remember that wherever 
the soda touches it will destroy the graining colour. 
When you have figured your panel, wash off quicklj 
with a sponge and plenty of clean water; the figure 
will stand out clear and bright. Now go over the 


whole with a brush and weak beer, and overgram in 
the usual way. By this method you may grain and 
vrarnish a door in a couple of hours' time. 


This oak is interspersed alternately with knots and 
tiguring, generally arranged in a waving and graceful 
fcrm. To grain this wood in oil colour, proceed sa 
follows : — Rub in with your light graining colour, mix 
a little colour several shades darker, put a touch of 
this colour here and there, according to the size you 
want the knots; with the same colour put in a few 
strokes, in sweeping or graceful lines, from one mass 
of knots to another ; now comb it with a coarse comb 
in the direction of the knots, sweeping round them 
with the comb ; where you cannot do this, you must 
work it out with your nail and the rag, keeping all in 
an easy flowing style. It is only by constant practice 
that you will be enabled to do this with freedom. 
Now figure it, starting from the knots in very fine 
strokes, gradually enlarging as you get into the plain 
spaces. To overgrain this, proceed as before, and 
shade across the grain and amongst the knots. Gene- 
rally speaking, wherever there is a twist or wave in 
the grain there will be a shade. Now take a pencil 
and touch up the grain about the knots, and put 
strokes of dark colour across them, to imitate tho 
cranks you may see in nearly all knots. 



This oak eonsists of a succession of maases of knots 
with the grain twisting and curling round each knot 
&nd mass of knots, running into and round each 
other; what figuring it has is very small, and run*J 
with the grain. It may be done in exactly the same 
manner as the pollard oak, and enriched by glazing 
with the dark oak glazing colour 



Damp down your work with the sponge and fuller's 
earth, mix Vandyke brown with a little burnt sienna, 
dip a clean sash-tool into beer, then into the colour, 
spread it on to your work, using it freely. Now take 
your tool and a little dark colour, and press it against 
the panel here and there, making the hairs spread out; 
then suddenly draw it away, soften it a little with the 
badger ; take a small round hog*s-hair quill tool, dip it 
into dark colour, hold it between your right-hand 
finger and thumb, put the point against your work in 
the places where you have pressed your large tool, 
give it a sharp twist; by doing this properly you will 
form the imitation of a knot. When dry, itse the 
small overgrainer and weak colour; dip the over- 
grainer in, then draw a common comb through it t4 


separate the hairs ; now draw it across the panel, giv- 
ing it a sort of half-circular stroke, slightly zigzag; 
while it is wet badger it, taking particular care only to 
use the badger one way, either up or down. By doing 
diis carefully, you will form a light and dark grain at 
the same time. When you have sufficiently practised 
this method you will be able to produce some very 
good effects. 

6.— WALNUT. 

Walnut may be imitated in exactly the same 
manner as the above, using more black in your 
graining colour. 


This is one of the most delicate and beautiful of 
woods, and requires great care and cleanliness in 
working. To imitate it you will require the following 
tools : — Badger ; one 4-inch hog's-hair mottler ; one 
thick 2-inch hog's-hair mottler; one 1-inch short- 
haired hog's-hair mottler ; one 3-inch, 2-inch, and 1- 
inch camel-hair mottlers ; one 2-inch sable-hair pencil 
overgrainer; a single pencil. 

The best ground colour for graining maple upon is 
a light cream colour, and the best colour to grain it 
with is Vandyke brown, mixed with a little raw sienna 
Rub over your panel with a damp chamois or wash- 
leather ; dip a large sash-tool into stale beer, then into 



the colour ; spread it evenly on your work, badge 
until you get it as uniform in colour as possible; 
take the large hog's-hair mottler, damp it with clean 
water ; now begin at the top of your panel, and with 
the end of the mottler touch the panel, drawing it 
down at the same time for. about half an inch, hold- 
ing it in an angular direction; by doing so you will 
take off a slanting strip of colour. Go on in the same 
way to the bottom of the panel, leaving unequal strips 
of light and shade; now go over this again in the 
same way, but holding your mottler in the opposite 
direction ; you will form a sort of irregular checkered 
pattern ; lightly badger this across the panel until it 
appears soft and mellow; now slightly soften in an 
upward direction. As you become used to the tools, 
you will be able to modify the figure and give variety. 
Now take your short-haired hog's-hair mottler, damp itj 
and with one corner of it take off a touch of the colour 
on the top of each shade; these are to imitate the 
bright light, or reflection, that accompanies a knot or 
bird's-eye ; with a pencil, and dark colour, form the 
eye just under the extreme point of the bright light; 
for common work, a dot with the end of your finger 
will suffice. 

To overgrain this, take a little of the colour and 
tint it with a small quantity of Indian red, or lake ; 
you mast only have it of sufficient depth of colour 
barely to show on your work; if too deep it looks 
coarse. With a pencil and this colour begin to curl 
a fine line round one of your principal knot«j j^rar 


dually extending from one to another, keeping either 
in the centre or to the side of the panel until you 
have carried it from top to bottom. Now take your 
pencil overgrainer, dipped in the same colour, and 
draw it down parallel with your pencil-work, and fill 
up the rest of the panel with it. 


I am not aware that any one has attempted to grain 
this wood in oil before I did, and I have only taught it 
to two grainers. It takes considerably more time to 
execute than in distemper; but, if well done, it is 
infinitely superior in every respect. The ground 
should be got up very smoothly, in such a manner 
that you will not have to use sand-paper on the last 
coat. Prepare your colour in the same way as the 
light oak graining colour, using Vandyke brown and 
a little raw sienna to stain with ; strain it well, taking 
particular care that it is free from the slightest par- 
ticle of grit; rub in your panel with it; take a damp 
wash-leather, roll it up tight, and use it as a mottler; 
soften well with the badger; get a pencil-stick, cut 
one end of it into an oval form, wrap a strip of wash- 
leather round the oval, in such a manner that onh 
one thickness of it will appear round the end of the 
oval ; tie it fast ; now dip it into dark colour and dot 
in the eyes with it, then use the leather on your 
thumb-Dail to form the bright lights springing from 


the knots or eyes; when dry, jou can o>ergrdm il 
nither in distemper or oil. 


The proper ground for this wood is a yellow cream 
colour, made from Oxford ochre and chrome yellow. 
The best colour to grain it with is sienna, with a 
slight touch of Vandyke brown and burnt sienna 
Diixed with it. This wood has a great similarity to 
mahogany in the form of its grain ; if you can grain 
one well, you can the other. Rub in your colour, 
using beer and a sash-tool; dip a sponge or wash- 
leather in clean water, and draw it down your panel, 
partially clearing off the colour in places as you go on. 
Now take the mahogany, or thin hog's-hair mottler, 
and cut out portions of the colour that is left on the 
panel ; in this way you will form the lights or reflec- 
tiond you may see in the real wood, or in a piece ot 
Spanish mahogany, which will do as well; they are 
just the same, only not so large. Badger it cross- way 
of the panel ; you must occasionally use a camel-hair 
motiler ; press it against your work, and draw it down 
with a slight jerking motion ; this will form a very 
close and regular mottle. To overgrain it, use the 
mahogany overgrainer, or flat sable, (divided with the 
comb,) dipped into a tint of blue black in weak beer. 
To imitate the curl, or feather, lay on very light colour 
freely ; then take a small tool, or flat fitch, and with 
colour several shades darker make a succession of half- 


eircles, one above the other, beginning at the bottom 
ef the panel, gradually reducing the sweep of th« 
circle as you rise to the top. While it is wet, tako 
the mahogany mottler and cut out the lights, spray- 
ing them from the centre of the circle each way. 
Overgrain as before, taking care to run the grain in 
the same direction as the half-circles. 


Ground colour made with red lead, Venetian red, 
and orange chrome : graining colours, Vandyke brown, 
burnt sienna, and Victoria lake. This lake is not 
much known as a graining colour; there is no coloar 
equal to it for mahogany. To grain this wood you 
must proceed in exactly the same manner as for satin- 
wood, with this addition, that while the colour is «ret 
you must stipple or dapple it all over with the end 
of the badger, to imitate the pores of the wood ; this 
will give it a very natural appearance. Overgrain 
with Vandyke brown and blue black. 


Mix a light colour in exactly the same way as ibr 
light oak, using burnt sienna to stain with; rub in 
your panel with it, mix a dark colour with Victoria 
lake and Vandyke brown ; use this with a small tool, 
or fitch to put in the dark shades; mottle it with a 
i»iece of stiff card-board, or a rag or leather drawn tight 


ovcY a steel comb ; badger it well. When dry, glaze 
it all Dver with Victoria lake in distemper, and while 
wet, stipple with the end of the badger, and overgrain 
ts before. 


Rub in with a light distemper colour, made with 
Vandyke brown and burnt sienna; take a sash-tool 
and dark colour, made with Vandyke brown and Vic- 
toria lake, and put in some broad irregular shades, 
leaving light spaces running between : now use your 
overgrainer and blue black, curling or crossing the 
dark parts, making some straight, others broken, just 
as you see it in the real wood ; where you cannot use 
the overgrainer with effect, use a pencil ; when dry, 
glaze it all over with Victoria lake in oil, wiping it out 
in places. This will give it a very rich appearance. 

The foregoing are all the woods that need be de- 
scribed here, — in fact, all that are adapted to general 
use. If you can grain these well, you will be able to 
imitate a?.iy other on exactly the same principles. 



The following are the principal marbles lor adnpU 
tion to general use in decoration : — 


Black and Gold, 
Saint Ann's, 
Verd Antique, 
Egyptian Green, 
Rouge Roi, 

Italian Jasper, 


Black Bard ilia, 

Derbyshire Spar, and 



^ This marble is the most useful of any, as it is well 
adapted for decorating halls, staircases, &c. Out of a 
variety of ways of doing it, the following is the best ; — 
Prepare your ground- work as smoothly as possible, with 
alight buff colour made from Oxford ochre; mix a 
variety of tints as follows : — Dark vein colour, made 
with ivory black and Indian red ; by adding white to 
this you will produce a few different shades of neutral 
tints. Make a few tints from Indian red and Prussian 
blue, with white : place these conveniently on a large 
palette ; now give your work a thin coat of the buff 
paint ; while wet, take a large feather, dip it into tur- 
pentine, then into the dark vein colour ; with this form 
a leading vein right across your panel or slab, giving it 
a broken or irregular appearance ; strike a few strag- 
gling vein-i from this; now use your feather and neutral 


tints, and put in some smaller veins, breaking it inU) 
email irregular pieces on, or springing from, the leading 
vein. Avoid as much as possible giving it tbat formal 
appearance wbich so many grainers affect, as it is un- 
natural. Always remember this, that there is very 
rarely, if ever, a circle, a square, or a straight line in 
any marble. Now badger it well until it is soft and 
mellow ; when dry, take a piece of old silk, dip it into 
linseed oil and rub it very sparingly over the work ; 
now take a feather and thin white mixed with turpen- 
tine, go over your work with it, touching it in an irre- 
gular manner in and about the veins ; soften or blond 
it with the badger as you go on, then put in a touch 
of solid white here and there among the veins. Now 
use Oxford ochre and raw sienna, with occasionally a 
little crimson lake ; with these glaze over your work in 
parts, taking care always to put the darkest parts in 
connection with the leading vein ; now use a pencil and 
ivory black, and put in some sharp touches on and 
about the leading vein; this, if properly done, will 
make the veins appear sunk, or give them depth. 

Black and Gold Marble, 

Prepare a smooth black ground; slightly oil it; place 
on your palette some white, Indian red, Oxford ochre, 
black, and a little orange chrome; now use a large pen- 
cil, and take up a portion of the whole or part of thesr 
colours on your pencil ; roll it across or lengthways of 
jour board, leaving it in irregular patches ; now con- 
nect these patches together by fine lines in the same 


coionrs ; fill up the pacel with irregular fine lines^ run* 
oiug in the same direction, with short lines or touches 
crossing and connecting them ; now use a dark lead 
colour, and fill in the spaces between the lines in parts 
with it, then put here and there on the top of these a 
touch of a lighter lead colour; when dry, you can cut 
•the patches of colour into better form, if required, with 
black and a pencil, and give them depth by glazing in 
places with touches of white. 

Saint Ann^s. 

This marble is very similar in the form of its vein to 
black and gold : the patches of colour are much smaller 
and more crowded together; it is done in exactly the 
same manner on a black ground, using white alone for 
the veins, then fill up the same with lead colour. 

Verd Antique, or Ancient Green, 

This marble is done upon a black ground ; oil the 
work as before; mix several shades of green, made 
from Prussian blue and chrome yellow ; arrange these 
on your palette, and a little Indian red. Take a feather 
dip it into your darkest green, and go over the whole 
of the panel with it, using it freely ; follow in the same 
manner with the lighter shades, occasionally using a 
little of the Indian red ; then take some black, and 
put in a quantity of irregular broken patches with it, 
allowing the green to run in broken lines through 
them ; now put in some solid patches of white, in form 
like broken pieces of flagstone or earthenware, aid in 



size from a quarter of an inch to two inches. When 
dry, glaze over all with a green, made with Antwerp 
blue and Italian pink, using also a little crimson lake ; 
in places touch up the whites again, making some solid, 
others transparent ; then edge them round with a fine 
line of black. 

Egyptian Green, 

Black ground. Take a sash-tool, and glaze over your 
work with the darkest green you can make from Prus- 
sian blue and chrome yellow; now use the feather and a 
lighter green, and streak your panel all in one direction, 
occasionally using a little Indian red; now dip your 
feather in a thin white, and streak it over the other in 
a slanting direction, giving it a slight curl, and crossing 
the first streaks ; blend these well together ; when dry, 
glaze it all over with a bluish green, made with Ant- 
werp blue and Italian pink; this colour is perfectly 
transparent. Now touch up your light streaks here and 
there with white, and blend it well. 

Rouge Roi, or Royal Red, 

This is done upon a bluish gray ground. Oil the 
ground ; mix burnt ochre with a little Indian red; rub 
in your panel with this. Mix a rich brown with Indian 
red and ivory black; cover a portion of the panel with 
this colour. Now take a piece of paper, and crumple 
it up in your hand; dab your panel all over with this; 
dip the paper into black, rub it slightly on your palette- 
board, to take off the superfluous black; then lightlj^ 


dab it on the dark parts of the panel ; go over the whole 
of it in the same way with a light blue, then here and 
there with white. Now wipe out a vein in places with 
a rag, leaving the gray ground clear 3 make some long, 
running irregularly across the panel, others short, and 
varying in breadth from a fine line to an inch and a 
half; when dry, glaze it in places with Indian red and 
black, using the Indian red alone occasionally; make 
the veins pure white in parts, in others transparent. 

Italian Jasper. 

Ground colour, a light green drab ; oil the ground 
Mix together Indian red and Victoria lake; with this 
rub in several large and small patches, inclining to a 
circular form; mix a few olive green tints with white, 
blue black, and raw sienna, and several shades of gray 
made from ivory black and Prussian blue. Place these 
conveniently on your palette, also a little ochre; dip 
your feather into turpentine, and then into the olive 
tints, and run it between, and round, and across the 
patches of red ; blend these well ; then go over in the 
same way with the gray tints. When dry, glaze over 
the gray and olive tints with pure white, making them 
solid in places, in others transparent. Soften or blend 
it well ; glaze the dark parts here and there with crim- 
son lake; while this is wet, take a feather, or small 
overgrainer, dipped in very thin white, and draw it 
over some of the smaller of the dark parts, giving it 
something the appearance that an onion has when cut 
In half; touch up in places with dark colour. 


Dove Marble. 

Ground colour, a bluish lead colour. Dip youi 
feather into turpentine, then into black ground in oil ; 
streak your panel with this; use white in the same 
way; when the black has stood a little while, blend 
them well together as you go on ; then put in a few 
touches of solid white, and soften. 

Black BardeUa. 

Ground colour, a very light lead colour. With a 
feather and black, figure all over in. lines running into 
each other, very close in places, some very fine, with 
short lines or strokes crossing ; soften a little. When 
dry, glaze over with thin white, a little stronger in 
some places than others ; touch up the lines with fine 
lines of black. 

Derby nMre Spar. 

This is a compound of the fossil remains of shell-fish 
tiud other inhabitants of the deep. Ground colour, a 
light gray. Glaze over your panel with a thin colour, 
made with Vandyke brown and black ; rub in a little 
Indian red occasionally. Crumple a piece of papey in 
your hand, lightly dab your work over with it ; now 
take a rag and a narrow square-pointed stick, and form 
the halves of shells, fish, bones, &c. ; then spurt in a 
little turpentine, — this will open or spot it. When dry, 
glaze over with the same colours, and make the fossils 
partly solid with white; then sharpen or edge thcu' 
with a fine line of black. 



There are several granites; they maybe done almost 
liiiy colour and yet be correct. The principal ones are 
tlie gray and the red, or Aberdeen granite. You may 
io them all in the same manner. Prepare the ground, 
jf for gray, a light gray; if for red, a light salmon 
colour. Provide yourself with a flat brush made ol 
very stiiF bristles, about an inch long and four inches 
broad ; shape a piece of wood about six inches square, 
with a handle to it something like a child's battledore; 
rub in your ground colour; now dip the flat brush in 
thin black, hold the wood in your left hand, and press 
the brush upon it, springing the bristles in the direc- 
tion of the panel; this will throw the colour on in 
spots. Follow in the same manner with white, if for 
gray granite; and with black, red, and white, if for 
Aberdeen, They may be done in the following manner 
with good effect : — Provide yourself with a very porous 
or open sponge; dip it into black, mixed with beer; 
then stipple your ground with it; when dry, throw in 
your white in oil colour ; and so on with any other 
colour. In all glazing colours it is advisable to use 
a little sugar of lead, as they are most of them bad 
dryers. I should also recommend Rowney's tube 
colours for finishing marbles, as they are the best 
colours, are very finely ground, and are a.s cheap in 
the end as any you may grind yourself. 



To Polish Imitation Marbles, 

When you have finished marbling, let the work 
stand for a day or two ; then gently rub it down with 
the back or smooth side of a sheet of sand-paper j this 
will take off the knits or bits of skin which may be 
upon it, without scratching it ) now give it three coats 
of the best pale polishing copal varnish, allowing an 
interval of two days between each coat. Let this stand 
for three weeks ; then cut it down with ground pumice- 
stone and water, using a piece of wash-leather or rag 
for that purpose. When you have got it tolerably 
smooth and level, wash it well with plenty of clean 
water, taking particular care to clean off all the pu- 
mice-stone; give it five coats of varnish. It ought 
now to stand for three or six months, at the least, 
before it is polished, for if it is done before it is 
almost certain to crack. When the varnish is suffi- 
ciently hard, cut it down with finely-ground pumice- 
stone as before ; then use rotten stone and olive oil, 
using the ball of the hand ; then use flour and oil ; 
finish off with dry flour. This takes a deal of timt* to 
do properly, if well done. 



Segn-writing is a mere mechanical art; any person 
with a common stock of perseverance may acquire it 
The writer is bound down to certain set forms, and to 
a constant repetition of those forms -, there is nothing 
left for the exercise of genius or taste, but the arrange- 
ment or setting out and choice of colours. 

The pupil's first object must be to acquire a tho- 
rough practical knowledge of the forms of letters now 
in common use, such as manuscript or text-hand, Roman 
capitals, italics, Egyptian, block, &c. &c. The best 
models for this purpose are placards in bold type; if 
good, they are generally proportionate, and have all the 
modern improvements. To become a good sign-writer, 
you must first practise the manuscript or text-hand; 
by doing so you will acquire the habit of making a free 
and graceful stroke, or sweep with the pencil, which 
will be very serviceable to you when you practise the 
Roman capital, which you should do next. \\ hen you 
have mastered these, the others will be comparatively 
easy. Many learners begin with the plain Egyptian 
block, for the simple reason that it is the easiest. They 
never make good writers, from the fact that by doing so 
they acquire a stiffness in the use of the pencil, and 
formation of the letters, which they very rarely, if ever. 


get rid of For practising, you will require a smooth 
board about three feet square, painted a liglit colour. 
Secondly, a stick, with a ball of cotton wool covered with 
wash-leather, and tied over one end of the stick : this is 
to prevent it injuring the paint when you rest it against 
it Thirdly, a small palette-board and palette-knife. 
Fourthly, a few good sable and camel-hair pencils. When 
purchasing the pencils, dip them into a tumbler of water. 
' and try them on a piece of paper : if they retain a fine 
point they are good; if not they are not worth having. 
Fifthly, a pennyworth of unburnt pipe-stumps, which 
you v/ill get at any pipe-maker's. Sixth, a two-foot 
rule. Seventh, a pair of compasses. 

Now set out your board as follows : — Take your rule, 
or compasses, and divide the board into equal parts 
with horizontal lines, leaving say three inches for the 
size of the letters, and two inches for the space between 
each line of letters. Use a piece of pipe-chalk, and 
slightly sketch your letters with it; then mix vegetable 
black with boiled oil to a proper consistency for work- 
ing; with this, and a fine pencil, endeavour to form the 
letters. Use the point of the pencil in all cases, and 
strive all you can to form the letter in outline with as 
few strokes as possible, filling up between the lines with 
a short pencil. By following this principle you will 
Acquire ease, rapidity of execution, and correctness of 
outline. Practise this method constantly, and you will 
become a good writer. Before your black is dry, wash it 
off with turpentine, then with soap and water; this will 
clean your board ready for practising again. 



iSetting-out or Arrangement of Letters. 
This lb a very important part of sign-writing ; for, 
However good the shape of the letters may be, if they 
are not properly arranged the effect will be bad. By 
strict attention to the following rules, you will soon be 
able to set out a sign properly : — 

1. It is always desirable to introduce into a sign a 
curved line, or section of a circle, as it is pleasing to the 
eye, and relieves the stiffness of the straight lines. 

2. The space between each letter in the same line 
must be equal. 

3. Each line of letters must begin and end at an 
equal distance from the side of the board. 

4. Never, if you can possibly avoid it, begin or end 
a line of letters with such letters as " and — to — for — 
with," &c.; but let them come in between the .\ines 
of larger letters. 

5. Always make the most important words, such as 
the name, business, &c., the largest, most distinct, and 
easily read of any on the board. You will see exactly 
what I mean if you examine a good placard. It is only 
by strict attention to the above rules, and constant prac- 
tice, that you can become a good writer. 

To raise or make Letters appear to stand out from the 
Board, and to shadow them. 
For this purpose you require a knowledge of light 
md shade ; to acquire that knowledge, as far as regatds 
letters, I would advise you to get a few good letters cat 
out of wood, say an inch thick ; fasten these on a painted 


hoiird; place them in a position where a side light will 
fall strongly upon them : they -will exhibit to you their 
tnie principle of light and shade. Study them well in 
all positions; they will be your best guide. 

To gild Letters. 

You will require a gilder's tip-cushion and knife, or 
you can lay on the gold from the book, by cutting the 
leaves to the size you want with a pair of scissors. You 
may use either oil orjapanner's gold size; oil-size is the 
best, and is made in the following manner: — Procure 
some old or fat linseed-oil; the older it is the better. 
Mix a little Oxford ochre with it, and a small quantity 
of sugar of lead; thin it with boiled oil; now strain it 
through a piece of fine linen. Prepare your board as 
smoothly as possible; take the white of an ^g^y beat it 
up in about four times its weight of cold water; add a 
small quantity of fuller's earth; brush over the board 
with it; this is to prevent the gold sticking to any part 
but the letters. When dry, set out the letters and com- 
mence writing; a sable pencil is the best for laying on 
the size. Always remember that, to make your gold 
bright, you must use as little size as possible, consistent 
with covering the letters properly; let it stand until you 
can barely feel a slight tack or stickiness. If the size ia 
trood it will gild in a week after it is written. Your 
letters being ready, put some gold into your cushion, 
which you will do in this way : — Carefully open, and 
with a slis:ht puif with your mouth blow the Vaf of gold 
into the back part of the cushion ; now take a leaf up on 
the point of your knife, and spread it on the front part 


of the cushion ; when you have got it partially straight, 
give it a slight puff with your breath, which will make 
it perfectly so. Cut it to the sizes you want, using the 
heel of your knife, and cutting forward. You will find 
this very difficult at first ^ but persevere, and you will 
soon do it with ease, and without waste. Now take the 
tip, rub it lightly on your hair or whiskers, take up the 
gold on the point and place it gently on the letters; 
when you have covered them all, get some very fine 
cotton wool, entirely free from grit; with this gently 
rub the gold until- it appears smooth, bright, and level 
Now wash the sign with plenty of clean water, to clea/ 
off the egg-size. 

To Write ^ Gild, and Ornament on Glas^s. 

Before you commence this work you must acquire a 
thorough knowledge of sign-writing, otherwise it wi\I 
be folly to attempt it. You will require a drawing on 
paper for each design, which you will prepare as fol- 
lows: — Cut a piece of thin paper to the size of your 
glass, draw out your design correctly in black lead-pencil 
on the paper, then prick through the outline of the 
letters with a fine needle. Tie up a little dry white lead 
in a piece of rag; this is a pounce-bag. Now place 
your design upon the glass right side up, and dust it 
with the pounce-bag; take the paper carefully off, the 
design will appear in white dots upon the glass ; this is 
to guide you in laying on the gold on the opposite side 
Now clean the glass well on the side that the gold is to 
go on ; prepare your size in the following manner : — 
Get some perfectly clean water, without the sH/yhu-st 


particle of grease or other foreign matter ; put it on a 
slow fire to boil, using an enamelled saucepan for that 
purpose, and taking particular care tliat the smoke does 
not get into it; while boiling, put in two or three shred? 
of the very best isinglass; let it boil a few minutes, 
then strain it through a fine clean linen rag ; when cool 
it is ready for use. The great point in glass-gilding 
is to have the glass, the size, and every thing you use 
perfectly clean ; a touch of the finger on the glass will 
tarnish the gold ; you must use the tip and cushion to 
put on the gold, laying the gold. on as level as possible, 
as its uniform brightness depends in a great measure 
upon that point ; use a flat camel-hair tool for laying 
on the size; flow the size on, and let it drain off 
when you put the gold on ; when perfectly dry, take 
a ball of the finest cotton wool, and gently rub or 
polish the gold ; you can then lay on another coat of 
gold if desirable; it is now ready for writing. As 
the letters will have to be written the backward way, 
you must turn your drawing face side downwards, and 
pounce as before; but on the gold this time mix a 
little of the best vegetable black with black japan; 
thin with turpentine to a proper working consistency; 
write with this when thoroughly dry; wash off the 
superfluous gold, and shade as in sign-writing. In 
ornaments you will have to etch, or shade the gold : 
you will proceed to lay on the gold and pounce the 
ornament exactly as above ; then etch or shade it 
with the point of a slate-pencil, or piece of hard 
w<x>d, slightly wetting the wood, when you want a 
broad or black line; then pick in with black. 


A SUITABLE place to do work in is an important con- 
sideration in painting, but as workmen will have opinions 
of their own about making things convenient, 1 will not 
cake time to go into details about conveniences in con- 
structing shops or paint rooms ; only this I will say to 
(he uninitiated : you must have a room where you can 
exclude dust entirely, and means for ventilating the room 
whenever you wish. These qualifications are indispen- 

The first thing that presents itself is the mode of pre- 
paring the oil used in painting, and, as this is a disputed 
point, and a very important one, I will give such reasons 
for my opinion as have been gathered from thirty years' 
practical experience in the trade. Those who learned 
their trade thirty years ago were taught to use boiled oil 
in carriage-painting, and we are not apt to forsake our 
early teachings without convincing proofs of their fal- 
lacy. I have, by experience, been driven from my good 
opinion of boiled oil in almost every department of paint- 
ing. Its supposed advantages are that it dries quicker 
ttod flows over the surface of the wood better than raw 
oil. Its nositive disadvantages are that it is more brittle 



nrhen dry ; if bruised, will break from tbe wood, and 
unless the utmost pains are taken to get it thoroughly 
dry, the varnish that is put over it will crack after it has 
been exposed to the sun. We are deceived about its 
drying quicker, and that is the cause why paint and var- 
nish crack. Boiled oil gets its drying quality from the 
oxygen which it imbibes by heating, and the oxyds of 
lead which are put into it while boiling. There is no 
visible part of the lead used for dryer left in the oil wher 
it is ready for use, therefore I suppose the ox yd which 
it absorbs from the lead is the dryer — be that as it may, 
there is one thing certain, we know oil so prepared will 
not dry unless it comes in contact with the air. Corked 
in a bottle, it will never dry, and this is one great diffi 
culty in using boiled oil. Suppose we have painted a 
piece of wood with one coat and got it thoroughly dry, 
the air, oil, or turpentine cannot go through the coat of 
paint when the second coat is applied. The part of the 
second coat which is exposed to the air dries on the out- 
side, formmg a skin which prevents the air from getting 
to the drying quality of the inner part, and shuts it up 
almost as close as if it were corked up. The air being so 
penetrating will, after a long time, get to it and dry it ; 
but it takes a long time, unless ihe paint with which it 
is mixed can impart to it a drying quality independent 
of the atmosphere. Painters who use boiled oil obviate 
this difficulty by nixing a large proportion of turpentine 
with the oil or pamt, making what they call a dead coat — 
this, when the turpentine has evaporated, dries with out 
a gloss, and leaves the paint open like a sponge, so thai 
the air can get to the oil. Experience proves this to be 
the poorest kind of paint to last — if bruised, it breaks oil 


clear to the wood ; if left to time it comes ofl' very sooa 
10 small scales — yet there is a great quantity of work 
done in this way, because the paint can be rubbed down 
smooth with sandpaper easier than if it were of a 
tougher material. Before I get through, 1 hope to show 
that paint can be made smoother and as tough as 
you wish without using much sandpaper, and with less 
labor. Boiled oil will not bear much japan for a dryer. 
If too much is used the paint comes off in large scales, 
and leaves the carriage in the very worst condition for 

Raw oil dries with less gloss, leaving a chance for the 
air to penetrate the paint as well as the dead color, and, 
aside from that, the dryer used in the paint dries more 
Independent of the action of the atmosphere. For 
instance, I have seen red lead ground in oil and soldered 
up in tin cans so as to entirely exclude the air, and in 
one year the paint would become a hard cement. Boiled 
oil, under the same circumstances, would never dry 
without the red lead. 

A ship-painter will never use boiled oil about any part 
of the vessel that is exposed to jamming by the dock, 
because the paint will break off clean to the wood. For 
these reasons I should use raw in preference to boiled 
oil, with but very few cases excepted. 

To prepare raw oil for use, it will be necessary to add 
one-fifth part of good brown japan to four of oil. If 
paint requires any further dryer, equal parts of sugar of 
lead and white vitriol ground together can be used, to 
the amount of one ounce to the pound of paint, or the 
lime amount of patent dryer. 

For the priming coat of a carriage-gearing and body 


use the same kind of paint, to wit : wnite lead mixed io 
the above prepared raw oil, and about one eighth part 
turpentine, with a shade of lampblack, if your carriage 
is to be a dark color. When the wood-work of a car- 
riage comes into the shop, examine it closely, and if the 
grain has raised in any place, or it wants smoothing with 
sandpaper, be sure and do it before you prime the work, 
then dust it off and put on the priming coat even, and 
be sure to have the paint go into the cracks, checks, or 
screw-heads, so that they have at least one coat of paint 
over the surface which is to be puttied up. 

The carriage-part wants but one coat before it is 
ironed, but the body you will retain in the shop while 
the gearing is being ironed. After it has had four days* 
drying, and has been sandpapered off, give another co^t 
of the same kind of paint with a little dryer, and about 
one fourth as much turpentine as oil. 

The object now is to get a perfectly even surface on 
the work of the body, wliich cannot be done on the bare 
wood, on account of the grain of the timber. For this 
purpose a heavy coat of coarse paint, prepared so that 
it will dry as hard as a bone, is put on, and, after it is 
dry, is rubbed with a flat surface of pumice-stone in 
water, which rubs the paint off from the ridges down 
even with the hollows, thereby making the surface level 
and smooth. To facilitate this operation I have adopted 
something different from the old way, which is better 
ana easier. I have some fine-grained sole leather cut 
into pieces so that T can have three different ones, with 
a straight-edge of from one to three inches in width , 
these edges are made rounding and smooth with sand- 


After the turpentine has evaporated from this second 
»roat which we have put on, and before it is dry, I take 
one of these leathers in my fingers very much as 1 would 
a scraper, and draw the edge over the soft paint. This 
crowds the paint from off the ridges down into the hcl- 
lows, and levels it quicker and better than two coats of 
" rough-stuff" will. The parts which are not going to 
be rough stuffed, such as the spindles to the seat, or any 
such small place, I rub over with my hand and fingers, 
80 that I get the paint crowded into the grains of the 
wood, and all the brush marks are removed. After 
repeating this process the second time on the seat and 
part which is not to be rough-stuffed, it will be ready for 
putting on the color. I make my putty of whiting and 
good drying varnish; and when the paint has got dry on 
the body, the screw-heads, and other places where the 
rough-stufl&ng is to be put on, should be filled up more 
than level, and the surplus will be cut off with the 

Now the body is ready for the rough-stufiing, which 
should be made of about seven parts of yellow ochre to 
ohe of white lead, mixed in four parts of good drying 
varnish and one of brown japan, and about one fifteenth 
as much raw oil as you have of copal varnish and japan 

This mixture should be stirred together as thick as it 
can be conveniently run through the mill. It is not 
best to grind it fine ; but as near the same fineness as 
can be. After it has been run through the mill, reduce 
11 with turpentine, so that it will work easy under the 
brush, and apply a good coat to the part of the body that 
bus a large surface, so that you can get at it with u 



pumice-fitone to level it down. It will take five or &\% 
(lays for a coat to dry so that you can apply the next; 
and, as a general thing, three coats of rough-stuff will be 
sufficient for a carriage-body. Sometimes one coat will 
answer for a buggy ; it depends, in a great measure, on 
the skilfulness of the wood-workman in getting a level 
•nd smooth surface on his job. 

If he leaves hollows, there must be enough applied to 
till them up even with the more prominent parts of the 
surface. After the body has got sufficient rough-stuffing 
on, it had better go to the smith, to be ironed and liung 
on the carriage. "When it comes to the paint-shop 
again, the first thing will be to rub it down, so that you 
have a smooth and even surface, free from all dents, 
grains of the wood, tool-marks, or any thing in the way of 
making a good, even surface, to put the finishing coat of 
paint on. This operation does not require any very 
great amount of genius, but there cannot be too much 
care bestowed on it. Saw the pumice-stone into blocks 
of a suitable size, and have by you a small, round file, so 
that you can shape the stone to fit the mouldings, if 
necessary ; and a pail of water and sponge, to wet the 
work with and wash it off, while rubbing it down. Now 
wet the work with the sponge, and with a wet block of 
stone commence rubbing the part until it is smooth and 
level, rubbmg carefully into the corners and close lo the 
mouldings, so that every part is equally level and smooth. 
You will have to use the sponge frequently, to clean the 
paint and sec if you are not rubbing through to the 
wood, or have got it rubbed enough. When the brush- 
marks are all rubbed out of your rough-stuffing, it will, 
fts a general thing, be rubbed enough. There are ottov 


places found, after rubbing down, where there is a deal 
in the wood, so that the pumice-stone has not cut out 
the brush-marks. To remedy such places, take the putty 
that you have filled up the screw-heads with, and, if it is 
not soft enough, add a Httle varnish, so as to make 
It soft enough to spread under the putty-knife; then 
fill the hollow places more than even full, and after it 
has become dry, which will be in three or four days, rub 
it off with the pumice-stone, so that the surface is levei 
and smooth. In rubbing down, if the stone scratches, 
or makes creases in the paint, or gums on the stone, the 
pamt is not dry enough, and should be left to dry until 
it gets so hard that it will not scratch. If, by mistake, 
you have rubbed through the paint, and wet the wood so 
as to raise the grain, when it gets dry rub off the raised 
grain with sandpaper, and put on the spot a coat of 
rough-stuffing, and when it is dry use a little linseed oil, 
instead of water, with the pumice-stone, which will not 
raise the grain of the wood, and, when it is rubbed off 
smooth, wipe the oil off with a rag, and clean the body 
off with a sponge and water, and it is ready for the color. 
It will be better now to commence the carriage part; 
and, in finishing that up so as to receive the color, I have 
adopted a different way from any that I ever have seen 
laid down, or in any way been taught; yet there are 
others who practice tl^e same plan and keep it a secret. 
The old way is to mix the paint with enough turpentine 
to make it brittle when dry, then scour out the brush- 
marks with sandpaper. This rubs off nearly or quite ono 
half the paint, and, aside from that, the turpentine evapo- 
rates and does not leave enough oil in the paint to resist 
ihe action of the atmosphere and protect the wood 


Also, sandpapering off the poisonous paint and inhaling 
(he dust is one cause of the unhealthinesa of the trade. 
The way I have adopted does away with these difficul* 
ties, and is much quicker done, and makes a handsomet 
finiahed jod. Oommence the carriage part by sandpaper- 
ing otr jusi enough to remove the specks that may have 
fallen on tne paint. 

Tf you are going to paint the carriage with any color 
which of iiself will be a body, it will be well to prepare 
the paint oi the color that you are going to finish with, 
unless the paint is too expensive to use for a body-coat ; 
and, if so, you should use the paint that is the nearest to 
it in color and at the same time has sufficient body — for 
instance, lur vermillion use red lead and Venetian red on 
the body or priming coat. White lead and lampblack^ 
mixed so ifiat it is a slate color, is a very good paint to 
give a boo y for any dark-colored finish. Mix the oil — 
which is prepared with one fifth japan — with one fourth 
as much t arpentine ; and when you want to reduce the 
paint, do it with this mixture, so that the paint will be 
alike in turpentine dryer. Dust off the work clean, and 
put on a coat of paint that is well gi'ound, and perfectly 
clean from all skins, dirt, or specks of any kind. 

After the paint has stood a while, so that the turpen- 
tine has evaporated, commence by rubbing it with the 
palm of your hand and fingers, so that you obliterate aO 
your brush-marks, and fill up the coarse grains to the 
timber by crowding the paint into them. Use a leather 
in corners where you cannot smooth with the hand, and 
use the leather on the springs, or any other flat surface, 
and then brush it over with the hand. In this way the 
work is very easily brought down to a smooth, poh'shctl 



After the second priming-coat has become dry, you can 
pntty up all imperfect joints or checks, and all places* 
where the iron does not fit to the wood closely on the 
felly, or any other part. After this coat of paint is well 
dried, sandpaper it off as before, just enough to remove 
the specks which may have fallen on while the paint was 
jlrying; and if you discover any place in the corners 
where you have not smoothed it down with the hand, it 
will be best to smooth it with sandpaper, and then apply 
another coat, and go through the same process of rub- 
bing down with your hand. Three coats will be enough 
in this way to give sufficient body for the color. It will 
fill the grain of the timber so that it cannot be seen, and 
make a smoother and better coat than any other way 1 
have tried. I think it saves full twenty-five per cent, in 
painting a carriage. 

You will now want to put on two coats of color to 
finish with, and you will observe the same process about 
smoothing it down. Also, remember that what makes 
paint and varnish crack after it has become dry, is, that 
it was not perfectly dried when the coats were being put 

While the carriage has been painting, the irons on the 
body, and all places where you do not use rough-stuffing, 
should be worked with the same paint in the same way 
that the carriage has been ; so that the wood gets throe 
and the irons two coats of paint, and then the body is 
ready for the color. 

The color should be ground fine ; and perhaps you will 
tind it better to use more turpentine in the paint than 
you have for the carriage part. You need a room that 
\s clean, and where no dust will be raised while the paint 


(8 drying, »jid you must have a soft, flat brush (called 
camol's-hair), about two and a half inches wide, and 
those are best when the brush-part is only about one 
and a half inch long. Examine well to s^e that there 
are no loose hairs in it that will come out while painting. 


The surface of the body is now smooth and level, and 
the object is to get two coats of paint on for finishing, 
without leaving brush-marks, or any thing to destroy 
this smooth, level surface ; therefore be sure and have 
your paint mixed so that it will run off from the brush 
easy, and be spread without bearing hard on the brush. 
It is best to try the paint before you commence laying it 
on the body, and when you are sure it will work easy, 
lay it on the body as briskly as you can, and do it well, 
linishing it up with light brushing. After it has got dry 
enough for the second coat, rub it over with curled hair, 
so that it takes off all the specks ; and it will have a ten- 
dency to flatten down the brush-marks which are hardly 
perceptible. One more coat in the same way finishes 
the body, ready for striping. 

After putting on the second coat of color, and it has 
become sufficiently dry, take curled hair and rub it 
enough so as to flatten " down any brush marks which 
your fine brush may have made. This will be a suffi- 
cient body for a medium good job, providing care has 
been taken to mix the paint according to the directions, 
and you have had no bad luck in putting it on. If you 
wish to have an extra good job, you must add more 
coats of the color, or finishing coats, being sure to give it 
time to dry, so that you have body enough to smooth it 
down and take out the brush marks with rotten-stone, 
'i his rubbing-down is done with pulverized rotten-stono, 


laid on a wet woollen rag, or felt, and then rubbed on tlie 
painted body until you have polished off all the brush 
marks. The most that there is about this operation is 
— carefulness not to rub too much in one place so as to 
rub through the color, and, at the same time, polish over 
every part evenly, so that it is as smooth as a mirror 
Jf, by accident, you have rubbed through the paint, il 
sometimes can be remedied by putting on the injured 
spot a little more of the color with a soft brush ; but 
this kind of patching cannot be carried on to any very 
great extent on a first class job. While you are rubbhig 
down the paint, use a sponge and water frequently, and 
wash it off so that you know just how much it has been 

After the body has been thoroughly polished, wash it 
well with water, until you have removed every particle 
of the rotten-stone. All this requires the utmost care, 
and the workman should not have any other business on 
his mind to divert his attention from his work. Having 
got a suflBcient coat of paint on the body, the next thing 
will be to prepare it for ornamenting. Painters differ 
about this. Some stripe on the paint, and others put on 
a coat of varnish and stripe on that. I prefer the last 
way, because the striping runs on to the varnish easier 
than on the paint ; therefore, T should put on a coat of 
good varnish — and by good, I mean the very best Amer- 
ican to be had — for that is the cheapest for the work 
man, in order to produce the same effect in looks. 

For varnishing, it is absolutely necessary to have the 
room free from dust ; and it must be kept at a temper- 
ature about as warm as a workman can comfortably bear 
to work in. If you are not sure that your varnish is free 


from specks, it will be better to filter it through cottor 
factory cloth ; sometimes there are small particles of 
glim in the varnish, which are transparent, so that you 
cannot see them until after the varnish has been laid on 
to the work, when they show themselves in small specks 
which we sometimes take for specks worked out of the 
brush. Lay on the varnishes with a good fine bristle 
brush, even and with straight brush marks, drawn very 
lightly for the finish. Sometimes, on a very smooth fin- 
ished job, the varnish will dry leaving little pit^marks, 
where the varnish seems to crawl ofi' from the paint, 
making it look as though it had had the small-pox. I 
believe this is a defect in the varnish, and I never saw it 
do so but once; yet a painter, who had used a large 
quantity from the same lot of varnish, told me that it 
was a frequent occurrence with him. It is a frequent 
occurrence for striping and varnish to crawl off from 
where it has been laid, and I think the preventive of 
the latter difficulty will answer for the former. 

To prevent paint or varnish from crawling, take a 
flannel rag and rub it over the work previous to varnish- 
ing, striping, or painting ; this will prevent any difficulty 
about its crawling. Of a great many ways for prevent- 
ing paint or varnish from crawling, which I have seen 
practiced, this, I think, is far the best and cheapest. In 
varnishing, always be careful not to put the varnish on 
the corners of the work and leave it to run down 
Always examine these places carefully before leaving 
the work ; and, as a general thing, you must commence 
on the inside panels of a body, and work to the outer 
edge the last thing. Another general rule is, to com- 
mence the work that is the highest up first, and finish 


Uiat which is the lowest last ; this prevents dirt from 
falling on and sticking to tlje paint while you are work- 
ing on it. When the work is varnished, close the room 
♦ight and leave it to dry, without opening the doors or 
doing any thing to get dust on the work, until it gets so 
that it will not stick. After taking all these precautions 
to prevent specks, if you should still be unfortunate and 
get some on, they must be removed with fine sandpaper 
before the striping or ornamenting is commenced. 

In ornamenting and striping a cafriage, it requires 
considerable taste and judgment. If the painter takes 
hold of his work as an artist does the canvas, and tries 
to see how much of his skill he can display on the sur- 
face he has to work, he will be very likely not to please 
himself, or any one else. He should be contented, not 
particularly to show off his own skill, but to preserve 
and show in the most graceful manner the workmanship 
of the builder. If the builder has not got gracefulness 
iu his work, then the painter has still to try, by striping, 
to give it that appearance. It is very often the case 
that we see good made to look like very ordinary work» 
merely from a bad taste in the striping, so that it does 
not preserve the gracefulness which the builder intended 
it to have, and no one seems to know exactly where the 
fault is, for he cannot point out any particular defect in 
the painting. On the other hand, I have seen very ill- 
shaped work, particularly in that kind called market 
wagons, or wagons of that grade, put into such shape by 
the painter, that no objection was made to their ill-pro- 
portions. There is a certain curved line which enters 
into the form of things having beauty and gracefulness, 

and if that line is wanting, there are but few who can 



point out the particular defect, but every one knDwy 
tliere is something wrong. 

In large panels of carriages, and particularly on the 
backs of sleighs, it is frequently necessary to put in a 
centre ornament, which relieves the large and clumsy 
look which it otherwise would have. 1'liis often gives 
painters a great deal of trouble, because they do noi. 
know how to get up an ornament ; and yet the thing ia 
very simple when understood, requiring no uncommoc 

I will now give the process of putting the ornament 
on the panel of a carriage, as it will be necessary to dc 
so before the body is striped, and I shall not revert tc 
the subject again, although I expect the painter, without 
any very great stretch of ingenuity, will make the same 
process answer to paint landscapes on the inside of 
omnibuses, put borders on sleighs, or, in fact, do anj 
kind of ornamenting. 

After selecting an ornament, take a piece of thin 
transparent wrapping paper and oil it over with linseed 
oil until it has become saturated, then rub off all super 
fluous oil, and afterward lay the paper over any one of 
the ornaments which you may select, and with a lead 
pencil trace neatly all of the ornament, not leaving out 
any of the shades, just as it is in the engraving ; then 
turn the paper over on to a piece of white paper, and on 
the other side trace the same engraving, which wil* 
appear very distinct on the other side of the oiled paper 
The panel which you wish to put the ornament on must 
be dusted over lightly with whiting, if you intend to put 
any gilt in it, to prevent it from sticking to other parts 
of the work where it is not wanted ; then have the panel 


put into a horizontal position, and lay the side of the 
ornament which you draw last on to the place where 
you want it painted, and fasten it there by laying some 
small weight on the side of the paper from where you 
wish to work ; then with your pencil trace over the lines 
ftgain on all the design except where you intend to put 
the gold leaf. This part needs only to be traced on the 
outside of the design. The result of this operation will 
be that tracing the design over on the paint will crowd 
the pencil mark down on to the paint, and will stick as 
plainly as though it had been drawn there with the pen- 
cil. The side of the paper can be raised to see if you are 
working all the drawing on the panel ; if you do not 
remove the weight the paper will fall back to its original 

After the design is drawn on the panel, take some 
quick-drying varnish, and with a common sable artist's 
pencil, lay some varnish on the spot where the gilt is to 
be put, and after the varnish has got hard, and yet a 
little tack to it — which will be in an hour or two — then 
lay on the gilt, press it down on to the paint so as to have 
it adhere. Leave it for three or four hours, if you can 
conveniently; afterward rub it down with some soft 
buckskin, or a silk handkerchief, and then lay the design 
on to the gilt, which you can very plainly see to do. and 
with the pencil draw the shades the same as before on 
the gilt. This will give you the design of what you want 
to put on for an ornament so that you can see it very 
distinctly on any color, and all the painter will havo to do 
will be to color and shade it up in a proper manner. For 
this ornamenting you want artists' sable hair pencils, 
t'roro the smallest size up to four or five sizes above. 


The shade, which seems the most appropriate for gilt 
is a transparent brownish color, which is got by mixing 
burnt terra de sienna with black asphaltmn, varnish, and 
enough of oil to keep it from drying too quickly. 

Commence shading the gilt by putting on the deep 
shades as they are in the engraving. With the same 
paint lighten it by spreading the paint thinner on the 
gilt, as the parts which are to appear the most promi- 
nent must not be touched with the paint. The points 
of scrolls which turn over so as to show the other side, 
can be tipped with orange-colored paint, lightened up 
with white, or frequently with some other color which 
fancy dictates. The painted part of the ornament must 
be painted for the groundwork with the color directed, 
or as your own judgment may dictate. Shade with the 
same shades you have used on the gilt, or perhaps make 
a little more opaque by adding vandyke-brown, lightened 
up with white if the case requires. 

A very tasty ornament can be made by putting the 
groundwork of any of these ornaments wholly of gilt, 
and shading according to the above directions. Those 
who expect to excel in ornamenting should have some 
knowledge of perspective, which can be had by consult^ 
ing the Oxford drawing-book, or perhaps almost any 
other work on that subject ; yet, to those who do not 
aspire any higher than to use ornaments that have 
already been engraved, the above process will be suflB- 

To arrange the colors in striping, there are a few rules 
that should always be observed : The darkest color should 
be on the outside. If a carriage body is to be of two 
colors, the outside mouldings should be a darker shade 

ANr varnisher's companion. 233 

tnan the panels. It is not considered in accordance with 
good taste to put much striping on a good body ; as a 
general thing, one fine line is suflScient for a panel, but, 
if it is necessary to put on any more, the fine line must 
6e nearest to the centre of the panel, or on the inside of 
(he wider stripes. 

There cannot be any precise rule laid down about 
mixing the paint and oil for striping, and yet it is one 
of the most important things to have the stripes run on 
the work easy. If there is too much dryer in the strip- 
ing it curdles and will not flow over the place where it 
has been laid, and when it is dry the body paint can be 
seen through the striping. I practice using boiled oil 
for wide line striping, with one eighth turpentine, and 
For fine lines raw oil without any turpentine, and just as 
tittle dryer as will sufl&ce to make the striping dry in 
time. For both kinds be careful about working the 
paint too thick. Take time to get the striping so that 
it works 'easy, and you will save time before the job is 
done. Where there is but one line on a panel, it is bet- 
ter not to mark it with the dividers, but to trust to your 
eye to get it correct ; but new beginners may have to 
mark the line until they get full command of the hand. 
Where there are two or more, it will always be necessary 
to run the dividers on one side of all the lines so as to 
keep them the same distances. 

For a gilt stripe, which is necessary for coaches, sleighs, 
etc., it is better in my opinion to use varnish to lay the 
gilt with ; and if the varnish dries too quickly, a little raw 
oil will correct that and make it more tacky. The diffi- 
culty in fat-oil for laying leaf is, that it often spreads 
over the edges of the stripe, and also, it has too much 



body, making a ridge where the stripe is. It seldom 
looks well to see a stripe on a panel intersect another 
stripe at right angles in the corners, especially where 
there is but one line around the panels. Some shift is 
nearly always made to make the corners round or scal- 

The carriage part can be striped more than the body; 
and small tasty scrolls, put into proper places, have very 
much the effect in filling up that an ornament has in the 
centre of a large panel ; yet this part is often overdone 
with stripes. Great care should be taken to make the 
stripes true, and to preserve, as has before been said, the 
beauty of form in the carriage. Preserve the same style 
and colors as nearly as can be, with the body and car- 
riage part. 

I use what are called " camel's liair" pencils, and, per- 
haps from habit, cannot use any other kind for striping. 
Long sable hair pencils are more elastic and stiff, the 
hairs are straighter, and will keep so a longer time, and 
the pencil will last enough longer to nearly pay the odds 
in the price ; and if the painter can work with them best, 
certainly there can be no objection to using them. 1 
find as much difficulty in changing from the " camel'R 
hair" to the sable hair brush, as in changing from the 
quill to the metallic pen. A pencil brush should be from 
one and a half to two inches long, and when not in use 
should be cleaned out with turpentine, dipped into lamp 
oil, and laid carefully away on a window-glass, in such a 
manner that the hair will keep perfectly straight ; and 
when you want to use them, wash them out in turpen- 
tine and twirl them between your hands until they have 
thrown out all the lamp-oil and turpentine, and they will 


oe ready for use. We cannot find brushes in the stores 
small enough to make the fine lines. This can be renie- 
died by cutting away some of the hair, or you can make 
small brushes from a large one, by taking a piece of rat- 
tan and making it round, about the size of a pencil han- 
dle, and splitting the end into quarters ; then turn these 
split parts back and cut ofif the corners so that when 
they are turned back there will be a hollow ; where the 
corners are cut out, put what hair you want into this 
hollow space from a larger pencil brush, and fasten it by 
winding a thread around the stick. "Wet the string with 
glue, and you have a very good pencil. 

After a carriage has been striped, it should have time 
to become sufficiently dry before varnishing, or there 
will be the same difficulty with its cracking, when put 
on over the striping, as is found in putting varnish on 
the body paint before it is sufficiently dry. This diffi- 
culty is often erroneously attributed to the inferior 
quality of the varnish, when in fact it is nothing more 
than the injudicious application of varnish before the 
paint has become sufficiently dry. In the application 
of varnish, a practice has become very common, and is 
also recommended by varnish dealers, of using different 
kinds over the same body of paint. For instance, they 
have what they call rubbing varnish, to be applied for 
the first coats, which will dry quick and hard, making 
a coat that can be polished down smooth with rotten- 
stone, after which being done, they recommend putting 
a coat of wearing varnish that dries slow and flows over 
smoothly, giving a beautiful appearance to the job. 
Painters have worse practices among them occasionally 
Uian this ; but, I must say, this is bad enough, as ma^ 


be plainly seen by investigating the subject for a mo- 
ment. 1'ake two kinds of varnishing, one with the 
foundation, or first coats, of this quick-drying varnish . 
the other, the foundation and finishing the same, of the 
slow-drying, wearing varnish, and when they have gol 
thoroughly dry, test them by the force of resistance that 
they show to accidents to which they are liable, such as 
scratching or jamming. First, take the point of a pin 
and scratch it across the surface of the work that is fin- 
ished with two different kinds of varnish — rubbing and 
wearing — and it will be seen that the point of the plu 
will make a ragged kind of a mark, four or five times the 
width of the pin point ; then take a hammer and strike 
the same varnish, and it will be seen that the place hit 
will have a yellowish-white appearance, which is occa- 
sioned by the under or rubbing part of the varnish 
crumbling or breaking up. 

Again, try the same process on the job that is done 
wholly with the wearing varnish, and it will be seen that 
the point of the pin will make a mark only the width of 
the point of the pin, leaving the edges of the mark 
straight and regular. The stroke of the hammer will bo 
very much in effect like striking on a metallic surface : 
it may make a dent, but not crumble or give the var- 
nish another color, unless it be a very violent blow. 
Scratchmg and bruising are two of the most common 
accidents varnish is liable to. If we take two carriages 
done in two different ways, by a skilful workman, we 
may, on the first appearance, pronounce in favor of the 
one that is polished smooth with the rubbing varnish ; 
but put them in use together, and it will be observed 
that the one that at first so readily met with our appro* 


bation, wih meet with the first accident to its fine finish: 
and it will continue in the same way, always showing a 
mark for every bruise or scratch that it receives. On 
the other hand, the other one will appear as if it had 
been used in the most careful way, so that it had avoided 
all accidents, and in fact will preserve its finish much 
the longest. 

The usual practice among American painters is to use 
American varnish for all the rubbing coats, and finish 
with a flowing coat of medium iinglish, without polish- 
mg. The objection to using English in all cases is that 
it dries so slowly that it would take at least six months to 
paint and varnish a carriage with it, a process for which 
no customer would wait. 

In order to varnish a carriage well, it »8 necessary that 
you be well acquainted with the peculiarities of the var- 
nish, if it has any ; and remember that it does not always 
insure a good job by putting on a great many coats, but 
that it is more likely the desired end will be attained by 
carefulness and good judgment. If it is cold weather, 
see that your varnish is made of about the same tem- 
perature as the room that you varnish in, which should 
be as warm as you can comfortably work in. The same 
may be observed with regard to the job that you are to 
apply it to, as near as can be had. 

Before you commence to lay varnish on work, see that 
your person is free from dust, lint, or any substance tliat 
will fly from you to the varnish ; that the room is per- 
fectly free from dust, or any current of air that may 
bring dust on to your work ; and that your brush — which 
should be of good, fine elastic bristles — is carefully freed 
from all specks that will work out into the varnish when 


laid on. Sprinkle the floor of the varnish-room with 
water, which prevents the dust rising from the floor,* 
dust off" the work well with the duster, and have al! 
dpecks removed from the work. 

If you have a body to varnish, commence at the high* 
est part first, and work downward. Use the brush, with 
II good supply of varnish in it, quickly, and draw the finish' 
nig stroke as straight as possible, very slightly pressing 
on to the work. When the work is thoroughly spread 
over, and evenly laid on, the least brushing that it gets 
after this the better. But this last direction must not 
be construed into carelessness about your work. The 
* sleight" is to lay the varnish evenly over the work i; 
the shortest possible time that it can, and be well done. 
When varnishing over panels, they should be done first, 
and the raised parts afterward. Care should be taken 
about leaving varnish on the corners, or any other place 
where it will run down. 

To varnish the carriage-part, the same rules should be 
observed ; that is, to keep it free from dirt or the minute 
specks that are more or less constantly flying in the air. 
Sometimes these minute particles are in the varnish, and 
cannot be seen until the varnish is laid on to a smooth 
surface of paint, and then they show themselves plainly. 
To avoid them, the varnish should be filtered through a 
cloth. Two coats of the best wearing varnish laid over a 
polished surface of paint, are enough to make a good job, 
providing that it has been properly spread, and no acci- 
dent happened to it while drying. Varnish, when laid on 
with a brush, will show more or less the brush marks, as 
the bristles leave it in ridges. With only two coats of 
good flowinjf varnish, these ridges are scarcely percejiti' 


ble. but if you add more, it will make the ridges more 
plain, and then follows the necessity of polishing down 
the surface, and then putting on a single coat of finishing 
varnish. In the very best finished work this polishing 
the varnish is pursued, but, as we have said, it does not 
strike us as being a very good way to finish work. To 
polish varnish, there is an absolute necessity of its not 
only being dry, but being so dry and hard that it .be- 
comes brittle ; but the more brittle it is, the easier it 
will polish. Now, good wearing varnish flows over the 
paint better, and is much longer in drying than the 
rubbing varnish ; in fact, it never can be made to rub 
down as easily as rubbing varnish, and for that reason 
'jB Teiy seldom used for that purpose. 

In using rubbing varnish lor the first coat, it will dc 
necessary to let it dry hard before the next is put on, and 
in this way get three or four coats on the body, and well 
dried, before you undertake rubbing it down. After- 
ward, take some ground rotten-stone, mixed in water so 
that it will be as thick as cream, then take a woollen rag, 
made up into a shape suitable to rub the work with, and 
dip it into the rotten-stone, rubbing the varnish until all 
the brush marks are obliterated, and it then assumes a 
smooth, polished Surface. Have a sponge and water 
handy, so that you can wash off the surface from time to 
time, to see if the object is accomplished ; and when you 
have rubbed away every trace of a ridge that has been 
made by the brush on the surface of the varnish, the 
work of rubbing is over, and you must now wash the 
work entirely clean, and then apply a coat of wearing 
varnish, as before directed. 

'Vhe most common difficulty that arises about rubbing 


paint or yamish is, that we do not give it a safficient 
time to dry hard before we commence rubbing down. 
Again, paint or varnish that rubs down well will not 
wear on account of the necessity there is of adding more 
turpentine, which entirely evaporates from the paint, 
leaving less glutinous oil for holding the paint on to the 
wood. The fact of making paint or varnish easier to 
work by destroying its wearing quality, is a great temp- 
tation to the workman to get praise as a fancy workman 
at the expense of the wearing quality of his work. This 
last difficulty is avoided on the carriage-part by following 
the directions for laying on the paint as we have given 
them, and by so doing it obviates the difficulty of makinir 
paint brittle in order to have it rub down ca«y; ai»c 
saves time, and roakep a haudsomtr job. 









Colors we distinguish into Inherent and Transient, 
Of the first kind are all material colors, more properly 
called pigments and dyes ; of the second, or transient 
kind, are the colors of light and the eye, such as the 
rainbow, halos, prismic and ocular spectra, etc. ; all of 
which are formed by the concurrence of the elements of 
light and darkness, which elements, in the language of the 
chemists, are oxygen and hydrogen, both of which enter 
inherently into the matter of solid pigments, and consti- 
tute the transient light of our atmosphere and of day. 
Hence, paintings, etc., excluded from light and air, in 
many cases become dark, and in other cases, when ex- 
posed to light and air, they bleach and fade, or variously 
change color, according to their chemical constitutions, 
as will be further noted of individual pigments. 

We have employed the terms Oxygen and Hydrogen 
to denote the more properly Photogenic and Sctogenic 
elements of light and shade, not for their fitness, but be- 
cause they have been adopted in an analogous elemen- 
tary signification in chemistry. It would, however, be 
beside our purpose here to discuss the elementary doc- 
trine of the physical causes of light and colors, having 
spoken thereof more at large in other works. 

* 8elect«d and eilitod from "Rudiments of the Ptiatei's Art; or a 
OraamarofCoIorlug." By Oeo. Field, Londou. 

21 241 


We proceed, therefore, in the next place, to detail the 
powers, properties, and preparations of the materials 
employed in the various practices of painting, among 
which pigments, or paints are principal, and respecting 
which it is to be remarked generally, that the variety 
of lightness and darkness in colors is called Shade ; the 
varieties of gradations in the mixtures of colors are 
called Hues, and the various mixtures of hues and 
colors with white and shades are called Tints. We 
preface these and other distinctions as necessary to the 
painter, for the better imderstanding and compounding 
of his materials, with which it is the object of this part 
of our work to make him acquainted. 


The general qualities of good Pigments, technically 
called Colors, are : 1, beauty of color, which includes 
pureness, brightness, and depth; 2, body; 3, transpa- 
rency or opacity; 4, working well; 5, keeping their 
place; 6, drying well; and 7, durability; but few pig- 
ments possess all these qualities in equal perfection. 

Body, in opaque and white pigments, is the quality 
of covering and hiding a groimd well ; but in transpa- 
rent pigments it signifies richness of color, or tinting 
power ; working well depends much on sufficient grind- 
ing, or fineness of texture; keeping their places and 
drying well belong principally to the vehicle, or liquid, 
with which they are tempered, and chiefly on the oil 
with which they are employed. Of all which and other 
particulars we shall have occasion to speak elsewhere, 
and in respect to individual pigments ; — as we have more 
at large in our " Chromatography." 

All substances are positively or negatively colored, 
whence the abundance of natural and artificial pigments 
and dyes with which the painter and colorist in every 
art are supplied, and the infinity of others that may be 
added to them. As, however, it is durability that gives 
value to the beauty and other qualities of colors or pig- 
ments, and those of nature being for the most part 
adapted to temporary or transient purposes, few only 


are suited to the more lasting intentions oi art, and 
hence a judicious selection is essential to the practice 
and purposes of artists. 

' And as the present inquiry is concerning the employ- 
ment of solid colors in painting, properly called Pigments, 
it is our express business to form such selections from 
those in use as are best adapted to the various require- 
ments of painting in oil, in distemper, fresco, et<j., and 
to denote their habits, mixture, and best modes of mani- 
pulation of each, and this we purpose in the proper 
order of the colors. 

In mixing colors the painter should avoid using a 
greater number of pigments than necessary, to afford 
the tints required, as such mixtures are usually fouler 
than the colors used, and their drying and other quali- 
ties are commonly injured thereby. Nor do we advise 
him to purchase ready-made compositions, and tints 
that he can produce better by mixture, for this is to sub- 
mit his own skill and knowledge to the inferior skill, and 
for the gain of others : yet we by no means counsel the 
painter to lose his time in the manufacturing of original 
pigments, which he can obtain of better quality in the 
shops. Old pigments are also more to be depended on 
than new ones for drying, standing, etc. We proceed 
to speak of colors and pigments individually. 


Is the basis of nearly all opaque painting designed for 
the laying and covering of grounds, whether they be of 
woodwork, metal, stone, plaster, or other substances, 
and should be as pure and neutral in color as possible, 
for the better mixing and compounding with other colors 
without changing their hues, while it renders them of 
lighter shades, and of the tints required ; it also gives 
solid body to all colors. 

It is the most advancing of colors ; that is, it comes 
forward and catches the eye before all other colors, and 
it assists in giving this quality to other colors, with 
which it may be mixed, by rendering their tints lighter 
and more vivid. Hence it appears to throw other colors 


back which are placed near it, and it poweiTnlly con 
trasts dark colors, and black most so of all. The term 
color is, however, equivocal when attributed to the neu- 
tralSy White, Black, and Grays, yet the artist is bound 
to regard them as colors ; and in philosophic strictness 
they are such latently, compounded and compensated ; 
for a thing cannot but be that of which it is composed, 
and the neutrals are composed of and comprehend all 

White is the nearest among colors in relation to 
Yellow, and is in itself a pleasing and cheerful color, 
which takes every hue, tint, and shade, and harmonizes 
with all other colors, and is the contrast of Black, added 
to which it gives solidity in mixture, and a small quan- 
tity of black added to white cools it, and preserves it 
from its tendency to turn yellow. White mixed with 
Black forms various Greys and Lead-color, so called. 

From tlie above qualities of white it is of more exten- 
sive use in painting than any other color, and it is hence 
of the first importance to the painter to have its pig- 
ments of the best quality. These are abundant, of which 
we shall here notice those only of practical importance 
to the painter and decorator. 

Notwithstanding white pigments are an exceedingly 
numerous class, an unexceptional white is still a desi- 
deratum. The white earths are destitute of body in oil 
and varnish, and metallic whites of the best body are 
not permanent in water ; yet when properly discrimi- 
nated, we have eligible whites for most purposes. 


Or ceruse, and other white oxides of lead, under the 
various denominations of Philadelphia, London, and 
Nottingham whites, etc.. Flake white, Crems orOremnitz 
white, Roman and Venetian whites, Blanc d'argent or 
Silver white. Sulphate of lead, Antwerp white, etc. The 
heaviest and whitest of these are the best, and in point 
of color and body are superior to all other whites. They 
are all, when pure and properly applied in oil and var- 
nish, safe and durable, and dry well without addition : 
but excess of oil discolors them, and in water-painting 


tJ ey are changeable, even to blackness. They liave also 
a destructive effect upon all vegetal lakes, except the 
madder lakes, and madder carmines ; they are equally 
injurious to red and orange leads or minium, king's and 
patent yellow, massicot, gamboge, orpiments, etc. ; but 
ultra-marine, red and orange vermilions, yellow and 
orange chromes, madder colors, Sienna earth, Indian red, 
and all the ochres, compound with these whites with 
little or no injury. In oil painting, white lead is essen- 
tial, in the ground, in dead coloring, in the formation of 
tints of all colors, and in scumbling, either alone or mixed 
with all other pigments. It is also the best local white 
when neutralized with black, but must not be employed 
in water-color painting, distemper, crayon painting, or 
fresco, nor with any pigment having an inflammable 
basis, or liable to be destroyed by fire, for with all such 
they occasion change of color, either by becoming dark 
themselves, or by fading the colors they are mixed with. 
Cleanliness in using these pigments is necessary for 
health; for though not virulently poisonous, they are 
pernicious when taken into or imbibed by the pores or 
otherwise, as are all other pigments of which lead is the 
basis. A fine natural white oxide, or carbonate of lead, 
would be a valuable acquisition, if found in abundance ; 
and there occur in Cornwall specimens of a very beauti- 
ful carbonate of lead, of spicular form, brittle, soft, and 
purely white, which should be collected for the artist's 

Adulter attons* — All the white lead which is manu- 
factured into paint is more or less sophisticated, and 
chiefly with barytic compounds. The practice is carried 
on to such an extent, in some cases, that more than 
three-fourths of the mineral constituents of the paints 
are adulterated. This is invariably done at the manu- 
factory, and unless specially required, the white lead is 
never ground ^er se with the oil ; and therefore the var- 
ious qualities of white lead are, in some respects, syno- 
nymous with the extent of spurious matter incorporated 

* Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical, as applied to tli6 
iritf and Manufactures, by Dr. Siioridan Muspratt, 2 vols^ 8 vo., Glasgow 



with it. In Belgium there are several kinds : the Krem- 
ser white being unadulterated, but the others largely so, 
thus : Venetian white is a mixture of heavy spar and 
the sub-carbonate of lead, in equal proportions; Ham- 
burg white, of two parts of heavy spar and one of tlie 
plumbous compound ; and that known as Dutch white, 
contains three fourths of sulphate of baryta. Many ol 
these compounds aro mixed with a small quantity of 
charcoal, Indigo, or Prussian blue, so that the dead 
yellowish shade which they present may be ei Uvened to 
a brighter hue. 

Before leaving the subject it may be stated, that of 
late years efforts are being made to supersede the manu- 
facture of carbonate of lead entirely, by substituting for 
it other compounds, which, when mixed with oil, give 
a white paint. Of these, the principal are oxide of zinc, 
the teroxide of antimony, sulphate of baryta, etc : but 
the oxide of zinc comes nearer to the true substitute 
than the others, for this enters into a combination with 
the oil, just as the oxide in the white lead gives rise 
to an oleate, that considerably aids in the extension of 
the paint on the surface, and causes it to form, at th^ 
same time, a perfect coating. 


Is a white carbonate of lead, which derives its name from 
Crems, or Krems, in Austria, or Kremnitz in Hungary, 
and is called also Vienna white, being brought from Vienna 
in cakes of a cubical form. Though higly reputed, it 
has no superiority over the best Philadelphia white leads, 
and varies like them according to the degrees of care or 
success with which it has been prepared. 


Is an English white lead in form of scales or plate, some- 
times gray on the surface. It takes its name from its 
figure, is equal or sometimes superior to Crems white, 
and is an oxidized carbonate of lead, not essentially differ- 
ing from the best of the above. Other white le»\d8 
seldom equal it in body, and when levigated, it is cah*»J 



Or Silver white. These are false appellations of a white 
lead, called also French white. It is brought from Paris 
in the form of drops, is exquisitely white, but of leas 
body than flake white, and has. all the properties of the 
best white leads ; but, being: liable to the same changes, 
is unfit for general use as a water-color, though good in 
oil or varnish. 


la of the purest white color, but differs from the former 
only in the warm flesh-color of the external surface of 
the large square masses in which it is usually prepared. 
This and the following are not generally found in the 


Is an exceedingly white precipitate from any solution of 
lead by sulphuric acid, much resembling the blanc d'ar- 
gent, and has, when well prepared, quite neutral, and 
thoroughly edulcorated or washed, most of the properties 
of the best white leads, but is rather inferior in body and 


Like white lead, the oxide of zinc requires to be mixed 
with an oily vehicle, to be applied in painting. As oxide 
of zinc does not readily form a saponaceous compound 
with fats or oils like oxide of lead, the paint which is 
prepared with it, and ordinary linseed oil, does not dry 
nor harden for a long time. 

This peculiarity was at first one of the principal draw- 
backs to the more general use of the zinc instead of the 
lead paint. Another of its defects is said to be its trans- 
parency, owing to which a layer of the zinc white paint 
does not exhibit so much body or opacity as a similar one 
of white lead. Both these defects, which can be almost 
entirely overcome, are more than compensated by the 
permanency of the oxide of zinc, as a pigment, under all 
circumstances, and its comparative innocuousness both 

in the manufacture and the application ; whereas, the 

^— — — — — — — — ■ — _^_^.«_ , •— ._ . 

* ••Muspratt's Chemistry." 


poisonous (lualities of white lead constitute a fundameu 
tal objection to it. At first, manufacturers of zinc 
paiiit were led to the adoption of the practice of boiling 
I lie oil with a large quantity of litharge, for the purpose 
of causing it to be more siccative ; but by this method 
the color of the paint is rendered liable to tarnish on 
exposure to sulphurous emanations. Instead of litharge, 
experiments have led to the choice of salts of zinc, such 
as the chloride and sulphate, a small per centage o£ 
which, on being mixed with the oil or oxide, confers upoi 
the paint the property of readily hardening. The same 
result is obtained by employing an oil dried by boiling 
it with about five per cent, of peroxide of manganese, 
or even magnesia has been recommended, and is said to 
answer quite as well as the manganese ; in either case a 
paint retaining its white color permanently, is obtained. 

Manufacturers classify the several qualities of the zinc 
white into four kinds, namely : Snow white. Zinc white, 
Stone gray, and Uray oxide. The first two are employ- 
ed where a pure unalterable white color is required ; the 
third is used for a ground color for the walls of houses, 
iron painting, and the like ; and the fourth is peculiarly 
adapted for the painting of ships and wood-work, and 
likewise for the ground of more expensive colors on stone 
or cement. 

Various shades may be given to paint of which zinc 
white constitutes the basis, by grinding up with the oil, 
used as the vehicle, several metallic and other compounds 
of an unalterable nature, in different proportions. Thus 
an orange-yellow is obtained by using Kerms-sulphide of 
antimony ; a citron-yellow by employing chromate of 
zinc ; a green by adding a mixture of chromate of zinc, 
and a few per cents, of Cobalt blue. In like manner 
oxides of iron and of manganese, ultramarine, lamp- 
black, etc., communicate tints to the paint, all of which, 
owing to the absence of lead, are unaltered by atmos- 
pheric influences, sulphide of hydrogen, or other emana- 
tions. Sometimes a very permanent and useful paint is 
prepared from the natural ores of zinc, without subject- 
ing them to any of the manufacturing processes, for pre- 
paring the oxide of this metal. This is t)ie case with 


\he zinc stoue of Virginia, which has an average con*- 

position of 

Oxide of zinc .... 25.00 
Carbonate of magnesia . 11.21 

Alnmina 17.00 

Silica 28.00 

This mineral constitutes a solid rock on the surface of 
the ground, and when pulverized and mixed witli oil in 
proper proportions, forms on the surface to which it is 
applied, a hard, closely adhering stone coating, impervi- 
ous to water or fire. Its ordinary tint varies from a 
light drab to dark brown. This paint is capable of re- 
ceiving a high polish. 

Oxide of zinc, or zinc white, besides its application in 
painting, is valuable for paper staining, card enamelling, 
the bleaching of lace, the glazing of pottery, and porce- 
lain ware, and the lighter white portions are used for 
producing the down on artificial feathers. 


Resembles zinc white in many respects, but dries badly 
and has even less body and color in oil, though superior 
to it in water. It is the basis of the best white in enamel 

There are various other metallic whites of great body 
and beauty — such as those of bismuth, antimony, quick- 
silver and arsenic ; but none of them are of any value or 
reputation in painting, on account of their great dispo- 
sition to change of color, both by light and foul air, in 
water and in oil, and are procurable only of the chemists. 


There are the two pigments of this denomination : one 
falsely so called, prepared from bismuth, which turns 
black in sulphuretted hydrogen gas or any impure air, 
and is used as a cosmetic ; the other, prepared from the 
waste of pearls and mother-of-pearl, which is exquisitely 
white, and of good body in water, but of little force in 
oil or varnish, it combines, however, with all other colors 
without injuring the most delicate, and is itself perfectly 
permanent and innoxious. 



White is eveiy way of importance in painting, not 
only as &. gronndj but as the basis of all tints, as neces- 
sary in compounding the endless variety of pale hues 
<vhich taste and fashion require of the painter and 
decorator, which every season brings out under new 
denominations which are in turn to give way to others 
and be forgotten. Thus white tinted with blue, etc., 
has afforded Paris white, etc., French grays. Silver 
greys, etc. ; while reds tint white of pink, carnation, co- 
quilicot, and all the blushes of flowers, etc. ; and yellow 
with white has afforded Primrose, Straw-color, Isabella, 
etc. To the more or less compound colors with white 
we are indebted for the innumerable tints of Lilac, 
Lavender, Peach blossoms, Pea-green, Tea-green, etc. 



Yellow is the first of the primary or simple colors, 
nearest in relation to, and partaking most of the nature 
of,tthe neutral white, mixed with which it affords the 
faint hues called Straw-color, etc. ; it is accordingly a 
most advancing color, of great power in reflecting light. 
Compounded with the primary red, it constitutes the 
secondary orange, and its relatives, scarlet, etc., and 
other warm colors. 

It is the ruling color of the tertiary citrine ; — it 
characterizes in like manner the endless variety of the 
semi-neutral colors called brown, and enters largely 
into the complex colors denominated buff, bay, tawny, 
tan, dan, dun, drab, chestnut, roan, sorrel, hazel, auburn, 
Isabella, fawn, feuillemorte, etc. Yellow is naturally 
associated with red in transient and prismatic colors, 
and they comport themselves with similar affinity and 
glowing accordance in painting, as well in conjunction 
as composition. In combination with the primary Wue, 
yellow constitutes all the variety of the secondary green^ 
and, subordinately, the tertiaries russet and olive. It 
enters also in a very subdued degree into cool, semi- 
iicntral, and broken colors, and assists in minor pro- 
port ionn with blue and red in the composition of black. 


As a pigment, yellow is a tender delicate color, easily 
defiled, when pure, by other colors. In painting it 
diminishes the power ot* the eye by its action in a strong 
light, while itself becomes less distinct as a color ; and, 
on the contrary, it assists vision and becomes more dis- 
tinct as a color in a neutral somewhat declining light. 
These powers of colors upon vision require the parti- 
cular attention of the colorist. To remedy the ill eff'ect 
arising from the eyes having dwelt upon a color, they 
should be gradually passed to its opposite color, and 
refreshed in the clear light of day. 

In a warm light, yellow becomes totally lost, but is 
less diminished than all other colors, except white, by 
distance. The stronger tones of any color subdue its 
fainter hues, in the same proportion, as opposite colors 
and contrasts exalt them. I'he contrasting colors of 
yellow are a purple inclining to blue, when the yellow 
inclines to orange, and a purple inclining to red, when 
the yellow inclines to green, in the mean proportions 
of thirteen purple to three of yellow, measured in surface 
or intensity ; and yellow being nearest to the neutral 
white in the natural scale of colors, it accords with it 
in conjunction. Of all colors, except white, it con- 
trasts black most powerfully.* 

The sensible effects of yellow are gay, gaudy, glorious, 
full of lustre, enlivening, and irritating; and its im- 
pressions on the mind partake of these characters, and 
acknowledge also its discordances. 

Yellow is a color abundant throughout nature, and 
its class of pigments abounds in similar proportion. We 
have arranged them under the following heads, agreeably 
to our plan, according to their definiteness and brilliancy 
of color; first, the opaque, and then the transparent, 
or finishing colors. It may be observed of yellow pig- 
ments, that they much resemble whites in their chemical 
relations in general, and that yellow being a primary, 
and, therefore, a simple color, cannot be composed by 
any mixture of other colors. 

* Httiikia's EiemeDU of Drawing, second edition, 1867, p. 7 



This pigment is a chromate of lead, prepared in ParU, 
differing in no essential particular from Chrome Yellow, 
except in the paleness of its color. 


Is a compound of the oxides of lead and antimony, 
anci';ntly prepared at Naples under the name of Oiallo 
lini ; it is supposed also to have been a native produc- 
tion of Vesuvius and other volcanoes, and is a pigment 
of deservedly considerable reputation. It is not so vivid 
a color as Chrome yellow or Jaune Minerale, but is vari- 
ously of a pleasing light, warm, yellow tint. Like these 
yellows it is opaque and in this sense is of good body, 
and covers well. It is not changed by the light of the 
sun, and may be used safely in oil or varnish, under the 
same management as the whites of lead : but, like these 
latter pigments also, it is liable to change even to black 
ness by damp and impure air when used as a water-color 
or unprotected by oil or varnish. 

Iron is also destructive of the color of Naples yellow^ 
on which account great care is requisite, in grinding and 
using it, not to touch it with the common steel palette- 
knife, but to compound its tints on the palette with a 
spatula of ivory or horn. For the same reason it may 
be liable to change in composition with the ochres, 
Prussian and Antwerp blues, and all other pigments of 
which iron is an ingredient or principle. Oils, varnishes, 
and. in some measure strong mucilages, are preventive 
of chemical action, in the compounding of colors, by 
intervening and cl<)thing the particles of pigments, and 
also preserve their colors: and hence, in some instances, 
heterogeneous and injudicious tints and mixtures have 
stood well, but are not to be relied on in practice. Used 
pure, or with white lead, its affinity with which gives 
pt^rmanency to their tints, Naples yellow is a valuable 
and proved color in oil, in which also it works and dries 

It may also be used in enamel painting, as it vitrifies 
without change, and in this state it was formerly em- 
ployed under the name of GicUlohm di/ornace. and Uaa 


been agaiu introduced, under an erroneous conceptiou 
thai vitrification gives permanence to colors, when in 
truth it only increases the difficulty of levigation, and 
injures their texture for working. Naples yellow doeg 
not appear to have been generally employed by the 
early painters in oil. Antimony yellows arc prepared 
of various depths. 


Or McLSticot, is a protoxide of lead, of a pale yellow 
color, exceedingly varying in tint, from the purest and 
most tender yellow or straw color to pale ash color or 
Cray. It has in painting all the properties of the white 
lead, from which it is prepared by gentle calcination in 
an open furnace, but in tint with which, nevertheless, it 
soon loses its color and returns to white : if, however, it 
be used pure or unmixed, it is a useful delicate color, 
permanent in oil under the same conditions as white 
lead, but ought not to be employed in water, on account 
of its changing in color even to blackness by the action 
of damp and impure air. It appears to have been pre- 
pared with great care, and successfully employed, by 
the old masters, and is an admirable dryer, being in its 
•.hemical nature nearly the same as litharge, which is 
also sometimes ground and employed in its stead. 


Called also Mineral yellow, is a native pigment, found 
in most countries, and abundantly in our own. It varies 
considerably in constitution and color, in which latter 
particular it is found from a bright but not very vivid 
yellow to a brown yellow, called spruce ochre, and is al- 
ways of a warm cast. Its natural variety is much in- 
creased by artificial dressing and compounding. The 
best yellow ochres are not powerful, but as far as they 
go are valuable pigments, particularly in fresco and dis- 
temper, being neither subject to change by ordinary 
light, nor much affected by impure air or the action of 
lime ; by time, however, and the direct rays of the sun 
they are somewhat darkened, and by burning are con- 
verted into light reds. They are among the most 
unrlent of pigments, may all be produced artificially ir. 


endless variety as they exist in nature, and iron is tiic 
prjicipal coloring matter in them all. The following arc 
the principal species, but they are often confounded. 


Is a native pigment from the neighborhood of Oxford, 
semi-opaque, of a warm yellow color and soft argill- 
Qceous texture, absorbent of water and oil, in both 
which it may be used with safety according to the 
general character of yellow ochres, of which it is one of 
the best. Similar ochres are found in the Isle of Wight, 
in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, and various other 


True stone ochres are found in balls or globular 
masses of various sizes in the solid body of stones, 
lying near the surface of rocks, among the quarries in 
Gloucestershire and elsewhere. These balls are of a 
smooth compact texture, in general free from grit, and 
of a powdery fracture. They vary exceedingly in color, 
from yellow to brown, murrey, and gray, but do not 
dififer in other respects from the preceding, and may be 
safely used in oil or water in the several modes of 
painting, and for browns and dull reds in enamel. 
Varieties of ochrous colors are produced by burning 
and compounding with lighter, brighter, and darker 
colors, but often very injudiciously, and adversely to 
the certainty of operation, effect, and durability. 


Is rather deeper and more powerful in color than the 
above, but in other respects dififers not essentially from 
them — a remark which applies equally to yellow ochres 
of other denominations. There are ochres of every 


Spruce Ochre, or Ocre de Rue, is a dark-colored yellovi 
ochre, in other respects differing from the preceding; 
it is much employed, and affords useful and permanent 
tints This and all natural ochres require grinding and 

AiPPENDIX. 25() 

wasliing over, to separate them from extraneous sub- 
stances, and they acquire depth and redness by burning. 
They form vvith Prussian blue a variety of greens, and 
are of use in mixture of other colors. 


Or Rata Sienna Earth, etc., is also a ferruginous native 
pigment, and appears to be an iron ore, which may be 
considered as a crude natural yellow lake; firm in sub- 
stance, of a glossy fracture, and very absorbent. It is 
in many respects a valuable pigment, of rather an impure 
yellow color, but has more body and transparency than 
the ochres, and, being little liable to change by the action 
of either light, time, or impure air, it may be safely used 
according to its powers, either in oil or water, and in all 
the modes of practice. By burning it becomes deeper 
orange, and more transparent and drying. See Burnt 
Sienna Earth. It is a valuable color in graining. 


Jaune de Fer, or Jaune de Mars, etc., is a bright iron 
ochre, prepared artificially, of the nature of Sienna earth* 
In its general qualities it resembles the ochres, with the 
same eligibiUties and exceptions, but is more transparent. 
The colors of iron exist in endless variety in nature, and 
are capable of the same variation by art, from Sienna 
yellow, through orange and red, to purple, brown, and 
black, among which are useful and valuable distinctions, 
which are brighter and purer than native ochres. They 
were formerly introduced by the author, and have been 
lately received under the names of orange de mars, rouge 
de mars, brun de mars, names which have the merit at 
least of not misleading the judgment. When carefully 
prepared, these pigments dry well in proportion to their 
depth, and have the general habits of Sienna earths and 


Yellow orpiment has been much celebrated under thia 
name, as it has also under the denomination of — 


Which is a very bright sulpheret of arsenic, brought from 



(Jailed also Miner<d Yellow, is prepared from arsenic 
fluxed with litharge, and reduced to powder. It is much 
like orpiment in color, dries better, and, not being afifect- 
ed by lead, is less liable to change in tint. It must not 
be forgotten that it is poisonous, nor that all arsenic 
colors are destructive of every tint of colors mixed with 
white lead. 


Sulphuret of Cadmium, The new metal, cadmium, 
dflPords, by precipitation with solution of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, a bright, warm, yellow pigment, which passes 
readily into tints with white lead, appears to endure light, 
and remains unchanged in impure air ; but the metal 
from which it is prepared, being hitherto scarce, it has 
been little employed as a pigment, and ita habits are, 
therefore, not ascertained. 


Or Gumboge, is brought principally frora Cambaja, in 
India, and is the produce of several kindii of trees. Is a 
concrete vegetable substance, of a gurc-f e^^inous nature, 
and beautiful yellow color, bright and transparent, but 
not of great depth. When properly used it is more 
durable than generally reputed, both in water and in oil, 
and conduces, when mixed with other colors, to their 
stability and durability, by means of its gum and resin. 
It is deepened in some degree by ammoniacal and impure 
air, and somewhat weakened, but not easily discolored, 
by the action of light. Time effects less change on this 
color than on other bright vegetal yellows ; but white 
lead and other metalline pigments injure, and terrene 
and alkaline substances redden it. It works remarkably 
well in water, with which it forms an opaque solution, 
without grinding or preparation, by means of its natural 
gum, but is with difficulty used in oil. etc., in a dry state, 
in its natural state it, however, drys well, and lasts in 
glazing when deprived of its gum. Glazed over other 
colors in water, its resin acts as a varnish which protectn 
them, and under o.her colors its gum acts uu a prepju* 


ation which admits varnishing. It is injured by a loss 
degree of heat than other pigments. 


Is an animal calculus formed in the gall-bladder, pnnci- 
pally of oxen. This concretion varies a little in color, 
but, is in general, of a beautiful golden yellow, more 
powerful than gamboge, and is highly reputed as a water 
color ; nevertheless, its color is soon changed and des- 
troyed by strong light, though not subject to alteration 
by impure air. 

It is rarely introduced in oil painting, and is by no 
means eligible therein. 


There are several picrments of this denomination, vary- 
ing in color and appearance according to the coloring sub- 
stance used, and modes of preparation. They are usually 
in the form of drops, and their colors are in general bright 
yellow, very transparent, and not liable to change in an 
impure atmosphere — qualities which would render them 
very valuable pigments, were they not soon discolored, 
and even destroyed, by the opposite influence of oxygen 
and light, both in water and oil, in which latter vehicle, 
like other lakes in general, they are bad dryers, and do 
not stand the act"^n of white lead or metallic colors. If 
used, therefore, '^^ should be as simple as possible. 


Red is the second and intermediate of the primary 
colors, standing between yellow and blue, and in like in- 
termediate relation also to whtte and blacky or light and 
shade. Hence it is pre-eminent among colors, as well as 
the most positive of all, forming with yellow the second- 
ary orange and its near relatives, scarlet, etc. ; and with 
blue, the secondary 'purple and its allies, crimson, etc. 
It gives some degree of warmth to all colors, but most 
to those which partake of yellow. 

It is the archeus, or principal color, in the tertiary 
russet; enters subordinately into the two other tertiarics, 
c*triiie and olive, goes largely into the composition of 


the various hues and shades of the semi neutral marront 
or chocolate, and its relatives, spruce, murrey, morel lo, 
mordore, pompadour, etc., and more or less into browns, 
a ray 8, and all broken colors. It is also the second power 
in harmonizing and contrasting other colors, and in 
compounding black, and all neutrals, into whicli it enters 
in the proportion of five- to blue, eight — and yellow, 

Red is a color of double power in this respect also ; 
tliat in union or connection with yellow, it becomes hot 
and advancing ; but mixed or combined with blue, it be- 
comes cool and retiring. It is, however, more congenial 
with yellow than with blue, and thence partakes more of 
the character of the former in its effects of warmth, of 
the influence of light and distance, and of action gn the 
eye, by which the power of vision is diminished, upon 
viewing this color in a strong light ; while on the other 
hand, red itself appears to deepen in color rapidly in a 
declining light, as night comes on, or in shade. These 
qualities of red give it great importance, render it diffi- 
cult of management, and require it to be kept in general 
subordinate in painting; hence it is rarely used unbroken, 
or as the predominating color, on which account it will 
always appear detached or insulated, unless it be repeat- 
ed and subordinate in a composition. Accordingly 
nature uses red sparingly, and with as great reserve in 
the decoration of her works as she is profuse in lavishing 
green upon them, which is of all colors the most soothing 
to the eye, and the true compensating color, or contrast- 
ing or harmonizing equivalent of red, in the proportional 
quantit^r of eleven to five of red, according to gurface or 
intensity, and is, when the red inclines to scarlet or 
orange, a blue-green; and when it inclines to crimson or 
purple is a yellow-green. 

Red breaks and diffuses with white with peculiar love- 
liness and beauty; but it is discordant when standing 
with orange only, and requires to be joined or accom- 
panied by their proper contrast, to resolve or harmonize 
their dissonance. 

In landscapes, etc., abounding with hues allied to 
green, a red object, properly posited according to surb 


fines in light, shade, or distance, conduces wonderfully 
to the life, beauty, harmony, and connection of the color- 
ing ; and this coloring is the chief element of beauty in 
ftoral nature, the prime contrast and ornament »f the 
green garb of the vegetal kingdom. 

Red being the most positive of colors, and having the 
middle station of the primaries, while black and white 
are the negative powers or neutrals of colors, and the ex- 
tremes of the scale — red contrasts and harmonizes these 
neutrals, and, as it is more nearly allied to white or light 
than to black or shade, this harmony is most remark- 
able in the union or opposition of white and red, d\id this 
contrast most powerful in black and red. 

As a color, red is in itself pre-eminently beautiful, 
powerful, cheering, splendid, and ostentatious, and com- 
municates these qualities to its two secondaries, and 
their sentiments to the mind. 

Red being a primary and simple color, cannot be com- 
posed by mixture of other colors; it is so much the 
instrument of beauty in nature and ait in the color ot 
flesh, flowers, etc., that good pigments of this genus may 
of all colors be considered the most indispensable ; we 
have happily, therefore, many of this denomination. 


Is a new pigment of a most vivid and beautiful scarlet 
color, exceeding the brillancy of vermilion. It has re- 
ceived several false appellations, but is truly an Iodide 
or Bi'iodide of mercmy, varying in degrees of intense 
redness. It has the body and opacity of vermilion, but 
should bf used with an ivory palette-knife, as iron and 
most metals change it to colors varying from yellow to 
black. Strong light rather deepens and cools it, and im- 
pure air soon utterly destroys its scarlet color, and even 
metallizes it in substance. The charms of beauty and 
novelty have recommended it, particularly to amateurs, 
and dazzling brilliancy might render it valuable for 
high and fiery effects of color, if any mode of securing 
it from change should be devised, at any tate it should 
be used pure or alone. By time alone these colors van- 
ish in a thin wash or glaze, without iipparent cause, an<l 


they attack almost every metallic substance, and some 
of them even in a dry state. When used in water, gum 
ammoniac appears to secure it from change, and it has 
been observed that, when gamboge is glazed over it, it 
preserves its hue with constancy. 


Is a name proper rather to a class than to an indiviuiial 
pigment, and comprehends Indian red, light red, Ve- 
netian red, scarlet ochre, Indian ochre, redding, ruddle, 
hole, etc., besides other absurd appellations, such as 
Enalish vermilion and Spanish hroion, or majolica. 

Ihe red ochres are, for the most part, rather hues and 
tints, than definite colors, or more properly classed with 
the tertiary, semi-nentral, and broken colors ; they are, 
nevertheless, often very valuable pigments for their tints 
in dead coloring, and for their permanence, etc., in water, 
oil, crayons, distempers, and fresco, and in a low tone of 
coloring have the value of primaries. The greater part 
of them are native pigments, found in most countries ; 
but some are productions of manufacture, and we have 
produced them in the varietj of natore by art. The 
following are the most important of these pigments, 
most of which are available in enamel painting. 


According to its name, is brought from Bengal, and is a 
very rich iron ore, hematite, or peroxide of iron. It is 
an anomalous red, of a purple-russet hue, of a good body, 
and valued when fine for the purencss and laky tone of 
its tints. In a crude state it is a coarse powdw, full of 
extremely hard and brilliant particles of a dark appear- 
ance, sometimes magnetic, and is greatly improved by 
grinding and washing over. Its chemical tendency is to 
deepen, nevertheless it is very permanent ; neither light, 
impure air, mixture with other pigments, time, nor fire, 
effecting, in general, any sensible change in it ; and being 
opaque, it covers well. This pigment varies considerably 
;n its hues ; that which is most rosy being esteemed 
the best, and affording the purest tints: inferior red 
ochres have been formerly substituted for it, and have 


procured it a variable character, but it is now obtaiued 
abundantly, and may be had pure of respectable color- 
nien. Persian red is another name for this pigment. 


Is an ochre of a russet-orange hue, principally valued for 
its tints. The common light red is brown ochre burnt, 
but tlie principal yellow ochres afford this color best, and 
the brighter and better the yellow ochre is, from which 
this pigment is prepared, the brighter will this red be, 
and the better flesh tints will it afford with white ; there 
are, however, native ochres brought from India and other 
countries, which supply its place, some of which become 
darkened by time and impure air ; but in other respects 
light red has the general good properties of other ochres, 
dries admirably, and is much used both in figure and 
landscape painting. It affords also an excellent crayon. 
Terra puzzoli and carnagione of the Italians, differ 
from the above only in their hue, in which respect other 
denominations are produced by dressing and com- 


Or Scarlet ochre. True Venetian red is said to be a 
native ochre, but the colors sold under this name are 
prepared artificially from sulphate of iron, or its residuum 
m the manufacturing of acids. They are all of redder and 
deeper hues than light red, are very permanent, and 
have all the properties of good ochres. 

Prussian red, English red. Rouge de mars, are other 
names for the same pigment, and Spanish red is an ochre 
differing little from Venetian red. 


These pigments are of various colors, which have ob- 
tained, from their material, their hues, or their inventor, 
the various names of rose rubiate, rose madder, pink 
madder, and Field's lakes. 

The pigments formerly called madder lakes were 
brick-reds of dull ochrous nues ; but for many years past 
these lakes have been prepared perfectly transparent, 


and literally as beaiitiful and pure iu color as the rose , 
qualities in which they are unrivalled by the lakes and 
•^annine of cochineal. The rose* colors of madder have 
justly been considered as supplying a desideratum, and 
as the most valuable acquisition of the palette in modern 
times, since perfectly permanent transparent reds and 
rose colors were previously unknown to the art of 

These pigments are of hues warm or cool, from pure 
pink to the deepest rose color ; — they afford the purest 
and truest carnation colors known; from permanent 
tints with white lead ; and their transparency renders 
them perfect glazing or finishing colors. They are not 
liable to change by the action of either light or impure 
air, or by mixture with other pigments ; but when not 
thoroughly edulcorated, they are, in common with all 
lakes, tardy dryers in oil, the best remedy for which is 
the addition of a small portion of japanner's gold-size: 
or, as they are too beautiful and require saddening for 
the general uses of the painter, the addition of man- 
ganese brown, cappagh brown, or of burnt umber, as was 
the practice of the Venetian painters in the using of 
lake, which adds to their powers and improves their 
drying in oils. 

Though little known in ordinary painting they have 
been established by experience on the palettes of our 
first masters during nearly half a century. Madder 
lake may be tested by liquid ammonia, in which its 
color is not soluble as those of other lakes and carmines 


Is prepared in form of drops from cochineal, and is of 
a beautiful transparent red color and excellent body, 
working well both in water and oil, though, like 
other lakes, it dries slowly. Strong light discolors and 
destroys it both in water and oil ; and its tints with 
white lead, and its combinations with other pigments, 
are not permanent; yet when well prepared and judi- 
ciously used in sufficient body, and kept from strong 
light, it has been known to last many years; but it 
ought never to be employed in glazing, nor at all in per- 


formaiices that aim at high reputation and durability. 
It is commonly tinted with vermilion, which has proba- 
bly been mixed with lakes at all times to give them 
scarlet hue, and add to their weight ; Florentine Idke^ 
Hamburgh lake, Chinese lake. Roman and Venetian 
lakes, are but varieties of the same pigment. 


Prepared from the lac or lacca of India, is perhaps the 
first of the family of lakes, and resembles the formei 
from cochineal in being the production of similar insects. 
Its color is rich, transparent and deep, — less brilliant and 
more durable than that of cochineal, but inferior in both 
these respects to the colors of madder. Used in body or 
strong glazing, as a shadow color, it is of great power and 
much permanence ; but in thin glazing it changes and 
flies, as it does also in tint with white lead. 

A great variety of lakes, equally beautiful as those of 
cochineal, have been prepared from this substance in a 
recent state in India and China, many of which we have 
tried, and found uniformly less durable in proportion as 
they were more beautiful. In the properties of drying, 
etc., they resemble other lakes. 

This appears to have been the lake which has stood 
best in old pictures, and was probably used by the Vene- 
tians, who had the trade of India when painting flourished 
at Venice. It is sometimes called Indian Lake. 


Or Field's Carmine, is, as its name expresses, prepared 
from madder. It diff"ers from the rose lakes of madder 
principally in texture, and in the greater richness, depth, 
and transparency of its color, which is of various liuea 
from rose color to crimson. These in other respects re- 
semble the rubric or madder lakes, and are the only 
durable carmines for painting either in water or oil ; for 
both which their texture qualifies them without previous 
grinding or preparation. 


The third and last of the primary, or simple colors, is 
blue, which bears the same relation to shade that yellow 


does to light ; hence it is the most retiring and diffusive 
of all colors, except pnrple and black : and all colors hav^ 
the power of throwing it back in painting, in greater or 
less degree, in proportion to the intimacy of their rela- 
tions to light; first white, then yellow, orange, red, etc. 

Blue alone possesses entirely the quality technically 
called coldness in coloring, and it communicates this 
property variously to all other colors with which it hap- 
pens to be compounded. It is most powerful in a strong 
light, and appears to become neutral and pale in a de- 
clining light, owing to its ruling affinity with black or 
shade, and its power of absorbing light : hence the eye 
of the artist is liable to be deceived when painting with 
blue in too low a light, or toward the close of day, to the 
endangering of the warmth and harmony of liis work. 

Blue mixed with yellow forms greens, and mixed with 
red it forms purples ; it characterizes the tertiary olivet 
and is also the prime color of the neutral black, etc., and 
also of the semi-neutral grays, slate, lead colors, etc. : 
hence blue is changed in hue less than any color by 
mixture with black, as it is also by distance. It enters 
also subordinately into all other tertiary and broken 
colors, and, as nearest in the scale to black, it breaks 
ar i contrasts powerfully and agreeably with white, as in 
wtttchet or pale blues, the sky, etc. It is less active 
than the other primaries in reflecting light, and therefore 
sooner disappears by distance. It is an ancient doctrine 
that the azure of the sky is a compound of light and 
darkness, and some have argued hence that blue is not 
a primary color, but a compound of black and white ; 
but pure or neutral black and white compound in in- 
finite shades, all of which are neutral also or gray. It is 
true that a mixture of black and white is of a cool hue, 
because black is not a primary color, but a compound 
of the three primary colors in which blue predominates, 
and this predominance is rendered more sensible when 
black is diluted with white. 

Blue is discordant in juxtaposition with green, and in a 
less degree so with purple, both ot which are cool colors, 
and therefore blue requires its contrast, orange, in equal 
proportion, either of service or intensity, to compensate 


or resolve its dissonances and correct its coldness Bot- 
anists remark that blue flowers are much more rare 
than those of the other primary colors and their com- 
pounds, and hence advise the florist to cultivate blue 
flowers more sedulously : but in this they are opposed to 
nature, who has bestowed this color principally upon 
noxious plants, and been more sparing of it in decorating 
the green hues of foliage ; for green and blue alone in 
juxtaposition are discordant. Artists, too, havu some- 
tiraea acted upon this principle of the botanist in intro- 
ducing blue flowers into pictures, preferring therein rare- 
ness and novelty to truth and harmony : the artist has, 
however, more command of his materials than the 
botanist in resolving a discord; — Nature, nevertheless, 
left to herself, is not long in harmonizing the dissonances 
men put upon her. Florists may further remark, that 
blue flowers are readily changed by cultivation into red 
and white, but never into yellow ; that yellow flowers are 
as readily converted into red and white, but never into 
blue ; and that red flowers are changeable into orange or 
purple, but never into blue or yellow : the reason of all 
which is apparent according to our principles. Nature 
also regulates the variegation of flowers by the same law 
of coloring. 

Of all colors, except black, blue contrasts white most 
powerfully. In all harmonious combinations of colors, 
whether of mixture or neighborhood, blue is the natural, 
ruling tone, universally agreeable to the eye when in due 
relation to the composition, and may be more frequently 
repeated therein, pure or unbroken, than either of the 
other primaries. These are, however, matters of taste, 
as in munic, and subject to artiBcial rules founded on the 
laws of chromatic combination. 

As blue cannot be composed by mixture of other 
colors it is an original and primary color. The paucity 
of blue pigments, in comparison with those of yellow and 
red, is amply compensated by their value and perfection ; 
nor is the palette without novelty, nor deficient in pig- 
ments of this color : of which the following comprise 
some of those of most importance to the painter. 




Or Azure, is prepared from the lapis lazuli, a prccioi»<» 
stone found principally in Persia and Siberia. It is tLe 
most celebrated of all modern pigments, and, from its 
name and attributes, is probably the same as the no lesa 
celebrated Armeman blue, or Cyanus, of the ancients. 

Ultramarine has not obtained its reputation upon 
sl.ght pretensions, being, when skilfully prepared, of the 
most exquisitely beautiful blue, varying from the ut- 
most depth of shadow to the highest brilliancy of light 
and color, — transparent in all its shades, and pure in its 
tints. It is of a true medial blue, when perfect, par- 
taking neither of purple on the one liand, nor of green 
on the other : it is neither subject to injury by damp and 
impure air, nor by the intensest action of light; and it is 
so eminently permanent that it remains perfectly un- 
changed in the oldest paintings ; and there can be little 
doubt that it is the same pigment which still continues 
with all its original force and beauty in the temples of 
Upper Egypt, after an exposure of at least three thou- 
sand years. The ancient Egyptians had however other 
blues, of which we have already mentioned their counter- 
feit Armenian blue, and several vitreous blues, with 
which they decorated their figures and mummies. 

Ultramarine dries well, works well in oil and fresco, 
and neither gives nor receives injury from other good 
pigments. It has so much of the quality of light in it, 
and of the tint of air, — is so purely a sky color, and is 
hence so singularly adapted to the direct and reflex light 
of the sky, and to become the antagonist of sunshine, — 
that it is indispensable to the landscape-painter ; and it is 
so pure, so true, and so unchangeable in its tints and 
glazings, as to be no less essential in imitating the ex- 
quisite coloring of nature in flesh and flowers. 

To this may be added, that it enters so admirably into 
purples, blacks, greens, grays, and broken colors, that it 
has justly obtained the reputation of clearing or carrying 
light and air into all colors both in mixture and glazing, 
and a sort of claim to universality throughout u picture. 

It is t "ue, nevertheless, that ultramarine is not always 
entitled to the whole of this commendation, being, as a 


precious raatorial, subjected to adulteration ; and it has 
been dyed, damped, and oiled to enrich its appearance : 
but these attempts of fraud may be easily detected, and 
tiie genuine may easily be distinguished from the spurious 
by dropping a few particles of the pigment into lemon- 
juice, or any other acid, which almost instantly destroys 
the color of the true ultramarine totally, and without 

Though unexceptional as an oil color, both in solid 
painting and glazing, it does not work so well as some 
other blues in water ; but when extremely fine in texture, 
or when a considerable portion of gum, which renders it 
transparent, can be used with it to give it connection or 
adhesion while flowing, it becomes a pigment no less 
valuable in water painting than in oil ; but little gum can, 
however, be employed with it when its vivid azure is to 
be preserved, as in illuminated manuscripts and missals. 

Pure ultramarine varies in shade fi'om light to dark, 
and in hue from pale warm azure to the deepest cold 
blue; the former of which, when impure in color, is 
called ultramarine ashes. 


French and German Ultramarine, a variety of these, 
English, French, and German, have been before the pub- 
lic under various names. They are in general of deep 
rich blue colors, darker and less azure than fine ultra- 
marine of the same depths, and answer to the same acid 
test, but are variously affected by fire and other agents : 
none of them, however possess the merits of genuine 
ultramarine. Fire generally darkens these colors, but 
the best way of distinguishing factitious ultramarine 
from the natural is by the violent effervescence of the 
former when dropped into nitrous acid. They may be 
regarded as a great improvement upon the factitious 
blues of the palette, rivalling in depth, although not 
equalling in color, the pure azure of genuine ultramarine, 
for which in some uses they may be substituted, and are 
a valuable acquisition in decoration where brilliancy is 
required — and in printmg. 


Is Ihe name now appropriated to the modern improved 
bine prepared with metallic cobalt, or its oxides, although 
it properly belongs to a class of pigments inclnding Saxon 
blue, Dutch ultramarine, Thenards blue, Royal blue. 
Hungary blue, Smalt, Zaffre or Enamel blue, \nd Dtir 
monVs blue. These differ principally in their degrees of 
purity, and the nature of the earths with which they 
are compounded. 

The first is the finest cobalt blue, and may not im- 
properly be called a blue lake, the color of which is 
brought up by fire, in the manner of enamel blues ; and 
it is, wlien well prepared, of a pure blue color, tending 
neither to green nor purple, find approaching jn brilliancy 
to the finest ultramarine. It has not, however, the body, 
transparency, and depth, nor the natural and modest hue, 
of the latter ; yet it is superior in beauty to all other blue 
pigments. Cobalt blue works better in water than ultra- 
marine in general does ; and is lience an acquisition to 
those who have not the management of the latter, and 
also on account of its cheapness. It resists the action 
of strong light and acids, but its beauty declines by 
time, and impure air. 

It dries well in oil, does not injure or suflTer injury 
from pigments in general, and may be used with a prop- 
er flux in enamel painting, and perhaps also in fresco. 

Various appellations have been given to this pigment 
from its preparers and venders, and it has heen called 
Vienna blue, Paris blue, azure, and, very improperly, 


Sometimes called Azure, is an impure vitreous cobalt 
blue, prepared upon a base of silex, and much used by 
the laundress for neutralizing the tawny or Isabella-color 
of linen, etc., under Ihe name or Powder-blue. It is, in 
general, of a coarse gritty texture, light blue color, and lit- 
tle body. It does not work so well as the preceding, but 
dries quickly, and resembles it in other respects ; — it 
varies, however, exceedingly in its qualities ; and the 
finer sort, called Dumont's blue, which is employed in 
water-color painting, is remarkably rich and beautiful 



Is a deeper colored and very beautiful smalt, and w 
also a vitreous pigment, principally used in painting on 
glass and enamel, in which uses it is very permanent ; 
f.>ut in water and oil its beauty soon decays, as is no un- 
( ommon case with other vitrified pigments ; and it is not 
in other respects an eligible pigment, being, notwith- 
8taL.ding its beautiful appearance, very inferior to other 
cobalt blues. 


Is a lighter colored and somewhat brighter Prussian blue, 
or ferro-prussiate of alumina, having more of the terrene 
basis, but all the other qualities of that pigment, except 
its extreme depth. Haerlem blue is a similar pigment. 



Orange is the first of the secondary colors in relation 
to light, being, in all the variety of its hues, composed of 
yellow and red. A true or perfect orange is such a 
compound of red and yellow, as will neutralize a perfect 
blue in equal quantity, either of surface or intensity, and 
the proportions of such compound are five of perfect red 
to three of perfect yellow. When orange inclines to red, 
it takes the names of scarlet, poppy, coquilicot, etc. In 
gold color, etc., it leans towards yellow. It enters into 
combination with green in forming the tertiary citriney 
and with purple it constitutes the tertiary russet ; it 
forms also a series of warm semi-neutral colors with 
black, and harmonizes in contact and variety of tints 
with white. 

Orange is an advancing color in painting; in nature it 
is effective at a great distance, acting powerfully on the 
eye : diminishing its sensibility in proportion to the 
strength of the light in which it is viewed ; and it is of 
the hue, and partakes of the vividness, of sunshine, as it 
does also of all the powers of its components, red and 

This secondary is pre-eminently a ivai^m col©r, being 
the equal contrast or antagonis't in this respect, as it is 


also in color, to blue, to which the attribute of coolness 
peculiarly belongs : hence it is discordant when standing 
alone with yellow or with red, unresolved by their proper 

Tn the well-known fruit of the Aurantiuin called 
orangey from its golden hue, from which fruit this color 
borrows its well-adapted name, nature has associated two 

Sriraary colors with two primary tastes, which seem to 
e analogous, a red and yellow compound color with a 
sweet and acid compound flavor. 

.The poets confound orange with its ruling color yellow, 
and, by a metonymy, use in its place the terms golden, 
gildi»:g, etc., as gilding sometimes supplies the place of 
this color in painting. 

The list of original orange pigments is so deficient, 
that in some treatises, orange is not even named as a 
color, most of them being called reds or yellows, and 
orange being a color compounded of red and yellow, the 
place of original orange pigments may be supplied by 
mixture of the two latter colors — by glazing one over the 
other — by stippling, or other modes of breaking and in- 
termixing them in working, according to the nature of 
the work and the effect required. For reasons before 
given, mixed pigments are inferior to the simple, *or ho- 
mogeneous in color, working and other properties : yet 
some pigments mix and combine more cordially than 
others. In oil, the compounding of colors is more easily 


Is a beautiful orange pigment, and is one of the most 
durable, and least exceptional chromates of lead, and not 
of iron, as it is commonly called, or Mars Scarlet, another 
misnomer of this pigment, which is truly a subchromate 
of lead. 

It is, when well prepared, of a brighter color than ver- 
milion, but is inferior in durability and body to the latter 
pigment, being liable to the changes and aflSnities of the 
chrome yellows in a somewhat less degree, but less liable 
to change than the orange oxide of lead. Laque Minei'al 
is a French pigment, a species of chromic orange, similar 
to the above. This name is also given to orange oxide 


of iron, and Chromate of Mercury, which is improperly 
classed as a red with vermilion, for though it is of a 
bright ochrous red color in powder, it is, when ground, of 
a bright orange ochre color, and affords, with white, very 
pure orange-colored tints. Nevertheless, it is a bad pig- 
ment, since light soon changes it to a deep russet color, 
and foul air reduces it to extreme blackness. 


Called also Spanish ochre, etc., is a very bright yellow 
ochre, burnt, by which operation it acquires warmth, 
color, transparency, and depth. In color it is moder- 
ately bright, forms good flesh tints with white, dries and 
works well, both in water and oil, and is a very durable 
and eligible pigment. It may be used in enamel paint- 
ing, and has all the properties of its original ochre in 
other respects. 


Is an artificial iron ochre, similar to the above, of which 
we formerly prepared a variety brighter, richer, and more 
transparent than the above, and in other respects of the 
same character, but requiring to be employed cautiously 
with colors aflfected by iron, being more chemically ac- 
tive than native ochres, several of which, and their com- 
pounds, become orange by burning. 


Is, as its name expresses, the Terra di Sienna, burnt 
and is of an orange russet color. What has been said 
of orange ochre, may be repeated of burnt Sienna earth. 
It is richer in color, deeper, and more transparent, and 
works and dries better than raw Sienna earth; but in 
other respects has all the properties of its parent color, 
and is permanent and eligible wherever it may be useful, 
and valuable in graining. Light red and Venetian red^ 
before treated of, are also to be considered as impure, bnt 
durable, orange colors, and several artificial preparations 
of iron afford excellent colors of this class. 

Is an oxide of lead of a more vivid and warmer color 


than red lead, but iu other respects does not differ essen- 
tially from that pigment in its qualification for th» 


Or Realgar, improperly called also Red ot-niment, sinc9 
it is of brilliant orange color, inclining to yellow. There 
are two kinds of this pigment, the one native the other 
factitious; the first of which is the sandarac of the an- 
cients, and is of rather a redder color than the factitious. 
They are the same in qualities as pigments, and differ 
not otherwise than in color from yelloxo orpiment, to 
which the old painters gave the orange hue by heat, and 
then called it alchymy and hui^ orpiment. 


Gr 'en, which occupies the middle station in the natural 
Stale of colors, and in relation to light and shade, is the 
secon-l of the secondary colors ; it is composed of the 
extreme primaries, yellow and blue, and is most perfect 
in hue, when constituted in the proportions of three of 
yellow to eight of blue, of equal intensities ; because such 
a green will perfectly neutralize and contrast a perfect 
red, in the proportions of eleven to five, either of space 
or power, as adduced on our scale of Chromatic Equiva- 
lents. Of all compound colors, green is the most effec- 
tive, distinct and striking, affecting the mind with sur- 
prise and delight, when first produced by the mixture of 
blue and yellow ; so dissimilar to its constitutents does 
it appear to the untutored eye. Green, mixed with 
orange, converts it into the one extreme tertiary, citrine^ 
and, mixed with purple, it becomes the other extreme 
tertiary, olive: hence its relations and accordances, are 
more general, and it contrasts more agreeably with all 
colors, than any other individual color. It has, accord- 
ingly, been adopted with perfect wisdom in nature, as 
the general garb of the vegetal creation. It is, indeed, 
in every respect, a central, or middle color, being the 
contrast and compensatory of the middle primary, red. 
on the one hand, and of the middle tertiary, russet, on 
the other : and, unlike the other secondaries, all its hues. 


whether tending to blue or yellow, are of the same 

These attributes of green, which render it so univers- 
ally effective in contrasting of colors, cause it also to 
become the least useful in compounding them, and the 
most apt to defile other colors in mixture; nevertheless, 
it forms valuable semi-neutrals of the olive class with 
black, for of such subdued tones are the greens, by which 
the more vivid hues of nature are contrasted ; accord- 
ingly, the various greens of foliage are always more or 
less semi-neutral in color, declining into gray. As g)'een 
is the most general color of vegetal nature, and principal 
in foliage, so red, its harmonizing color, and compounds 
of red. are most general and principal in flowers. Purple 
flowers are commonly contrasted with centres, or varie- 
gations of bright yellow, as blue flowers are with like 
relievings of orange; and there is a prevailing hue, or 
character, in the green color of the foliage of almost 
every plant, by which it is harmonized with the colors 
of its flowers. 

Tiie principal discord of green, is blue ; and when they 
approximate or accompany each other, they require to 
be resolved by the opposition of warm colors ; and it is 
in this way that the warmth of distance and the horizon 
reconcile the azure of the sky, with the greenness of the 
landscape. Its less powerful discord is yellow, which 
requires to be similarly resolved by a purple-red, or its 
principles. In its tones, green is cool or warm, sedate 
or gay, either as it inclines to blue or to yellow ; yet it 
is, in its general elfects, cool, calm, temperate, and re- 
freshing, and, having little power in reflecting light, is in 
a mean degree, a retiring color, and readily subdued by 
distance; for the same reasons, it excites the retina less 
than most colors, and is cool and grateful to the eye. 
A.S a color, individually, green is eminently beautiful and 
agreeable, but it is more particularly sc when contrasted 
with its compensating color, red, as it often is in nature, 
and even in the green leaves, and the young shoots of 
plants and trees, and they are the most generally attrac- 
tive of all colors in this respect. They arc hence power- 
ful and effective colors on the feelings and oassions, and 


require, therefore, to be subdued or toned, to prevent 
excitement, and to preserve the balance of harmony in 

The number of pigments of any color is, in general, 
proportioned to its importance; hence the variety of 
greens is very great, though their classes are not very 
ni'merous. Ihe following are some of the principal : 


Green, being a compound of blue and yellow, pigments 
o! these colors may be used to supply the place of green 
pigments, by compounding them in the several ways of 
working, by mixing, glazing, hatching, or otherwise 
blending them in the proportions of the hues and tints 
required. In compounding colors, it is desirable not 
only that they should agree chemically, but that they 
should also have, as much as may be, the same degree 
of durability; and in these respects Prussian or Antwerp 
blue and gamboge, form a judicious, though not ex- 
tremely durable, compound, similar to Varley^s greerij 
Hooker's green, etc., used in water. In common oil 
painting, greens are formed by mixture of the ordinary 
blue and yellow pigments, with additions of white. But 
these are less durable than the original green pigments, 
prepared from copper, of which there are a great variety, 
But the yellow ochres, with Prussian blue, afford more 
eligible pigments than the brighter mixtures of chrome 
yellow afford. Cobalt greens, chrome greens, and Pi-usstan 
green, are names for similar mixtures. 


True Terre-Yerte is an ochre of a bluish green, not 
very bright, in substance, moderately hard, and smooth 
in texture. It is variously a bluish or gray, coaly clay, 
combined with yellow oxide of iron, or yellow ochre. 
Although not a bright, it is a very durable pigment, 
being unaffected by strong light and impun; air, and 
combining with other colors without injury. It has not 
much body, is semi-transparent, and dries well in oil. 
There are varieties of this pigment ; but the green earths 
which have copper for their coloring matter are, although 


generally of brighter colors, inferior in their otlier qiiuli- 
ties, and are not true terre-vertes. 

It has been called Green Dice, and the greens called 
Verona green, and Verdetto, or Holly green, arc similar 
native pigments, of a warmer color. These greens arc 
found in the Mendip Hills, France, Italy, and the Island 
of Cyprus, and have been employed as pigments fiom 
the earliest times. 


Commonly so called, are compound pigments of which 
chrome yellow is the principal coloring substance. 
These are also called Brunswick green, etc., and are 
compounds of chromate of lead, with Prussian and other 
blue colors, constituting fine greens to the eye, suitable 
to some of tlie ordinary purposes of mechanic art ; but 
unfit for fine art. 

There is, however, a true chrome green, or Native 
green, the coloring matter of which is the pure oxide of 
chrome, and being free from lead, is durable, both against 
the action of the sun's light, and impure air. It is of 
various degrees of transparency or opacity, and of several 
hues, more or less warm or cool, wliich are all rather 
fine than brilliant greens, and afford pure, natural, and 
durable tints. True Chrome greens neither give nor re- 
ceive injury from other pigments, and are eligible for 
either water or oil painting, in the latter of which they 
usually dry well. .They afford valuable coloi-s also in 
enamel-painting. To this substance it is that the eme- 
rald owes its green color. 

There are two pigments of this denomination, the one 
a compound of cobalt blue, and chrome yellow, which 
partakes of the qualities of those pigments, and may be 
formed by mixture — the other, an original pigment, pre- 
pared immediately from cobalt, with adaition of oxide of 
iron, or zinc, which is of a pure, but not very powerful 
green color, and durable both in water and oil, in the 
latter of which it dries well. Rinmann's green, is of this 
kind. Its habits arc nearlv the same as those of Cobalt 



Is the name of a new copper green, upon a terrene base. 
It is the most vivid of this tribe of colors, being rather 
opaque, and powerfully reflective of light, and appears to 
be the most durable pigment of its class. Its hue is not 
common in nature, but well suited for brilliant works. 
It works well in water, but with diflSculty in oil, and 
dries badly therein. The only true emerald green is. 
however, that of chrome, with which metal nature gives 
the green color to the emerald. 


Is the commercial name of Green Lakes, prepared from 
the sulphate of copper. These vary in hue and shade, 
have all the properties of copper greens, and afford the 
best common greens, and, not being liable to change of 
color by oxygen and light, stand the weather well, and 
are excellent for the use of the house painter, etc. ; but 
are less eligible in the nicer works of fine art, having a 
tendency to darken by time and foul air. 


The pigment celebrated under this name is an imper- 
feet prussiate of iron, or Prussian blue, in which the 
yellow oxide of iron superabounds, or to which yellow 
tincture of French berries has been added, and is not iu 
any respect superior, as a pigment, to the compounds of 
Prussian blue, and yellow ochre. A better sort of 
Prussian green is formed by precipitating the* prussiate 
of potash, with nitrate of cobalt. 


A good ordinary green of this denomination, for out- 
of-door painting, and fresco, may be prepared by mixture 
of the yellow ochres with black, in small quantities ; oi 
by adding black to any of the ordinary green pigment. 
See Olive 'pigments. 


This pigment, which commends itself on account of its 

* Br a distiuguisbed Americaa scientific writer in the Philadelphia Ledgzr. 



cheapness, and innocuous qualities, and which is some- 
times called Moulin's Green, is prepared by mixing a 
solution of zinc in hydrochloric acid, with a solution of 
oxide of cobalt, in the same acid, and precipitating by 
means of carbonate of soda. The precipitate is washed 
till all trace of chloride of sodium is removed, and the 
residue laid on a gypsum plate, to absorb the superfluous 
moisture, and then heated red hot, when a most beauti- 
ful green will be obtained, at a temperature of 100 de- 
grees of Wedgewood. By combining the zinc in various 
proportions, with alum, or sulphate of alumina, different 
shades of blue can be obtained. 


Purple, the third and last of the secondary colors, is 
composed of red and blue^ in the proportions of five of 
the former to eight of the latter, which constitute a per- 
fect purple, or one of such a hue as will neutralize, and 
best contrast a perfect yellow, in the proportions of 
thirteen to three, either of surface or intensity. It forms, 
when mixed with its co-secondary c^lor, green, the 
tertiary color, olive; and, when mixed witli the remain- 
ing secondary, orange, it constitutes in like manner the 
tertiary color, russet. It is the coolest of the three 
secondary colors, and the nearest also in relation to Uack 
or shade, in which respect, and in never being a warm 
color, it resembles blue. In other respects also, purple 
partakes of the properties of blue, which is its rulinj? 
<;olor ; hisnce it is to the eye a most retiring color, which 
reflects light little, and declines rapidly in power, in 
proportion to the distance at which it is viewed, and also 
in a declining light. It is the most retiring of positive 

Next to green, purple is the most generally pleasing 
of the consonant colors, and has been celebrated as a 
regal or imperial color, as much perhaps from its rare- 
ness in a pure state, as from its individual beauty. When 
.•nclining to the rose, or red, this color takes the names 
Df crimsoUy etc., as it does those of violet, lilac, etc., 
when it inclines toward its other constitutent, blue, which 
latter color it serves to mellow, or follows well into shade. 



The contrast, or liarmonizing color of purple, is yellow, 
on the side of light and the primaries, and it is itself the 
harmonizing contrast of the tertiary citrine, on the side 
of shade, and less perfectly so of the semi-neutral, brown. 
Purple, when inclining towards redness, is a regal, 
magisterial, and pompous color. In its effects on the 
mind, it partakes principally, however, of the powers ol 
its archeus, or ruling color, blue. 

As the extreme primaries, blue and yellow, when 
either compounded or opposed, afiford the most pleasing 
consonance of the primary colors ; so the extremes, pur- 
ple and orange, afford the most pleasing of the secondary 
consonances ; and this analogy extends also to the ex- 
treme tertiary and semi-neutral colors, while the mean 
or middle colors afford the most agreeable contrasts or 
harmonies. Purple pigments are rare, and lie under a 
peculiar disadvantage as to apparent durability and 
beauty of color, owing to the neutralizing power of yel- 
lowness in the grounds upon which they are laid, as well 
as to the general warm color of light, and the yellow 
tendency of almost all vehicles and varnishes, by which 
this color is subdued ; for the same reason this color dis- 
appears by candle-liglit. 


Purple being a secondary color, composed of blue and 
red, it follows of course that any blue and red pigments, 
which are not chemically at variance, may be used in 
producing mixed purple pigments of any required hue, 
either by compounding or grinding them together ready 
for use, or by combining them in the various modes of ope- 
ration in painting. In such compounding, the more per- 
fect the original colors are, the better in general will be 
Uie purple produced. In these ways, ultramaHiie and 
the rose colors of madder constitute excellent and beau- 
tiful purples, which are equally permanent in water and 
oil, m glazing, or in tint, whether under the influence 
of the oxygenous or the hydrogenous principles of light 
and impure air, by which colors are subject to change. 
The blue and red of cobalt and madder afford also good 
purples. Some of the finest and most delicate purple? 


hi Ancient paintings appear to have been Bimilaily com- 
pounded of ultramarine and vermilion, which constitute 
tints equally permanent, but less transparent tlian the 
above. Facility of use, and other advantages, are ob- 
tained at too great a sacrifice by the employment of 
perishable mixtures, such as are the carmines and lakes 
of cochineal with indigo and other blue colors ; but com- 
mou purples may be composed of Prussian blue and ver- 
milion with additions of white. 


Or Cassius's Purple Precipitate, is the compound oxide 
which is precipitated upon mixing the solutions of gold 
and tin. It is not a bright, but a rich and powerful 
color, of great durability, varying in degrees of transpa- 
rency, and in hue from deep crimson to a murrey or 
dark purple, and is principally used in miniature. It 
may be employed in enamel-painting, works well in 
water, and is an excellent though expensive pigment, but 
not much used at present, as the madder purple is 
cheaper, and perfectly well supplies its place. 


Purple Rubtate, or Field's Purple, is a very rich and 
deep carmine, prepared from madder. Though not a 
brilliant purple, its richness, durability, transparency, 
and superiority of color, have given it the preference to 
the purple of gold preceding, and to burnt carmine. It 
is a pigment of great body and intensity; it works well, 
dries and glazes well in oil, and is pure and permanent 
in its tints, neither giving nor sustaining injury from 
other colors. 


Is, according to its name, the carmine of cochineal par- 
tially charred till it resembles in color the purple of 
gold, for the uses of which in miniature and water-paint- 
ing it is substituted, and has the same properties except 
its durability ; of which quality, like the carmine it is 
made from, it is deficient, and therefore in this impor- 
tant respect is an ineligible pigment. A durable color 
of this kind may, however, be obtained by burning 
madde7* cai-mine in a cup over a spirit lamp, or other* 


wise stirring it till it becomes of the hue o: Hues re^ 


The best purple lake, so called, is prepared from cochi- 
neal, and is of a rich and powerful color, inclined to 
crimson. Its character as a pigment is that of the cochi- 
neal lake already described. It is fugitive both in gla- 
zing and tint ; but, used in considerable body, as in the 
shadows of draperies, etc., it will last under favorable 
circumstances a long time, Lac lake resembles it in 
color, and may supply its place more durably, although 
not perfectly so. 


Or Mineral Purple, is a dark ochre, native of the Forest 
of Dean in Gloucestershire. It is of a murrey or choco- 
late color, and forms cool tints of a purple hue with 
white. It is of a similar body and opacity, and darker 
color than Indian red, which has also been classed 
among purples, but in all other respects it resembles 
that pigment. It may be prepared artificially, and some 
natural red ochres burn to this color, which has been 
employed under the denomination of Violet de Mars, 



Citrine, is the first of the tertiary class of colors, or 
ultimate compounds of the primary triad, yellow, red, 
and blue; in which yellow is the predominating color, 
and blue the extreme subordinate ; for citrine being an 
immediate compound of the secondaries, orange and 
green, of both which yellow is a constituent, the latter 
color is of double occurrence therein, while the other 
two primaries enter singly into the composition of cit- 
rine, — its mean or middle hue comprehending eight blue, 
five red, and six yellow, of equal intensities. 

Hence citrine, according to its name, which is the 
name of a class of colors, and is used commonly for a 
dark yellow, partakes in a subdued degree of all the 
powers of its archeus, yellow ; and, in estimating its pro- 
perties and eff'ects in painting, it is to he regarded as 


participaiiiig of all the relations of yellow. By some 
this color is improperly called brown, as almost all 
broken colors are. The harmonizing contrast of citrine 
\s a d'^ep purple ; and it is the most advancing of the 
tertiary colors, or nearest in its relation to light. It is 
variously of a tepid, tender, modest, cheering character, 
and expressive of these qualities alike in painting and 
poetic art. In -nature, citrine begins to prevail in land- 
scape before the other tertiaries, as the green of summer 
declines ; and as autumn advances it tends towards its 
orange hues, including the colors called aurora, chamoise, 
and others before enumerated under the head of 

To understand and relish the harmonious relations 
and expressive powers of the tertiary colors, requires a 
cultivation of perception and a refinement of taste for 
which study and practice are requisite. They are at 
once less definite and less generally evident, but more 
delightful, — more frequent in nature, but rarer in com- 
mon art, than the like relations of the secondaries and 
primaries ; and hence the painter and the poet afford us 
fewer illustrations of effects less commonly appreciated 
or understood. 

Original citrine-colored pigments are not numerous, 
unless we include several imperfect yellows, which might 
not improperly be called citrines : the following are, 
however, the pigments best entitled to this appella- 
tion : 


What has been before remarked of the mixed sccon 
dary colors is more particularly applicable to the ter- 
tiary, it being more difficult to select three homogeneous 
substances, of equal powers as pigments, than two, that 
may unite and work together cordially. Hence the 
mixed tertiaries are still less perfect and pure than the 
secondaries ; and as their hues are of extensive use in 
painting, original pigments of these colors are propor- 
tionately estimable to the artist. Nevertheless, there 
are two evident principles of combination, of which the 
artist may avail himself in producing these colors in the 
various ways of working : the one being that of combin- 


ing two original secondaries, — e. g., green attd orange in 
producing a citrine; the other, the uniting the three 
primaries in such a manner that yellow predominates in 
the case of citrine, and blue and red be subordinate in 
the compound. 

These colors are, however, in many cases produced 
with best and most permanent effect, not by the inti- 
mate combination of pigments, but by intermingling 
them, in the manner of nature, on the canvas, so as to 
produce the effect at a proper distance of a uniform 
color. Such is the citrine color of fruit and foliage; on 
inspecting the individuals of which we distinctly trace 
the stipplings of orange and green, or yellow, red, and 
green. Similar beautiful consonances are observable in 
the russet hues of foliage in the autumn, in which purple 
and orange have broken or superseded the uniform green 
of leaves : and also in the dive foliage of the rose-tree, 
produced in the individual leaf by the ramification of 
purple in green. Yet mixed citrines may be compoun- 
ded safely and simply by slight additions, to an original 
brown pigment, of that primary or secondary tone which 
is requisite to give it the required hue, and red and yel- 
iow ochres mixed form good common paints of this 


Is a vegetal lake prpcipitated from the decoction of 
French berries, and dyeing woods, and is sometimes the 
residuum of the dyer's vat. It is of a fine, rich, transpa- 
rent color, rarely of a true brown ; but being in general 
of an orange broken by green, it falls into the class of 
citrine colors, sometimes inclining to greenness, and 
sometimes toward the warmth of orange. It works 
well both in water and oil, in the latter of which it is of 
great depth and transparency, but dries badly. Its tints 
with white lead are very fugitive, and in thin glazing it 
does not stand. Upon the whole, it is more beautiful 
than eligible. 

UMBER. {See page ^l.) 


The second or middle tertiary color, Russet, like cit* 


fine, is constituted ultimately of the three primaries, 
redj jfeUoWj and bltie ; but with this difference, that in- 
stead of yellow as in citrine, red is the predominating 
color in russet, to which yellow and blue are subordi- 
nates : for oiunge and purple being the immediate con- 
stituents of russet, and red being a component part of 
each of those colors, it enters doubly into their com- 
pound in russet, while yellow and blue enter it only 
singly ; the proportions of its middle hue being eight 
blue, ten red, and three yellow, of equal intensities. It 
follows that russet takes the relations and powers of a 
subdued red ; and many pigments and dyes of the latter 
denominations are in strictness of the class of russet 
colors : in fact, nominal distinction of colors is properly 
only relative ; the gradation from hue to hue, as from 
shade to .shade, constituting an unlimited series, in 
which it is literally impossible to pronounce absolutely 
where any shade or color ends and another begins. 

The harmonizing, neutralizing, or contrasting color 
of russet, is deep green ; — when the russet inclines to 
orange, it is a gray, or subdued blue. These are often 
beautifully opposed in nature, being medial accordances, 
or in equal relation to light shade, and other colors, and 
among the most agreeable to sense. 

Russet, as we have said, partakes of the relations of 
red, but moderated in every respect, and qualified for 
greater breadth of display in the coloring of nature and 
art ; less so, perhaps, than its fellow tertiaries in propor- 
tion as it is individually more beautiful, the powers of 
beauty being ever most effective when least obtrusive , 
and its presence in colors should be principally evident 
to the eye that seeks it. This color is warm, o<»mplacent, 
solid, frank, and soothing. Common acceptaiiuu, sub- 
stitutes the term brown for russet. 

Of the tertiary colors, russet is the most important to 
the artist ; and there are many pigments under the de- 
nominations of red purple, etc., which are of russet hues. 
But there are few true russets, and one only w^iich bears 
the name : of these are the following : 

What has already been remarked upon tl^e produciiiiii 


of mixed citrine colors, is equally applicable in general 
to the mixed russets : we need not, therefore, repeat it. 
By the immediate method of producing it materially 
from its secondaries, orange and purple ochres afiford a 
compound russet pigment of a good and durable color. 
Chrome orange and purple-lake yield a similar but less 
permanent mixture. 

Many other less eligible duple and triple compounds 
of russet are obvious upon principle, and it may be pro- 
duced by adding red in due predominance to some browns ; 
thus red and brown ochre duly mixed afford a good ordi- 
nary russet paint. 


Or Madder Brown, is, as its name indicates, prepared 
from the i^hia tinctoriaf or madder root. . It is of a pure, 
rich, transparent, and deep russet color, introduced by 
the author, and is of a true middle hue between orange 
and purple ; not subject to change by the action of light, 
impure air, time, or mixture of other pigments. It has 
supplied a great desideratum, and is indispensable in 
water-color painting, both as a local and auxiliary color, 
in compounding and producing with yellow the glowing 
hues of autumnal foliage, etc., and with blue the beauti- 
ful and endless variety of grays in skies, flesh, etc. 
There are three kinds of this pigment, distinguished by 
variety of hue : russet, or madder brown, orange russet, 
and dark russet, or intense madder brown / which differ 
not essentially in their qualities as pigments, but as 
warm or cool russets, and are all good glazing colors, 
thin washes of which afford pure flesh tints in water. 
The last dries best in oil, the others but indifferently. It 
is a valuable pigment in the graining of mahogany. 


Differs chemically from Prussian blue only in having 
copper instead of iron for its basis. It varies in color 
''rom russet to brown, is transparent and deep, but being 
very liable to change in color by the action of light and 
by other pigments, has been very little employed by the 



There are several other pigments which en^er iinper- 
fectly into, or verge upon, the class of russet, which, 
having obtained the names of other classes to which 
they are allied, will be found under other heads ; such 
are some of the ochres and Indian red. Burnt carmine 
and Oassius's precipitate are often of the russet hue, or 
convertible to it by due additions of yellow or orange ; 
as burnt Sienna earth and various browns are, by like 
additions of lake or other reds. 


Although there is no pigment of this name in the 
shops, many of the native ochres are of this denomina- 
tion of color, and may be employed accordingly ; and 
the red and yellow ochres of commerce ground together 
and burnt afford excellent russet colors in every mode 
of painting. 


Olive is the third and last of the tertiary colors and 
nearest in relation to shade. It is constituted, like its 
co-tertiaries, citrine and russet of the three primaries, 
blue, red, and yellow, so subordinated, that blue prevails 
therein ; but it is formed more immediately of the sec- 
ondaries, ptirple and green ; and, since blue enters as a 
component principle into each of these secondaries, it 
occurs twice in the latter mode of forming olive, while 
red and yellow occur therein singly and subordinately. 
Blue is therefore, in every instance, the archeus, or pre- 
dominating color of olive; its perfect or middle hue 
comprehending sixteen of blue to five of red, and 
THREE of yellow ; and it participates in a proportionate 
measure of the powers, properties, and relations of blue ; 
accordingly, the antagonist, or harmonizing contrast of 
olive, is a deep orange : and, like blue also, it is a retir- 
ing color, the most so of all the colors, being nearest of 
all in relation to black, and last of the regular distinctions 
of colors. Hence its importance in nature and painting 
is almost as great as that of black : it divides the office 
of clothing and decorating the general face of nature with 
green and blue ; with both which, as with black and gray, 
it enters into innumerable compounds and accordances. 


changing its name, as either hue predominates, into gre&r^, 
grey, ashen, slate, etc. : thus the olive hues of foliage are 
called green, and the purple hues of clouds are calledpray, 
etc., for language is general only, and inadequate to the 
infinite particularity of nature and colors. 

As olive is usually a compound color both with the 
artist and mechanic, and as there is no natural pigment 
in use under this name, or of this color, in commerce 
there are few olive pigments. Terre-vert, already men- 
tioned, is sometimes of this class, and several of the 
copper greens acquire this hue by burning. The follow- 
ing need only to be noticed : 


May be compounded in several ways ; directly, by unit- 
ing green and pwple, or by adding to blue a smaller pro- 
portion of yellow and red, or by breaking much blue 
with little orange. Cool black pigments mixed with 
yellow ochre, afford good olives. These hues are called 
green in landscape, and invisible green in mechanic 


The fine pigment sold under this name, principally as 
a water color, is an arbitrary compound, or mixed green, 
eligible for its uses. Any ordinary green mixed with 
black forms this color for exterior painting in oil, etc. 
And an olive green paint may be economically prepared 
by the mixing of yellow or brown ochre with black, 
which may be varied by additions of blue or green. 


Is what its name expresses, and is an olive colored oxide 
of copper deprived of acid. It dries remarkably well in 
oil, and is more durable : and is, in other respects, an im- 
proved and more eligible pigment than the original ver- 
digris. Scheele's green affords by burning also a series 
of similar olive colors, which are as durable as their 
original pigment, and most of the copper greens may bo 
subjected to the same process with the same results; 
indeed we have remarked in many instances that the 
nction of fire anticipates the efifccts of long continued 


♦ime, and that many of the primary and secondary 
color, may by different degrees of burning, be converted 
into their analogous secondary and tertiary, or semi. 
neutral colors, that come usefully into the graining of 
rosewood, etc. 



As color, according to the regular scale descending 
from white, properly ceases with the class of oh've, the 
neutral black would here naturally terminate the series ; 
but as, in a practical view, every colored pigment, of 
every class or tribe, combines with black as it exists m 
pigments, a new series or scale of colored compounds 
arises, having black for their basis, which, though they 
differ not theoretically from the preceding order inverted, 
are, nevertheless, practically imperfect or impure ; in 
which view, and as compounds of black, we hav-e distin- 
guished them by tlie term senn-neutraL and divided them 
into three classes, Brown, Marrone, and Gray. Inferior 
as the semi-neutral are in point of color, they compre- 
hend, nevertheless, a great proportion of our most per- 
manent pigments ; and are, with respect to black, what 
tints are with respect to white ; i. e., they are, so to call 
them, black tints, or shades. 

The first of the semi-neutral, and the subject of the 
present chapter, is brown, which, in its widest accepta- 
tion, has been used to comprehend, vulgarly, every dc' 
nomination of dark broken color, and in a more limited 
sense, is the rather indetinite appellation of a very ex- 
tensive class of colors of warm or tawny hues. Accord- 
ingly we have browns of every denomination of color 
except blue ; thus we have yellow-brown, red-brown, 
orange-brown, purple-brown, etc., but it is remarkable 
that we have, in this sense, no blue-brown nor any other 
colored brown, in any but a forced sense, in whicli blue 
predominates; such predominance of a cold color iirune- 
diately carrying the compound into the class of gray, 
ashen, or slate color. Hence brown comprehends the 
hues called feuillemort. mort d'crc, dun, liazel, auljiirn 


etc. ; several of which we have already enumerated as 
allied to the tertiary colors. 

The term brown, therefore, properly denotes a warm, 
broken color, of which yellow is a principal constituent; 
nence brown, is in Home measure, to shade what yellow is 
to li^ht, and warm or ruddy browns follow yellow natu- 
rally as shading or deepening colors. It is hence also 
that equal quantities of either of the three primaries, the 
three secondaries, or the three tertiaries, produce vari- 
ously a brown mixture, and not the neutral black, etc.; 
because no color is essentially single, and warmth belongs 
to two of the primaries, but coldness to blue alone. 
Browns contribute to coolness and clearness by contrast 
when opposed to pure colors. Hence their vast impor- 
tance in painting and the necessity of keeping them 
from other colors, to which they give foulness in mix- 

The tendency in the compounds of colors to run into 
broNvuncss and warmth is one of the general natural 
properties of colors, which occasions them to deteriorate 
or dirt eadi other in mixture ; lience brown is synony- 
mous with foul or defiled, in a sense opposed to fair and 
pure ; and it is lience also that brown, which is the 
aearest of the semi-neutrals in relation to light, is to be 
avoided in mixture with light colors. 

This tendency will account also for the use of brown 
in harmonizing and toning and for the great number of 
natural and artificial pigments and colors we possess 
under this denomination ; in fact, the failure to produce 
other colors chemically or by mixture is commonly pro- 
ductive of a brown : yet are tine transparent browns ob- 
viously very valuable colors. If red or blue be added to 
brown predominantly, it falls into the other semi-neutral 
classes, marrone or gray. 

The wide acceptation of the term brown has occa- 
sioned much confusion in the naming of colors, since 
broken colors in which red, etc., predominate have been 
improperly called brown ; and a tendency to red or hot- 
uess in browns obtains for them the reproachful appel- 
'ation oi' foxiness. This term, brown, should therefore 
be confined to the class of semi-neutral colors com- 


pounded of, or of the hues of, either the pnmary yellow, 
t/ie secondary orange, or the tertiary citrine, vnth a black 
pigment ; the general contrast or harmonizing color of 
(?hich will consequently be more or less purple or gray ; 
fcnd with reference to black and white, or light and shade, 
it is of the serai-neutrals the nearest in accordance with 
white and light. 

Brown is a sober and sedate color, grave and solemn, 
out not dismal, and contributes to the expression of 
strength, stability and solidity, vigor and warmth, and 
in minor degree to the serious, the sombre, and the 

'ITie list of brown pigments is very long, and that of 
MIXED BROWNS literally endless, it being obvious that 
every warm color mixed with black will afford a brown, 
and that equal portions of the primaries, secondaries, or 
tertiaries, will do the same ; hence there can be no diffi- 
culty of producing them by mixture when required, 
which is seldom, as there are many browns which are 
good and permanent pigments among the following : 


This pigment, hardly less celebrated than the great 
painter whose name it bears, is a species of peat or bog 
earth of a fine, deep, semi-transparent brown color. The 
pigment so much esteemed and used by Vandyke is said 
to have been brought from Cassel ; and this seems to be 
justified by a comparison of Gassel-earth with the browns 
of his pictures. The Vandyke browns in use at present 
appear to be terrene pigments of a similar kind, purified 
by grinding and washing over ; they vary sometimes in 
hue and in degrees of drying in oil, which they in general 
do tardily, owing to their bituminous nature, but are 
good browns of powerful body, and are durable both in 
water and oil. The Campania brown of the old P.alian 
painters was a similar earth. 


Is an oxide of manganese, of a fine, deep, semi-opaque 
brown, of good body, which dries admirably well in oil. 
It is deficient of transparency, but may be a useful color 


for glazing or lowering the tone of white without tinging 
it, and as a local color in draperies, dead coloring, etc. 
It is a perfectly durable color both in water and oil. 


Or Euchromey is a Native Manganese Broivn, found on 
the estate of Lord Audley at Cappagh, near Cork. It is 
a bog-earth or peat, mixed or mineralized by manganese 
in various proportions. The specimens in which the 
peat earth most abounds are of light weight, friable tex- 
ture, and dark color, — those which contain more of the 
metal are heavy and of a lighter color. 

As pigments, the peaty Cappagh brown is the most 
transparent, deep and rich in color, and dries promptly 
in oil, during which its surface rivels where it lies thick. 
This may be regarded as a superior Vandyke brown and 

The other and metallic sort is a less transparent, 
lighter, and warmer brown pigment, which dries rapidly 
and smoothly in a body or thick layer, and is a superior 
Umber. They do not keep their place while drying in 
oil by fixing the oil, like the dryers of lead, but run. 
The two extreme sorts should be distinguished as light 
and deep Cappagh browns ; the first excellent for dead 
coloring, and grounds, the latter for glazing and graining. 
These pigments are equally applicable to painting in 
water, oil, and varnish, working well in each of these 
vehicles. They have been introduced into commerce 
for civil and marine painting under the names of Etir 
chrome and Mineral Brown, and have been called Cale- 
donian, but are more properly Hibernian browns, and 
are fine colors and valuable acquisitions in all their uses, 
and especially so in the graining of oak, etc. 


Is the fossil pigment called Umber, burnt, by which it 
becomes of a deeper and more russet hue. It contains 
manganese and iron, and is very drying in oil, in which 
it is employed as a dryer. It may be substituted for 
Vandyke brown, is a perfectly durable and eligible pig- 
ment in water, oil, and fresco, and may be produced ar 
tificially. The old Italians called it fatsalo. 



Or, corruptly. Castle earth. The true terre de Cassd is 
an ochrous pigment, similar to the preceding, but of a 
brown color, more inclined to the russet hue. In other 
respects it does not differ essentially from Rubens an'i 
Vandyke browns. 


Incorrectly called C alien'' s earth, is a native pigment, 
darker than the two last, and in no respect differing from 
Vandyke brown in its uses and properties as a color. 
Similar earths abound in England. They are all bitu- 
minous ochres. 


Hie pigment still in use in the Netherlands under this 
appellation is an earth of a lighter color and more ochrous 
texture than the Vandyke brown of the shops : it is also 
of a warmer or more tawny hue than the latter pigment, 
and is a beautiful and durable brown, which works well 
both in water and oil, and much resembles the brown 
used by Teniers. 


Iron Brown. Bran de Mars, and Prussian Brown, 

may be regarded as brown ochres, of which there is abun* 

dance in nature, and all imitable by art. See Yellow 

Ochre. See Spanish Brown, or tiver. See Red Ochre, 


And Ivory Brown are produced by torrefying, or roast- 
ing bone and ivory till, by partially charring, they be- 
come of a brown color throughout. They may be made 
to resemble the first five browns above by management 
in the burning : and though much esteemed by some 
artists, are not perfectly eligible pigments, being bad 
dryers in oil ; and their lighter shades not durable either 
in oil or water when exposed to the action of strong 
light , or mixed in tint with white lead. The palest of 
these colors are also the most opaque: the deepest are 
ui ore durable, and most so when approaching black. 



Called also Bitumen^ Minenal Fitch. Jews* Pitch, etc., it 
a resinous substance rendered brown by the action of 
fire, natural or artificial. The substances employed in 
painting under this name, are residua of the distillation 
of various resinous and bituminous matters in preparing 
their essential oils, and are all black and glossy like 
common pitch, which differs from them only in having 
been less acted upon by fire, and in thence being softer. 
Asphaltum is principally used in oil-painting ; for which 
purpose it is first dissolved in oil of turpentine, by which 
it is fitted for glazing and shading. Its fine brown color 
and perfect transparency are lures to its free use with 
many artists, notwithstanding the frequent destruction 
whicn awaits the work on which it is much employed, 
owing to its disposition to contract and crack by changes 
of temperature and the atmosphere; but for which it 
would be a most beautiful, durable, and eligible pigment. 
The solution of asphaltum in turpentine, united with 
drying oil, by heSt, or the bitumen torrefied and ground 
in linseed or drying-oil, acquires a firmer texture, but 
becomes less transparent, and dries with difficulty. If 
also common asphaltum. as usually prepared with oil of 
turpentine, be used with some addition of Vandyke 
brown, umber, or Cappagh brown ground in drying-oil, 
it will acquire body and solidity, which will render it 
much less disposed to crack, and give it the qualities of 
native asphaltum : nevertheless, asphaltum is to be re- 
garded in practice rather as a dark varnish than as a 
solid pigment, and all the faults of a bad varnish are to 
be guarded against in employing it. This pigment is 
now prepared in excessive abundance, as a product of 
the distillation of coal at tne gas manufactories. 


Is a preparation of asphaltum ground in strong drying, 
oil, by which it becomes less liable to crack. Ochrons 
bitumens, bituminous coal, jet, and other bituminous 
substances, afford similar browns. See also Cappagh 
Brown preceding. 



In a prepaiation of Prussian blue, from which the bhie 
coloring: principle has been expelled by fire, or extracted 
by an alkaline lye ; it is an orange brown, of the nature 
and properties of Sienna earth, and dries well in oil. 


Of the tribe of semi-neutral colors. Gray is the third 
and last, being nearest in relation of color to black. In 
its common acceptation, and that in which we here use 
it, gray denotes a class of cool cinereous colors, faint of 
hue ; whence we have blue grays, olive grays, green grays, 
purple grays, and grays of all hues, in which blue pre- 
dominates ; but no yellow or red grays, the predomi- 
nance of such hues carrying the compounds into the 
classes of brown and marrone, of which gray is the natu- 
ral opposite. In this sense the semi-neutral Gray is 
distinguished from the netUral Gray, which springs in 
an infinite series from the mixture of the neutral black 
and while.: — between grays and gray, however, there is 
no intermediate, since where color ends in the one, neu- 
trality commences in the other, and vice versa ; — hence 
the natural alliance of the semi-neutral gray with black 
or shade ; an alliance which is strengthened by the latent 
predominance of blue in black, so that in the tints re- 
sulting from the mixture of black and white, so much 
of that hue is developed as to give apparent color to the 
tints. This affords the reason why the tints of black 
and dark pigments are colder than their originals, so 
much so as, in some instances, to answer the purposes of 
positive colors. 

The grays are the natural cold correlatives, or con- 
trasts, of the warm semi-neutral browns ; and they are 
degradations of blue and its allies : — hence blue added to 
brown throws it into or toward the class of grays, and 
hence grays are equally abundant in nature and neces- 
sary in art; for the grays comprehend in nature and 
painting a widely diffused and beautiful play of retiring 
colors in skies, distances, carnations, and the shadowings 
and reflections of pure light, etc. 

According to the foregoing relations, grays favor the 


efi'ects and force of warm colors, which in their tin n nlso 
give value to grays, and, by reconciling opposites, give 
repose to the eye. 

A misapplication of coloring, however true — such as 
looking at nature through a prism, and painting its ef> 
fects~in decorations, is but to produce a fool's paradise, 
and to excite wonder and false admiration, in place of 
true effect, sentiment, and repose. 

As blue is the ruling power of all the colors which 
enter into the composition of grays, the latter partake of 
the relations and affections of blue. Grave sounds, liko 
gray colors, are deep and dull ; and there is a similarity 
of these terms in sound, signification, and sentiment, if 
even they are not of the same etymology : be this as it 
may, gray is almost as common with the poet, and in its 
colloquial use, as it is in nature and painting. 'I'he grays, 
like the other semi-neutrals, are sober, modest colors, 
contributing to the expression of coolness, gloom, and 
sadness, bordering, in these respects, upon the powers 
of black, but aiding the livelier and more cheering ex- 
pressions of other colors by connection and contrast. 


Are formed not only by the compounding of black ana 
white, which yields neutral gravSf and of black and blue, 
black and purple, black and olive, etc., which yield the 
semi-neutral grays of clouds, etc., but these may be well 
imitated by the mixture of russet rubiate, or madder 
browns, with blues, which form transparent compounds, 
which are much employed ; grays are, however, as above 
remarked, so easily produced, that the artist will, in this 
respect, vary and suit his practice to his purpose. The 
lead colors of common painting are formed by adding 
black to white lead in oil. They are very useful grounds 
and dead colorings for greens, etc. 


Or Mineral Gray, are the recrement of Lapis lazuli, from 
which ultramarine has been extracted, varying in color 
from dull gray to blue. Although not equal in beauty, 
and inferior in strength of color, to ultramarine, they 
are extremely useful pigments, affording grays nuaoD 



more pure and tender than such as are composed of 
black and white, or other blues, and better suited to the 
pearly tints of flesh, foliage, the grays of skies, and the 
shadows of draperies, but are not necessary to the or- 
dinary painter, who can form them of cheaper pigments. 


Is a native ochre, which classes in color with the deeper 
hues of ultramarine ashes, and is eligible for all their 
uses. It has received the appellation of blue ochre. 

Slate clays and several native earths class with grays ; 
but the colors of the latter are not durable, but become 
brown by the oxidation of the iron they contain. 


See Black Lead, which forms grai/ tints of greater 
permanence and purity than the blacks in general use, 
and it is now employed for this purpose wfth approved 
satisfaction by experienced artists. 



Black is the last and lowest in the series or scale of 
colors descending — the opposite extreme from white — 
the maximum of color. To be perfect it must be neu- 
tral with respect to colors individually, and absolutely 
transparent, or destitute of reflective power in regard to 
light ; its use in painting being to represent shade or 
depths, of which it is the element in a picture and in 
colors, as white is of light. 

As there is no perfectly pure and transparent black 
pigment, black deteriorates all colors in deepening them, 
as it does warm colors by partially neutralizing them, 
but it combines less injuriously with cold colors. 1 hough 
it is the antagonist or contrast of white, yet, added to it 
in minute portion, it, in general, renders white more 
neutral, solid, and local, with less of the character of 
light. Impure black is brown, but black in its purity ia 
a cold color, and communicates this property to all light 
colors ; thus, it blues white, greens yellow, purples red. 


and deji^rades blue and other colors ; hence the artist 
errs who regards black as of nearest affinity to hot and 
brown colors. 

It is the most retiring of all colors, which property it 
communicates to other colors in mixture. It heightens 
the effect of warm as well as of light colors, by a double 
contrast when opposed to them, and in like manner sub- 
dues that of cold and deep colors ; but in mixture or 
glazing these effects are reversed, by reason of the pre- 
dominance of cold color in the constitution of black: 
having therefore the double office of color and of shade, 
black is perhaps the most important of all colors to the 
artist, both as to its use and avoidance. 

Black is to be considered as a synthesis of the three 
primary colors, the three secondaries, or the three ter« 
tiaries, or of all these together ; and, consequently, also 
of the three semi-neutrals, and may accordingly be com- 
posed of due proportions of either tribe or triad. All 
antagonist colors, or contrasts, also afford the neutral 
black by composition ; but in all the modes of producing 
black by compounding colors, blue is to be regarded as 
its predominating color, and yellow as subordinate to 
red, in the proportions, when their hues are true, of 
eight blue, five red, and three yellow. It is owing to 
this predominance of blue in the constitution of black, 
that it contributes by mixture to the pureness of hue in 
white colors, which in general incline to warmth, and it 
produces the cool effect of blueness in glazing and tints, 
or however otherwise diluted or dilated. It accords with 
the principle here inculcated that in glass-founding, the 
oxide of manganese, which affords tho red hue, and that 
of cobalt which affords the blue, are added to brown or 
yellow frit to produce a velvety-black glass ; and that the 
dyer proceeds to dye black upon a deep blue basis of in- 
digo, with the ruddy color of madder and the yellow of 
quercitron, galls, sumach, etc. ; and experience coincides 
with principle in these practices, but if the principle be 
wanting the artist will often fail in his performances. 

All colors are comprehended in the synthesis of 
black, consequently the whole sedative power of color is 
comprised in black: It is the same in the synthesis of 
white ; and, with like relative consequence, white com 


prehends all the stimulating: powers of color in painting. 
It follows that a little black or white is equivalent to 
much color, and hence their use as colors requires judg- 
ment and caution in painting; and, in engraving, black 
and white supply the place of color«, and hence « true 
knowledge of the active or sedative power of every color 
is of great importance to the engraver. 

By due attention to the synthesis of black it may be 
rendered a harmonizing medium to all colors, and it, 
gives brilliancy to them all by its sedative effect on the 
eye, and its powers of contrast ; nevertheless, we repeat, 
as a pigment it must be introduced with caution ii? 
painting when hue is of greater importance than shade ; 
and black pigments produced by charring have a dispo- 
Kition to rise and predominate over other hues, and to 
subdue the more delicate tints by their chemical bleach- 
ing power upon other colors, and their own disposition 
to turn brown or dusky. And for these reasons deep 
and transparent colors, which have darkness in their 
constitution, are better adapted in general for producing 
true natural and permanent effects. 

Black is to be regarded as a compoimd of all other 
colors, and the best blacks and neutrals of the painter 
are those formed with colors of sufficient power and 
transparency upon the palette ; but most of the black 
pigments in use are produced by charring, and owe their 
color to the carbon they contain : such are Ivory and 
Bone blacks, Lamp black. Blue blacky Frankfort black, 
etc. The first three are most in use, and vary accord- 
ing to their modes of preparation or burning ; yet fine 
Frankfort black, though principally confined to the use 
of the engraver and printer, is often preferable to Ihe 

Native or mineral blacks are heavy and opaque, bat 
dry well. 

Black pigments are innumerable : the following are 
however the principal, all of which arc permanent 
colors : 

IVORY BLACK. [See page 22.) 

LAMP BLACK. [See page 23.) 



Is said to be made of the lees of wine from which the 
tartar has been washed by burning, in the manner of 
ivory black. Similar blacks are prepared of vine twigs 
and tendrils, which contain tartar; also from peach- 
stones, etc., whence almond black and peach black; and 
tne Indians employ for the same purpose the shell of the 
cocoa-nrvt : and inferior Frankfort black is merely the 
levigated charcoal of woods, of which the liardest, such 
as box and ebony, afford the best. Fine Frankfort 
black though almost confined to copper-plate printing, 
is one of the best black pigments we possess, being of a 
fine neutral color, next in intensity to lamp black, and 
more powerful than that of ivory. Strong light has the 
effect of deepening its color ; yet the blacks employed 
in the printing of engravings have proved of very varia- 
ble durability. It is probable that this black was used 
by some of the Flemish painters, and that the pureness 
of the grays formed therewith is attributable to the 
property of charred substances to prevent discolor- 
ment ; although they have not the power of bleaching 
oils as they have of many other substances. 


Is also a well-burnt and levigated charcoal, of a cool 
neutral color, and not differing in other respects from 
the common Frankfort black above-mentioned. Blue 
black was formerly much employed in painting, and, 
in common with all carbonaceous blacks, has, when duly 
mixed with white, a preserving influence upon that 
color in two respects ; which it owes, chemically, to the 
bleaching power of carbon, and, chromatically, to the 
neutralizing and contrasting power of black with white. 
A superior blue black may be prepared by calcining 
Prussian blue in a close crucible, in the manner of ivory 
black : and it has the important property of drying well 
in oil ; innumerable black pigments may be produced in 
this way by charring. 

[g a Roft black, prepared by burning cork in the manner 

• APPENDIX. 299 

of Frankfort and ivory blacks ; and it differs not essen- 
tially from the former, except in bein|s^ of a lighter and 
softer texture. It is subject to the variation of the 
above charred blacks, and eligible for the same uses. 
Paper black, the Nero difoglio of the Italians, often pre- 
pared in the same way, much resembles Spanish black 
as does also Prussian black prepared by roasting Prus- 
sian blue. 


Is a native impure oxide of carbon, of a soft texture, 
found in Devonshire and Wales. It is blacker than 
plumbago, and free from its metallic lustre, — is of a neu- 
tral color, grayer and more opaque than ivory black, — 
forms pure neutral tints, — and being perfectly durable, 
and drying well in oil, it is valuable in dead coloring on 
account of its solid body, as a preparation for black and 
deep colors before glazing. It would also be the most 
durable and best possible black for frescoes. Russian 
black is of this class. 


The common black oxide of manganese answers to 
the character of the preceding pigment, and is the best 
of all blacks for drying in oil without addition, or prepa- 
ration of the oil. It is also a color of much body and 
tinging power. 


Is a variety of the mineral black above, combined with 
iron and alluvial clay. It is found in most coimtries, 
and should be washed and exposed to the atmosphere 
before it is used. Sea-coal, and innumerable black mine- 
ral substances, have been and may be employed as suc- 
cedanea for the more perfect blacks, when the latter are 
not procurable, which rarely happens. 


Plumbago, or Graphite, is a native carburet of iron or 
oxide of carbon, found in many countries, but particu- 
larly in Borrodale in Cumberland, and in Russia, wliere 
there are mines of it, from which the best is obtained, 
ond consumed in large quantities in the formation of 

300 APPENDIX. • 

crayons and the black-lead pencils of the shops, which 
are in universal use in writing, sketching, designing, and 
drawing ; for which the facility with which it may be 
rubbed out by Indiarubber or caoutchouc, gutta per- 
cha, and the crumb of bread, admirably adapts it. 

Although not acknowledged as a pigment, its powers 
in this respect claim a place for it, at least among water- 
colors ; in which way, levigated in gum-water in the ordi- 
nary manner, it may be used eflfectually with rapidity 
and freedom in the shading and finishing of pencil draw- 
ings, etc., and as a substitute therein for Indian ink. 
Even in oil it may be useful occasionally, as it possesses 
remarkably the property of covering, forms very pure 
gray tints, dries quickly, injures no color chemically, 
and endures forever. These qualities render it the most 
eligible black for adding to white in minute quantity 
to preserve the neutrality of its tint. 

Although plumbago has usurped the name of Black 
Lead, there is another susbtance more properly entitled 
to this appellation, and which may also be safely em- 
ployed in the same manner, and with like effects as a 
pigment. This substance is the Sulphuret of Lead, 
either prepared artificially, or as found native in the 
beautiful lead-ore, or Galena. 


As there are circumstances under which some pig- 
ments may very properly and safely be used, which imder 
others might prove injurious or destructive to the work, 
the following Lists or Tables are subjoined, in which 
they are classed according to various general properties, 
as guides to a judicious selection. These Tables are the 
results of direct experiments and observations, and are 
composed, without regard to the common reputation or 
variable character of pigments, according to the real 
merits of the various specimens tried. 

As the properties and eff*ects of pigments are much 
influenced by adventitious circumstances, and are some- 
times varied or altogether changed by the grounds on 
which pigments are used, by the vehicles in which they 
are used, by the siccatives and colors with which they 
are used, and by the varnishes by which they are cov- 


ered, these Tables arc olTered only as approximations to 
the true characters of pigmentB and as geoeral guides to 
right praetipe. They render it also apparent, as a gen. 
cral conclusion, that the majority of pigments have a 
mediocrity of qualification, balancing Ihclr excelleaces 
with their defe<;ts, and that the number of gaud nnd 
eligible pigments overbalances those which ought in 
genera! to be rejected. 

Of pigments, the colors of which euffer diEferenl de- 
grees of change by the action of light, oxygen, and pure 
air, bnt are little, or not at all, affected by shade, sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, damp, and foul air : 

iQdian Yellow 

ra i Light Boqp F.icin], 

Remarks. — None of the pigments in this Table are 
eminent for permanence. No white or black pigment 
whatever belongs to this class, nor does any tertiary, and 
a few only of the original semi-neutrals. Most of those 
inchided in the list fade or become lighter by time, and 
also, in general, less bright. 


Pigments, the colors of which are little, or not at all, 
changed by light, Oiygen, and pure air ; but are more 
or less injured by the action of shade, sulphuretted hy. 
drogen, damp, and impure air : 





Red ... 

Common White Lead 
Flake White 
Croms White 
Roman White 
Venetian White 
Blano d' Argent 
Sulphate of Lead 

Patent Yellow 
Jaune Minerale 
Chrome Yellow 
Naples Yellow 

Red Lead 
Chrome Red 
Dragon's Blood 
Iodine Scarlet 

Blae ... 

Blae Vorditer 
Sanders Blae 
Mountaid Blae 
Royal Blue 
Smalt and other 
bait Blues 



Green.. ■ 

Orange Lead 
Orange Chrome 
Chromate of Meroory 
Laqne Mineral 

Green Verditer 
Mountain Green 
Com'n Chrome Greec 
Mineral Green 
Verdigris and other 
Copper Greens 

Remarks. — Most of our best white pigments are com- 
prehended in this Table, but no black, tertiary, -or semi- 
neutral color. 

Many of these colors, when secured by oils and var- 
nish, etc., may be long protected from change. The pig- 
ments of this Table laay be considered as more durable 
than those of the preceding ; they are, nevertheless, ineli- 
gible in a water vehicle, and in fresco ; and most of them 
become darker by time alone in every mode of use. 

This list is the opposite of Table I. 


Pigments, the colors of which are subject to change 
by the action both of light and oxygen, and the opposite 
powers of sulphuretted hydrogen, damp, and impure air 



Pearl or Bismuth 

Antimony White 

f T. 
t P, 

Turbeth Mineral 
atent Yellow 


Sulphate of Antimony 



f Iodine Scarlet 
•••• I Dnigon's Blood 

Blue... I I 

Royal Blue 
Prui'sian Blue 
Antwerp Blue 

Green.. •{ Verdigris. 

Russel •{ Pmssiate of Copper 



Remarks.-— This Table comprehends our most iraper- 
feet pigments, and demonstrates how few absohitely bad 
have obtained currency. Indeed, several of them are 
valuable for some uses, and not liable to sudden or ex- 
treme change by the agencies to which they are here 
subjected. Yet the greater part of them are destroyed 
by time. 

These pigments unite the bad properties of those in. 
the two preceding Tables. 


Pigments not at all, or little, liable to change by the 
action of light, oxygen, and pure air ; nor by the oppo- 
site influences of shade, sulphuretted hydrogen, damp, 
and impure air; nor by the action of lead or iron: 

White ^ 





Oranj^e • 

Zinc White 
Coiif^tant, or Barytic 

Tin White 
The Pure Earths 

Yellow Ochre 
Oxford Ochre 
Roman Ochre 
Sienna Earth 
Stone Ochre 
Brown Ochre 


Rubiates, or Madder 

Madder Carmines 
Red Ochre 
Light Red 
Venetian Red 
Indian Red 

Blue Ochre 

Orange Ochre 
Jaune de Mars 
Burnt Sienna Earth 
Rurnt Roman Ochre 
Light Red, eto. 






Chrome Greens 
Terre Verte 
Cobalt Green 

Gold Purple 
Madder Purple 
Purple Ochre 

Russet Rubiate^ or 

Madder Brown 
Intense Russet 

Vandyke Brown 

Raw Umber 
Burnt Umber 
Cassel Earth 
Cologne Earth 
Mummy, etc. 
Ultramarine Ashef 

Manganese Brown 
Cappagh Brown 

Ivory Black 
Lamp Black 
Frankfort Black 
Mineral Black 
Black Chalk 
Indian Ink 



Kbmarks. — This Table comprehends all the best at <d 
most permament pigments, and such as are eligible tor 
water and oil painting. It demonstrates that the best 
pigments are also the most numerous, and browns the 
most abundant. 


Pigments subject to change variously by the action 
of white lead and other pigments, and preparations of 
of that metal : 

'' Massicot 
Yellow Orpiment 
King's Yellow 
Chinese Yellow 
Yellow •{ Gallstone 

Indian Yellow 
Yellow Lake 
Dutch ) 
English V Pink 
Italian J 

' Blue... ^ Indigo 

Orange Lead 
Orange Orpiment 

Orango ^ ^ AnUmo^n"^^^"' ""^ 
Annoita, or Rouoou 
Carucruy or Chioa 

Red... • 


Green.. •{ Sap Green 

Purple j 

Citrine •{ Brown Pink 

Purple Lake 
Burnt Carmine 

Iodine Scarlet 

Red Lead 

Dragon's Blood 








Rose Pink 

Remarks. — Acetate or sugar of lead, litharge, and oils 
rendered drying by oxides of lead, are all, in some meas* 
Dre, destructive of these colors. Light, bright, and ten- 
der colors are principally susceptible of change by the 
action of lead. 

The colors of this Table are very various in their 
modes of change, and thence do not harmonize well by 
time ; it follows, too, that when any of these pigment's 
are employed, they should be used pure or unmixed ; and 
by preference, in varnish ; while their tints with whit* 
lead ought to be altogether rejected. 




Pisfmenfs, the colors of which are subject to change 
by iron, its pigments, and other ferruginous substances : 

^""^ I K'd-AS' 

Tellow • 




Kings Yellow 
Patent Yellow 
Naples Yellow 
Chinese Yellow 

Iodine Scarlet 
Scarlet Lake 

Blue... •< 

Blue Verdi ter 
Mountain Blue 
Intense Blue 



Green Verdi ter 

Russet ■{ Prussiate of Copper 

Remarks. — Several other delicate pigments are slightly 
affected by iron and its preparations ; and with all such, 
as also with those of the preceding Table, and with all 
pigments not well freed from acids or salts, the iron 
palette knife is to be avoided or used with caution, and 
one of ivory or horn substituted in its place. Nor can 
the pigmeuts of this Table be, in general, safely combined 
with tlie ochres. Strictly speaking, that degree of fric- 
tion which abrades the palette knife in rubbing of pig- 
ments therewith, is injurious to every bright color. 

Figments more or less transparent, and generally fit 
to be employed as graining and finishing colors, if not 
disqualified according to Tables L, II., and III. : 

Yellow ■ 

Sienna Earth 
Indian Yellow 
Italian 1 
English V Pink 
Dutch J 
Yellow Lake 

Eed ... 

Madder Carmine 
Madder Lakes 
Lac Lake 
Dragon's Blood 
Rose Pink 

■ Lakes 




Cobalt Blue 
Royal Blue 
Prussian Blue 
Antwerp Blue 
Intense Blue 

Madder Orange 


Burnt Sienna Earth 

Jaune de Mars 

Chrome Green 
Sap Green 
Prussian Green 







Madder Purple 
Burnt Carmine 
Purple Lake 
Lao Lake 


Brown Pink 
Citrine Lake 

Madder Brown 
PrusBiate of Copper 


Vandyke Bruwo 
Cologne Earth 
Burnt Umber 
Bone Brown 
Brown •{ Mummy 

Brown Pink 
Antwerp Brown 
Prussian Brown 

Qray •{ Ultramarine Asboi 

Black •( 

Ivory Black 
Bone Black 
Lamp Black 
Frankfort Black 
Blue Black 
Spanish Black 

Kemarks. — This Table comprehends most of the best 
water-colors ; and their most powerful effects in oil-paint> 
ing are attainable by employing them with resinous var- 
nishes. Pigments not inserted in this Table may of 
course be considered of an opposite class, or opaque 
colors ; with which, nevertheless, transparent effects in 
painting are produced by the skill of the artist in break- 
mg and mingling without mixing them, etc. 

The great importance of transparent pigments is to 
unite, and give tone and atmosphere generally, with 
beauty and life, to solid or opaque colors of their own 
hues ; to convert primary into secondary, and secondary 
into tertiary colors with brilliancy ; to deepen and enricii 
dark colors and shadows, and to give force and tone to 
black itself. 


Pigments, the colors of which are little or not at all 
affected by heat or fire : 

Tin White C Naples Yellow 


Barytic White 
Zinc White 
The Pure Earths. 



Patent Yellow 
Antimony Yellow 



TABLE YllL^Continued. 

Red .. 

' Red Ochre 
Light Rod 



Venetian Red 
Indian Red 

Royal Bine 


Dumont's Bine and 

all Cobalt Blues 

Orange Ochre 
Jaune de Mars 
Burnt Sienna Earth 
Burnt Roman Ochre 



True Chrome Groea 
Cobalt Green 

^-'P" { ?uUlWr 



*" Rubens Brown 
Burnt Umber 
Oassel Earth 
Cologne Earth 
Antwerp Brown 
Manganese Brown 



Mineral Black 

BRMA.RKS. — Many of the pigments of this Table are 
available in enamel painting, and most of them are dur- 
able in the other modes. 


Pigments which are little or not at all affected by 
Zime, and in various degrees eligible for fresco, distem- 
per, and crayon painting: 

Barytic White 
Pearl White 
Gypsum, and all Pure 


Tel 10 w • 


Yellow Ochre 
Oxford Ochre 
Roman Ochre 
Sienna Earth 
Stone Ochre 
Brown Ochre 
Indian Yellow 
Patent Yellow 
Naples Yellow 

Red Lead 
Red Oohre 
Light Red 
Venetian Red 
Indian Red 
Madder Reds 

Blue... < 

Smalt, and all Cobalt 

Orange • 

Green • 

Orange Lead 
Orange Chrome 
Laque Mineral 
Orange Ochre 
Jaune de Mars 
Burnt Sienna Earth 
Light Red, etc. 

Green Verditer 
Mountain Green 
Chrome Green 
Mineral Green 
Emerald Green 
Verdigris and other 

Copper Greens 
Terre- Verte 
Cobalt Green. 




— CorUiuued. 

r Gold Purple 

Ivory Blaek 

Purple ^ 

Miidder Purple 

Lamp Blaok 

[ Purple Ochre 

Frankfort Bloek 


Mineral Black 

Bone Brown 

Black Chalk 

Vandyke Brown 

Indian Ink 

Rnbens Brown 



Raw Umber 


Burnt Umber 


Ca?sel Earth 


Cologne Earth 


Antwerp Brown 
Chestnut Brown 

Ultramarine Ashes 
Manganese Brown 

Remarks. — This Table shows the multitude of pig- 
ments from wliich the painters in fresco, scagliola, dis- 
temper, and crayons, may select their colors ; in doing 
which, however, it will be necessary they should consult 
the previous Tables respecting other qualities of pig- 
ments essential to their peculiar modes of painting, as 
these modes are exciting renewed interest in the world 
of art, tending to their extension in practice, particu- 
larly the latter of them. 


Or Siccatives. With respect to Desiccation or Drying, 
the well-known additions of the acetate ox sugar of leadj 
litharge, and sulphate of zinc, called also improperly white 
copperas and white vitriol, either mechanically ground 
or in solution, for light colors; and ji'apaymer's gold size^ 
or oils boiled upon litharge for lakes ; or in some cases 
verdigns and manganese for dark colors, may be resorted 
to when the colors or vehicles are not sufficiently good 
dryers alone : but it requires attention, that an excess 
of dryer renders oils saponaceous, is inimical to drying, 
and injurious to the permanent texture of the work. 
Some colors, however, dry badly from not being suffi- 
ciently edulcorated or washed, and many are improved 


in drying by passing through the fire, or by%ge. Sul- 
phate of ziuc, as a dryer, is less powerful than acetate of 
lead, but is preferable in use with some colors, upon 
which it acts less injuriously ; but it is supposed, erro- 
neously, to set the colors running ; which is not posi- 
tively the case, though it will not retain those disposed 
to it, because it wants the property the acetate of lead 
possesses, of gelatinizing the mixture of oil and varnish. 
Tliese two dryers should not be employed together, as 
frequently directed, since they counteract and decomposo 
each other by double election, — forming two new sub- 
stances, the acetate of zinc, which is an ill dryer, and 
the sulphate of lead, which is insoluble and opaque. 

It is not always that ill drying is attributable to the 
pigments or oils, — the state of the weather and atmos- 
phere have great influence thereon. The oxygenating 
power of the direct rays of the sun renders them pecu- 
liarly active in drying oils and colors, and was probably 
resorted to before dryers were added to oils, and the at- 
mosphere is imbued with the active matter of light to 
which its drying power may be attributed. The grc und 
may also advance or retard drying, because some pig- 
ments, united either by mixing or glazing, are either 
promoted or obstructed in drying by their conjunction ; 
artificial heat also promotes drying. 

The various affinities of pigments occasion each to 
have its more or less appropriate dryer ; and it would be 
a matter of useful experience if the habits of every pig- 
ment in this respect were ascertained ; — siccatives of less 
power generally than the above, such as the acetate of 
copper, massicot, red lead, and the oxides of manganese, 
to which umber and the Cappagh browns owe their dry- 
ing quality, and others might come into use in particu- 
lar cases. Many other accidental circumstances may 
also affect drying. Dryers should be added to pigments 
only at the time of using them, because they exercise 
their drying property while chemically combining with 
the oils employed, during which the latter become thick 
or fatten, and render additional oil and dryer necessary 
when again used. Acetate of lead dissolved in wa*«r, 
spirit, or turpentine may be used as a dryer of oil paiptf 
with convenience |ind advantage in some cases. 


In the efnployment of dryers attention is necessary— 
i. Not to add them uselessly to pigments that dry well 
in oil alone. — 2. Not to employ them in excess, which 
retards drying. — 3. Not to add them to the color till it 
is to be used. — 4. Not to add several kinds of dryers to 
the same color : and — 5. To use simple dryers in prefer- 
ence to nostrums recommended and vended for drying of 
paints. Impurity of the pigment sometimes retards 
drying, in which case it should be washed. 

Another attention should be, that one coat of paint 
should be thoroughly dry before another is applied; for 
if the upper surface of paint dry before the surface be- 
neath it, it will rivel by the expaofsion and contraction 
of the under surface, as the oil evaporates and dries: 
overloading with paint will be attended by the same evil, 
and if the upper surface be of varnish or brittle, craciin^ 
of the paint will ensue. 



Are of first consideration to the artist in every mode of 
painting, a well-prepared surface being an essential basis 
jor the work, whether it be on wood, canvas, paper, 
plaster, stucco, stone, or metal ; on all which it is neces- 
sary to produce a clean and even face by the application 
of pumice-stone, scraping, filing, etc., to remove rough- 
nesses, and to stop and putty cracks and hollows, and to 
prime and prepare according to the nature of the work 
and the ground itself. 


On wood, requires first the smoothing, cleaning and 
dusting of the surface. What is technically called killing 
of the knots consists in applying wet lime over them, 
which when dry should be rubbed with a hot iron to melt 
out resin or turpentine that might flow and disturb the 
paint ; they may then be pumiced and made smooth. 
lloles and cracks must be stopped with Putty, which is 
made by kneading whitening or powdered chalk into a 
tenacious mass with boiled linseed oil, which dries hanl 
as stone. Puttying is best performed after the oil paint- 
ing, or first coat of paint, which secures its adhesion. 



For works that are to stand damp and weather, consists 
In a first thin painting with linseed oil and red-lead, 
massicot, or litharge ; but for in-door and dry work deaf 
colling is preferred, which consists in using size of glue 
instead of oil in the priming, but it is liable to peel and 
scale oflf in damp places. Work thus prepared, smoothed, 
and primed, is ready for the painting and finishing ; but 
in no case should wood in a wet state, or green and un- 
seasoned wood, be painted in oil ; the consequence in 
such cases being either the speedy decaying of the wood, or 
the scaling and casting oflf of the paint. The usual pro- 
cesss of oil-painting requires the ground white lead to be 
diluted with linseed oil and hardly any spirit of turpen- 
tine for the first coat : equal quantities of both for the 
second coat, and for the third or finishing coat twice as 
much turpentine as linseed oil ; and stul more of the 
turpentine in proportion for dead flatting according to 
the tints and colors. For work exposed to weather the 
turpentine should be wholly omitted, and oil alone em- 
ployed. When painting external work in imitation of 
freestone it is a valuable practice to strew the second or 
last full coat of oil paint while wet with fine washed and 
sifted sand, which adhering and drying on with the paint, 
forms a durable coat, exactly resembling stone and pro- 
tecting the work from weather. Powdered talc, gold 
and silver leaf bronzes, smalts and colors, are similarly 
employed i.n ornamental work. 


Consists in employing spirit of turpentine instead of 
linseed oil in diluting of the color, so that no more oil is 
used than is necessary to bind the paint and fix it on the 
ground, and not suflBcient to make it bear out with the 
gloss of ordinary oil painting; a third or fourth of the 
oil being sufficient. This mode is, of course, only suited to 
internal and delicate works in which the change of color 
and glare of light are to be avoided, and it might in 
gome cases appear to advantage mixed and comparted 
with ordinary painting, diversified by dead color and 
gloss ; or the latter may be produced by varnish. 


'J'he priming, under the same conditions, is tlie same 
for wood, plaster, stucco, and stone ; but for paper and 
canvas, which are made rotten by oil, the priming mast 
be of size, and for iron work, first freed from rust, it 
must in all cases be of oil, avoiding the use of cop- 
per greens as a first coat. For small works, primed 
canvas may be obtained from the colormen. Dryers arc 
requisite in priming as they dispose the upper painting 
to dry quicker and unite better. Sponging with water 
previous to the applying each coat of paint disposes it to 
work and unite better, and in work exposed to the sun 
prevents blistering. 


In addition to the art of imitating the graining of 
woods, marbles, etc., by oil-colors, there are methods of 
bringing out with effect and beauty, as well as of pre- 
serving the natural graining of woods, etc., and also of 
imitating, heightening, and improving them artificially, 
which though less practised, is not less ingenious or 
worthy of attention from the grainer, it being as desira- 
ble to heighten and preserve the natural beauty of wood- 
works, as by artificial painting to imitate them or hide 
their defects. 

For bringing out the natural grain of wood-work 
where it is of sufficient beauty, it is enough to apply 
successive coats of drying oil, or to varnish the naked 
work till it bears out, which is sufficient for ordinary 
joiner's work; but in the nicer cabinet work, in which 
the choice ornamental woods are employed, French 
polishing is necessary, which is performed with a spirit 
varnish containing Lac, applied by rubbers with linseed 
oil, and is now so common as to have become a distinct 

In other cases graining may be performed on the 
naked wood with transparent colors in turpentine or 
water which, when dry, may be varnished or French 
polished, or the same may be done on the ordinary 
woods, previously stained of the colors of the more valu- 
able sorts. 

Or a beautiful variety of graining may be executed 


with strong acids on plain wood, brought out by heat , 
in which way the nitrous acids or aqna-fortis applied 
affords amber and yellow shades, and the sulphuric acid 
or spirit of vitriol yields shades of a darker and dusky 
hue, so as together to imitate the various hues of tor- 
toise-shell, etc. ; after which the work is to be cleaned off, 
and varnished or pohshed. 


Are us'jally painted on white linen cloth, or cotton, 
stretched even and tight on a flat frame. It is then 
either first varnished, prepared with bees-wax dissolved 
in turpentine, or .sized according to the occasion; on 
either of which any of the transparent pigments ground 
in turpentine, or oil colors, may be applied with diluted 
varnish in execution of the design. See Table VI T. 


The following General Rules may be followed with 
advantage in painting : 1. Let the ground of your work 
be properly cleaned, prepared, and dry. 2. See that 
your colors are equally well ground and duly mixed. 
3. Do not mix much more, nor any less paint than is 
necessary for the present work. 4. Keep the paint well 
mixed while the work is going on. 5. Have your paint 
.of due thickness, and lay it on equally and evenly. 6. 
Do not apply a succeeding coat of paint before the pre- 
vious one is sufficiently dry. 7. Do not employ a lighter 
color over a darker. 8. Do not add dryers to colors long 
before they are used. 9. Avoid using any excess of 
dryer, or a mixture of different sorts. 10. Do not over- 
charge your brush with paint, nor replenish it before it 
is sufficiently exhausted. 11. Begin with the highest 
part and proceed downwards with your work. 12. Do 
your work to the best of your ability, honestly, for such 
you will find the best policy. 


The art of painting in fresco is naturally adapted to 
decorative painting, and the zealous attention of emi- 
nent artists being at present turned to the revival of 


this great and free mode of art, we will not witlihold oui 
observations thereon. 

It is hardly necessary to inform the reader, that/z-csco 
painting is performed with pigments prepared in water, 
and applied upon the sm'face of fresh laid plaster of 
lime and sand, with which walls are covered ; and as it 
is that mode of painting which is least removed in prac- 
tice from modelling or sculpture, it might not impro- 
perly be called plastic painting ; for which the best lime, 
perfectly burnt and kept long slacked in a wet state is 
most essential. And as lime in an active state is the 
common cementing material of the ground and colors 
employed in fresco, it is obvious that.such colors or pijr- 
ments only can be used therein as remain unchanged by 
lime. This need not, however, be a universal rule for 
painting in fresco, since other cementing materials as 
strong or stronger than lime, may be employed, whicli 
have not the action of lime upon colors— such is calcined 
gypsum, of which plaster of Paris is a species ; which, 
being neutral sulphates of lime, exceedingly unchangea- 
ble, have little or no chemical action upon colors, and 
would admit even Prussian blue, vegetal lakes, and the 
most tender colors to be employed thereon, so as greatly 
to extend the sphere of coloring in fresco, adapted to its 
various design; which basis merits also the attention of 
the painter in crayons, scagliola, and distemper. 

So far, too, as regards durability and strength of the 
ground, the compo and cements now so generally em- 
ployed in architectural modellings, stucco and plaster, 
would afford a new and advantageous ground for paint- 
ing in fresco; and as it resists damp and moisture, it is 
well adapted, with colors properly chosen, to situations 
in which paintings, executed in other modes of the art, or 
even in ordinary fresco, would not long endure. 

As these materials, and others now in use, were eitlier 
unknown or unemployec^ by the ancient painters in 
fresco, their practice was necessarily limited to the pig 
ments enumerated in the preceding Table IX ; bul 
every art demands such a variation in practice as adapts 
it to circumstances and the age in wluch it is cxerciso<l. 


without attention to which it may degenerate, or, at 
best, remain stationary, but cannot advance. 

Although differing exceedingly in their mechanical 
execution, the modes of fresco, distemper, and scagliola 
agree in their chemical relations, so far, therefore, as 
respects colors and pigments the foregoing remarks 
apply to these latter arts. 


However, the carbonate of lime, or wliitening employed 
as a basis, is less active than the pure lime of fresco. 
Tho vehicles of both modes are the same, and their 
practice is often combined in the same work ; water is 
thoir common vehicle ; and to give adhesion to the tints 
ar.d colors in distemper painting, and make them keep 
their place, they are variously mixed with the size of 
glue, (prepared commonly by dissolving about four 
ounces of glue in a gallon of water.) 'i'oo much of tlie 
glue disposes the painting to crack and peel from the 
ground ; while, with too little, it is friable and deficient 
of strength. In some cases the glue may be abated, or 
altogether dispensed with, by employing plaster of Paris 
sufficiently diluted and worked into the colors ; by which 
they will acquire the consistency and appearance of oil 
paints, without destroying their limpidness, or allowmg 
the colors to separate, while they will acquire a good 
surface, and keep their place in the dry with the 
strength of fresco and without being liable to mildew — 
to which animal glue is disposed, and to which milk, 
and other vehicles recommended in this mode, are also 

Of more difficult introduction in these modes of paint- 
ing is bees'-roax, although it has been employed success- 
fully in each of them, and in the encaustic of the an- 
cients, who finished their work therein by heating the 
surface of the painting till the wax melted. 


Which requires all the attention of the fresco painter 
in respect to the materials employed, and the skill of the 
grainer in imitating marbles, comes nearer to the Plas- 
terer's than the Painter's Art, although the Decorator 


is best qualified for its perforniance. Its basis is plaster 
ot Paris mixed with the colors of fresco, laid on a solid 
ground of plaster or cement, according to the design, 
and, when dry and liard, it is polished. 


Of the importance of this minor function of the aH 
of painting, a just estimate may be formed, by considei*- 
ing that there is hardly a limit to the time which works in 
oil-painting may be preserved by care and attention. 
These are subject to deterioration and disfigurement 
simply by dirt — by the failure of their grounds, — by the 
obscuration and discolorment of vehicles and varnishes, 
— by the fading and changing of colors, — by the crack- 
ing of the body and surface, — by damp, mildew, and 
foul air, — and by mechanical violence. The first thing 
necessary to be done is to restore the ground, if on can- 
vas, by stretching or lining with new canvas. In cases 
of simple dirt, washing with a sponge or soft leather 
with soap and water, judiciously used, is suflBcient. 
Varnishes are removed by friction or solution, or by 
chemical and mechanical means united, when the varnish 
is combined, as commonly happens, with oil and a 
variety of foulness. 


By friction, if it be a soft varnish, such as that of 
mastic, the simple rubbing of the finger-ends, with or 
without water, may be found sufficient ; a portion of the 
resin attaches itself to the fingers, and by continued 
rubbing removes tlie varnish. If it be a hard varnish, 
such as that of copal, which is to be removed, friction 
with sea or river sand, the particles of which have a ro- 
tundity that prevents their scratching, will accomplish 
the purpose. 

The solvents commonly employed for this purpose 
are the several alkalies, alcohol, and essential oils, used 
simply or combined. Of the alkalies, tbe volatile in its 
mildest state, or carbonate of ammonfa, is the only one 
which can be safely used in removing dirf, oi?, aad var- 
nish, from a picture, which it does posYerfullyj it vuist 
therefore be much diluted with wau'»r aocorvjik^o ^* ^e 


power required, and employed with judgment and cau- 
tion, stopping its action on the painting at the proper 
time by the use of pure water and a sponge. 

Many other methods of cleaning Jiave been recom- 
mended and employed, and in particular instances, for 
sufficient chemical reasons, with success ; some of which 
we will recount, because, in art so uncertain, it is good 
to be rich in resources. 

A thick coat of wet fuller's earth may be employed 
with safety, and, after remaining on the paint a suffi- 
cient time to soften the extraneous surface, may be re- 
moved by washing, and leave the picture pure — and an 
architect of the author's acquaintance has succeeded in 
a similar way in restoring both paintings and gilding to 
their original beauty by coating them with vvet clay. 
Ox- gall is even more efficacious than soap. 

In filling cracks and replacing portions of the ground 
putty formed of white-lead, whitening, varnish, and 
drying oil, tinted somewhat lighter than the local colors 
require, may be employed ; as plaster of Paris may also 
in some cases ; and, in restoring colors accidentally re- 
moved, it should be done with a vehicle of simple var- 
nish, because of the change of tint -which takes place 
after drying in oil. 


Burning, etc. In those cases in which it is requisite to 
remove painting entirely from its ground, it is usual 
to resort to mechanical scraping, etc., or to the very 
dangerous operation of setting fire to the painted surface 
immediately after washing it over with oil of turpentine, 
called turps, for burning off the paint from old disfigured 
work ; an operation that may be safely and more easily 
accomplished by laying on a thick wash or plaster of 
fresh slacked quicklime mixed with soda; which may be 
washed off with water the following day, carrying with 
it the paint, grease, and other foulness, so that when 
clear and dry, the painting may be renewed as on fresh 
work. Clear colling is sometimes resorted to over old 
painting, for the purpose of lepainting, in which case 
the surface exposed to the sun's rays or alterations of 
temperature is liable to become blistered and scale off. 





In entering upon the study of the principles of Mar- 
inony and Contrast of Colors as established by M. Chev- 
reul, it will be necessary for the reader to forget much 
that he may have learned from other sources. 

The notions hitherto prevalent on this subject were 
very vague and empirical, not to say fanciful. They 
had no foundation in observation or experiment, conse- 
quently no formula«or law could be deduced from them 
wherewith to guide the inquirer. M. ChevreuVs work is 
based on strict scientific investigation ; his observations 
and experiments can be repeated by everyone, and their 
validity tested and verified. He has established the ex- 
istence of a law which governs the phenomena of con- 
trast of Colors, and his book develops the process by 
which he arrived at it, and the numerous applications to 
the arts of which it is susceptible. 

There is an arrangement and a sequence in which 
these facts and principles must of necessity be placed. 
But it may be convenient to anticipate some of them ; 
to bring them nearer together, by which their mutual 
connexion and reciprocal influence may be made moni 
apparent. Among the principles which govern the 
harmony and contrast of colors, few can be taken abso- 
lutely or independently of others. By adopting one 

* From The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors and their ap- 
plication to the Arts, By M. E. Chevreol. Translated from tho Frencii Vy 
Charles Martel, London, 1860. 




Primary Colors . . . 
Secondary Colors. . . 
Normal Colors . . . 
Binary Colors .... 
Broken Colors . . . 

Complementary Colors. 

principle hastily before we have ascertained what other 
principles modify it, we fall into the errors attendant 
npon hasty generalization and false conclusions. 


Blue, Red, and Yellow. 

Orange, Green, and Violet. 

The Colors of the Spectrum. 

Compounds of two Primaries. 

Colors in which all three pri- 
maries exist. 

The primary or the secondary 
requisite to make up the 
complement of colored rays 
that constitute white light. 
The complementary of a pri- 
mary, as red, is the secon- 
dary composed of the other 
two primaries (green). 
Yellow, Orange, Red, Light 
Green, and the light tones 
of sombre colors. 

. Blue, Violet, and the broken 
tones of the luminous colors. 
. The same as luminous colors. 
The same as sombre colors. 
Material Colors, or paints. 

. Normal Gray consists of pure 
black and white mixed in 
various proportions, produc- 
ing a variety of tones from 
white to black. 

Normal Gray, to which a pri- 
mary or a secondary is added. 

Colored Grays. Russet is red- 
gray. Olive is blue gray. 
Citrine is yellow-gray. 

The series of gradations of a 
pure color from its greatest 
intensity, weakened by the 
addition of white, or deep- 
ened by the addition of black 

Luminous Colors . 

Sombre Colors . . . 

Warm Colors . . . 

Cold Colors 


Gray (normal) . . . 

Colored Grays . . 
Tertiary Colors . . 



FT no The change produced in one pure 

Color by the addition to it 
of another pure color. The 
original color must always be 
in the ascendancy, otherwise 
it becomes a hue of the 
color added to it. 

Scale The series of hues and tones of 

any given color. 

Tints The tones of a color prodiiced 

by the addition of white 
added to the normal color 

Shades The tones of a color produced 

by the addition of black to 
the normal color. 

Prismatic Spectrum . The image of a ray of light 

when decomposed by a prism. 
It consists of Blue, Red, and 
Yellow, and the combina- 
tions produced by their mix- 
ture or blending with each 
other, (secondaries) Orange, 
Green, Violet and its hues, 
purple, indigo, lavender, etc. 



As Light is the source of Color, it is necessary to 
commence with an examination of its composition, as 
the laws of contrast of colors are entirely dependent 
upon it. 

When a ray of sunshine, or white light, as it is termed, 
passes through a glass prism, it is decomposed, or sepa- 
rated, and if the image formed, called the prismatic 
spectrum, is received upon a white screen, placed at u 
suitable distance from the prism, it will be found to con- 
sist of various colors, arranged in a certain order, like 
tho^e of the rainbow. 

These colors are six in number : three of which arc 
simple ; and three which are compound, resulting from 
the mixture of the simple colors in pairs. 


Blue, Red, and Yellow are simple, or primary colors. 

Green, Violet, and Orange are compound, or secon 
dary colors. 

The mixture of Blue with Red produces Violet. 
The mixture of Blue with Yellow produces Green 
The mixture of Red with Yellow produces Orange. 

These compound colors vary in hue according to tho 
proportions of the simple colors of which they are 
formed : thus, by increasing the quantity of blue in the 
mixture of blue and red, we produce purple, indigo, etc. 
The same effect takes place with Greens. 

The primary colors are simple and pure, they cannot, 
like the secondaries, be produced by the mixture of other 

It is evident that the color of the primaries cannot 
vary as color (or in hue), but only in intensity, at least 
so long as they are kept pure, but the hues of the secon- 
daries may vary infinitely, according as one or the other 


To avoid misapprehension when speaking of colors, it 
is necessary to refer to some invariable type or standard 
of color, so that when speaking of Blue, we may not be 
in doubt as to whether the«color represented by Prussian 
Blue, or by Cobalt Blue is meant. This type, or stan- 
dard, is supplied by nature in the prismatic spectrum, 
and — although in a weaker degree — in the rainbow. 
Therefore, whenever we speak of pure colors, those re- 
presenting the colors of the spectrum must be under- 
stood. They are called also normal colors. 


We must never lose sight of the fact, that the results 
predicated of the mixture of colors, taken theoretically, 
arc not obtained by mixing pigments, or paints, and 

Theoretically, the mixture, or combination of the 
colors of the prismatic spectrum, by means of a lens or 
concave mirror, produces a ray of white light; but when 
we mix pigments representing those colors, taken as 
pure as we can possibly obtain them, the mixture is not 


white., but gray or black, according to their inteiisity, 
etc. : 

For every Blue pigment contains also either red or 
yellow ; 

Every Red pigment contains also either blue or 

yellow ; 
Every Yellow pigment contains also either blue 
or red. 
A.nd althougrh, as we have said, the union of the blue, 
rod, and yellow of the spectrum produces white, the 
union of blue, red, and yellow pigments produces gray 
or black. 

If we had pigments that were in color as pure as those 
of the spectrum, their mixture would also^yield pure 

Ultramarine is the only pigment that approaches a 
prismatic color in its purity, but even that has a slight 
tinge of red in its composition, causing it to appear 

We can take gamboge as the representative of pure 
Yellow, carmine as that of Red, and Prussian blue as 
that of Blue. 

In mixing pigments to obtain pure secondary colors, 
we shall obtain a better result if we select such as are 
free from the color not essential to the compound, 
'i'hus, to obtain a pure green, which consists of blue and 
yellow only, we must take a blue tinged with yellow 
rather than with red, and a yellow tinged with blue 
rather than with red ; if we took either of those pigments 
tinged with red, a quantity of black would be formed by 
its mixture with the two other primaries, and the green 
would be tarnished or broken. So long as pure blue 
and yellow are mixed together, in varying proportionj;, 
but without the addition of the other primary color 
(red), the resulting compound color, green, remains a 
pure color. Such is the theory, and the practical result 
is the same if the pigments we select to form the mix- 
ture are both free from the third primary. 

When the three primaries (pigments) are mixed to- 
gether in equal strength and proportions, the resulting 
compound is black. But if they are mixed in unequal 


strerglh and proportions, the mixture is gray, colored 
by the primary or the secondary in excess in the Com- 

Normal Gray is formed by mixing a black with a 
white pigment in varying proportions, producing various 
tones of Gray. 

By adding a primary" or a secondary to normal Gray, 
we produce a colored Gray. 

There are as many classes of Gray as there are pri- 
mary and secondary colors, and as many hues of Gray 
as there are hues of these pure colors. What are com- 
monly called Tertiaries, are, in fact, colored Grays : 
thus, Russet is red-gray. Citrine is yellow-gray, Olive is 

If the primaries are mixed in unequal proportions, or 
are of different intensities, the mixture is a gray : 

If the blue is in excess, the mixture is a blue-gray. 
If the red is in excess, the mixture is a red-gray. 
If the yellow is in excess, the mixture is a yellow- 

If the blue and the red arc in excess, the mixture is 

a violet-gray. 
If the blue and the yellow are in excess, the mix- 
ture is a green-gray. 
If the yellow and the red are in excess, the mixture 
is an orange-gray. 
When two secondaries are mixed together the gray 
that results is colored by the primary which enters into 
ihe composition of both secondaries, thus : 

In mixing Green with Violet, the Gray is colored by 
Blue, that being the primary in excess. 

Green consists of Blue 1 f,» ^ «^v«r^^„«/i «^r^+«;,.o 
, ^y- « I 1 he compound contams 

and lellow. . twice as much Blue as 

and' Red J ^^^ ^' ^^"^^- 

In mixing Green with Orange, the Gray is colored by 
Yellow, that being the primary in excess. 

Green consists of Blue ] ,p^^ componnd contains 
and Yellow. ! ^^j^^ ^^ ^^^.j^ y,,„^„ 

Orange consists of Red f „s glue or Red. 
and Yellow. I 


In mixing Violet with Orange, the Gray is cole red by 
Red, that being the primary in excess. 
Orange consists of Red 
and Yellow. 

The compound contains 
twice as much Red as 

Blue or Yellow. 

Violet consists of Red 

and Blue. 

It is understood that the colots employed are of equal 
strength and proportions. 


The colors of objects are supposed to be due to a 
power they possess of absorbing certain portions of the 
colored rays that make up a ray of white light, and of 
reflecting others. The reflected portion being comple- 
mentary to the portion absorbed ; and if added together 
they would constitute white light. 

'I bus a red-colored substance is considered to absorb 
blue and yellow, and reflect red. 

A green-colored body absorbs red, and reflects blue 
and yellow, 

A white substance, then, in conformity with this view, 
reflects all the rays that constitute white light, while a 
black substance absorbs them. 

Bodies reflect a considerable portion of white light as 
well as colored light, according as the surfaces are 
smooth, glossy, polished, rough, channelled, etc. 

The optical efi^ect of a color is greatly modified by the 
condition of the surface of the colored body ; thus, pieces 
of silk, cotton, linen, woollen, and velvet, although dyed 
of exactly the same hue and tone of color, appear to be 
of quite different colors. 

The depth or intensity of color presented by velvets, 
and certain flowers, such as heartsease, etc., is due to 
tbe surface being channelled, ridged, or furrowed. 


As white light is composed of three colors. Blue, Red, 
and Yellow, the color that is missing from the compound 
is termed the Complementary Color; thus — 

Blue is the c«^mplementary of Orange (Red and 



Red is the complementary of Green (Blue and Yel- 
Yellow is the complementary of Violet (Blue nnd 
By this it will be seen that the complementary of a 
primary color is the secondary composed of the other 
two primaries, and vice versa ; thus : 
Orange (red and yellow J is complementary to Blue. 
Green (blue and yellow) is complementary to Red. 
Violet (red and blue) is complementary to Yellow. 
If the Blue is tinged with red, its complementary, 

Orange, will be yellower. 
If the Blue is tinged with yellow, its complementary, 

Orange, will be redder. 
If the Red is tinged with blue, its complementary, 

Green, will be yellower. 
If the Red is tinged with yellow, its complementary. 

Green, will be bluer. 
If the Yellow is tinged with red, its complementary, 

Violet will be bluer. 
If the Yellow is tinged with blue, its complementary, 
Violet will be redder. 


A given color. Red, for instance, may experience 
many modifications, so as to appear very different from 
what it really is, according to the circumstances under 
which it is viewed. 

It may be modified in its color: 

1°. By being placed in contact with Blue, the red 
appears yellower. 

2°. By being placed in contact with Yellow, it appears 

3^. By being placed in contact with Green, it appears 
purer and brighter. 

AP. By being placed in contact with Black, it appears 

5'\ By being placed in contact with White, it appears 
lighter and brighter. 

G°. By being placed in contact with Gray, it appears 



Thus tlie same Red may appear many different reds 
according to the circumstances under which it is viewed 

It may also be modified in its intensity, or tone. 

Thus, if a dark color be placed beside a different, but 
lighter color, the dark color appears deeper, and the 
light color appears lighter. This is the result of con- 
trast of tone. 

A color is also greatly modified by gloss, as is showc 
by the plumage of birds, the wings of butterflies, and by 
certain flowers 

The colors of objects are also greatly modified by the 
form of the object, which may produce varieties of light 
and shade, and thus exhibit many tones of the same 

Both the tone and the hue of a colored object are 
modified by the quality of the light by which it is illu- 
mined, whether it be direct sunlight, diffused daylight, 
or diffused reflected light. 




If we look at two stripes of the same color, but of dif- 
ferent tones, or at two stripes of different colors taken 
at the same tone, and placed side by side, if the stripes 
be not too wide, the eye perceives certain modifications, 
affecting both the quality and the intensity of the colors, 
and they will appear very differently from what they do 
when viewed separately. 

First, the tone of each stripe will appear changed, the 
light tone will appear lighter, and the deep tone deeper, 
commencing at the line of contact, where it will be great- 
est, and gradually diminishing as it recedes from it: 
this is contrast of tone. 

Secondly, the color of the different stripes will appear 
changed, each appearing as differently as possible from 
the other : this is contrast of color. 

'i'he contiguous colors are modified in hue, as if the 
complementary of the neighboring color was added to 

These modifications, taken together, constitute simul 


taneous contrant of color: which maybe expressed in 
the following terms : 

Whenever the eye sees at the same time two con- 
tiguous colors, they will appear as dissimilar aa 
possible, both in their hue and in their tone. 
Thus, if the stripes be blue and yellow, the comple- 
mentary of blue, which is orange, is added to the yellow, 
making it appear redder, and more brilliant ; while violet 
the complementary of yellow, is added to the blue, mak- 
ing the latter appear indigo; the color added to each 
being red, the primary absent from the view of the con- 
tiguous stripes. If the stripes be secondary colors, as 
Orange and Green, the complementary of Orange, blue, 
is added to the green, making^ it appear bluer, and red, 
the complementary of Green, is added to the Orange, 
making it appear redder; or, what is the same thing, 
Yellow, the ab.^ent complementary color, is subtracted 
from each contiguous color ; thus — 

The complementary of Orange is Blue. 
The complementary of Green is Red. 
The absent complementary is Yellow. 
This Yellow subtracted from Orange makes it appear 
red, and Yellow subtracted from Green makes it appear 
blue, for 

Orange is composed of red and yellow, and 
(xreen is composed of blue and yellow. 
When we look for a few moments at a given color, the 
eye spontaneously calls up the complementary to that 
color, which, being added to the color first looked at, 
makes it appear duller, or tarnished. The effect is the 
same as if a quantity of gray was added to the color 
looked at, because the complementary color added to 
the original color produces black. 

This calling up of the secondary color by the eye con- 
stitutes the phenomenon of successive contrast. 

And the addition of this color so called up to the 
original color constitutes mixed contrast. 

It will be seen that the result of viewing a single color 
is different from that produced by viewing two diflferent 
colors, because the influence of the juxtaposed color is 
absent ; there is no complementary color to add to the 
color looked at. 


The height of tone exercises much influence upon the 
modification ; for if, after looking at orange, we look at 
deep blue, this latter will appear green rather thai) 
violet, a result the reverse of that presented by light 

Whenever there is a great difference between two con- 
tiguous colors, the difference is rendered more apparent 
by bringing the same color successively in contact with 
different colors belonging to the same group. 
Example. — If we place Orange beside scarlet-red, nor- 
mal-red, or crimson-red, the red becomes bluer, or 
purple, and the orange becomes yellower by losing 
its red. 

If we place normal-red m contact with orange- 
red, the first will appear purple, and the second 
yellower ; but if we put the normal-red in contact 
with purple-red, the latter will appear bluer, and 
the other yellower. 

Thus, simple or primary colors, when in con- 
tact, pass insensibly into secondary or compoimd 
colors; for the same Ked becomes purple or 
orange, according as it is placed in contact with 
orange-red or with purple-red ; the same Yellow 
appears orange or green, according as it is placed 
in contact with orange-yellow or with greenish- 
yellow; so also Blue appears green or violet, 
according as it is placed in contact with greenish- 
blue or with violet-blue. 
When we examine any two patterns of the same color, 
such as blue or red, if they are not identical when com- 
pared together, we must consider that the difference is ex- 
aggerated by contrast. Thus, if one is greenish-blue, it 
will make the other appear less green or more indigo, or 
even more violet than it really is ; and by a reciprocal 
influence, the other will appear greener than when 
viewed alone. It is the same with the reds ; if one is 
more orange than the other, the latter will appear more 
purple, and the former more orange, than it really is. 

As soon as we know the complementary of one color 
in contact with another, it is easy to determine what 


kind of luodificatiou the second will receive from the 
first, as this modification is the result of the mixture of 
the complementary with the conti^^uous color. 

The process is easy when the contipfuous colors are 
both primaries, and it is not more difficult when they 
are both secondaries ; for we have only to consider that 
the complementary called up being much less intense 
tlian the color to which it is added, we obtain the result 
by subtracting from the latter secondary a portion of 
that primary which, with the complementary, forms 
white light; thus — 

Orange, added as a complementary to Green, neu- 
tralizes a portion of the green, and consequently 
makes it appear yellower ; and the Green, added to a 
portion of Red in the Orange, neutralizes it. and makes 
the orange appear yellower. 



By their reciprocal influence they lose more or less of 
the color common to both, and will, therefore, differ 
from eacli other in proportion to this loss. Example : 

Orange with Green. 

These two colors have yellow as an element in their 
composition, and they lose it by being placed in con- 
tiguity : the Orange appears reddicr, the Green bluer. 

A similar effect takes place with associations of — 1, 
Orange and Indigo, Orange and Violet ; 2, Green and 
Violet, the first of which lose Red by contiguity, and 
tho second lose Blue. 


1. Orange with Red. 

The Orange loses its red, and appears yellower ; and 
the Red becomes more blue, differing as miich as possi. 
b'e from Orange. 



2. Orange with Yellow. 

ITie Orange loses its yellow, and appears redder ; the 
Yellow appears bluer, diftering as much as possible fi-ora 


1. Red with Yellow, 

Red, in losing yellow, appears bluer, and the Yelbw, 
)y losing red, appears bluer ; or, in other words, tlie 
lied inclines to purple, and the Yellow to green. 

2. Yellow with Blue. 

Yellow, in losing blue, will appear redder, and Blue, 
in losing yellow, will appear more violet ; or, in other 
words, the Yellow inclines to red, and the Blue to violet. 

3. Red with Blue. 

Red, in losing blue, will appear yellower, and Blue, in 
losing red, will appear yellowed ; or, in other words, the 
Red inclines to orange, and the Blue to green. 

In these examples the colors are modified in the same 
way they would be by the addition of the absent pri- 
mary, Yellow. 



Indigo and Violet. 

As Indigo only differs from Violet in containing a 
larger proportion of blue in comparison with the red, it 
follows that the difference will be materially increased 
by the Indigo losing its red and inclining to greenish- 
blue, whilst the Violet, acquiring more red, will become 


1. Orange and Blue. 

2. Green and Red. 

3. Violet and Greenish-yellow. 

In opposing complementary colors, each enhaneev 
the value of the other, in conformity with the ph« 
nomena of successive and mixed contrasts. 





The form of an object, and its gloss or polish, have a 
considerable influence upon the effect of associated or 
contiguous colors. Form exerts its influence by the ef- 
fects of light and shade it produces, which may conceal 
the ill effect of two associated colors, which are not 
glossy. Thus, flowers often exhibit associations which 
on plane surfaces would appear very disagreeable, if not 
glossy ; as, for instance, in the sweet pea, in which red 
and violet are associated. 

Blue and violet, which have not an agreeable effect on 
flat and unpolished surfaces, have a very good effect in 
the plumage of certain birds, and in the wings of butter- 
flies. For the injurious effect of the compleraentaries 
of these two colors upon each other is lost throiigh the 
influence of the metallic lustre of the feathers and scales. 



This is tlie only association in which the colors mutu 
ally improve, strengthen, and purify each other, without 
going out of their respective scales. 

This condition is so advantageous to the associated 
'colors that the association is also satisfactory when the 
colors are not exactly complementary. 

It is the same when they are tarnished with Gray. 

Therefore this association is the best that can be 
adopted to produce harmony of contrast in painting, in 
tapestry, stained glass windows, between paper hang- 
ings and their borders, in furniture and clothing, and in 


The result of this association differs from the preced- 
mg in this respect — the complementary of one of the 
colors differing from the other color to which it is added, 
causes a modification of hue in the two colors, besides a 
modification of tone, if they are not taken at the same 


Non-complementary colors evidently produce thre« 
different effects when placed in contact. 

1°. They mutually improve each other. 
2^. One is improved while the other is injured. 
3^. They mutually injure each other. 
The greater the difference between the colors the 
more their association will be favorable to their mutual 
contrast ; and the nearer they are alike, the greater the 
risk their association will prove injurious to their beauty. 

a. Two Non- Complement aries improve each other hy 


Ex, Yellow and Blue are so dissimilar, that their con- 
trast is sufficiently great to produce a favorable associa- 
tion, although the associated colors belong to different 
scales of yellow and blue. 

6. One Color, placed in Contact loith another Color 

which is not complementary to it, is improved, 

but the other is injured. 

Ex. A Blue, which is improved by yellow, being 
placed beside bluish Violet, may lose beauty by becom- 
ing greenish, while the orange it adds to the violet, neu- 
tralizing its excess of blue, improves rather than injures 

c. Ttvo Non- Complementary Colors mutually 
injure each other. 

Ex. A Violet and a Blue mutually injure each other, 
because the first makes the second look green, and the 
second neutralizes the blue of the violet and makes it 
look faded. 

It may happen that the colors are modified, but 
neither gain nor lose in beauty ; or that one gains with- 
out the other losing, and that one neither gains nor 
»oses, while the other loses. 




Ex. A deep indigo-blue, and an equally deep red, gain 
by contact : the blue by losing violet, will become pure 


blue ; the red, acquiring orange, will become brighter. 
But if we take light tones of the same scales, the blue 
may become too green to be good as a blue, and the red, 
by acquiring orange, may become too yellow to be a 
good red. 

In the association of two colors belonging to the same 
scale, or to scales nearly allied, but of tones very widely 
apart, the contrast of tone may have a favorable influ- 
ence upon the beauty of the light tone : 

Because, if the latter is not a pure color, its associa- 
tion with the deep tone brightening it, will purify what 
gray it has. 


White substances contiguous to colored substances 
appear sensibly modified when viewed together, although 
the modification may not be very apparent unless we 
are familiar with Ihe law of contrast; but knowing this 
law, the modification may be recognized if the colors 
opposed to the white be not too deep. Thus : if red and 
white are placed in contact, the white becomes tinged 
with the complementary of red, which is green, and 
makes the red appear deeper and brighter. 

Black and white, which may be considered as com- 
plementary to each other, conformably to the law of 
contrast of tone, differ more when viewed in contact than 
when alone, because the effect of the white light reflected 
by the black is more or less neutralized by the light of 
the white stripe ; and it is by an analogous action that 
white heightens the tone of the colors with which it is 
placed in contact. 

All the primary colors gain by association with white, 
but the resulting binary assortments are not all equally 
agreeable ; the height of tone of the color has a great in- 
fluence upon the effect of its assortment with white ; 
thus — 

Light blue and light red assort better with white than 
dark blue and dark red, because the latter present too 
great a contrast of tone. 

Wliite placed beside a color strengthens its tone ; i1 


acts as if we took away from the color the white light 
that enfeebled its intensity. 


A black surface being deeper than the color with 
which it is in contact, contrast of tone must tend to 
deepen it still more, while it must tend to lower the tone 
of the contiguous color, for exactly the same reason that 
white, if in contact with it, would hei«:hten it. 

Black surfaces appear tinted with the complementary 
of the colored light of the contiguous body; but the tint 
will be very faint, because it is manifested upon a ground 
possessing but a feeble power of reflecting light. 

The lowering of the tone of a color in contact with 
Black is alw^ays perceptible; but it is very remarkable 
that the Black itself is weakened when the contiguous 
color is sombre, yielding a luminous complementary. 

Black may be advantageously combined not only with 
sombre colors to produce harmonies of analogy, but also 
with light and brilliant colors to produce harmonies of 
contrast, as may be seen in the works of Chinese artists. 

No assortment of the primary colors with Black is 
disagreeable, but a generic difference of harmony exists 
between these assortments, which is not presented in the 
same degree in the binary assortment of the same colors 
with white. For the splendor of the white is so domi- 
nant in the latter, that whatever be the difference in 
light or brilliancy observable between the different 
colors associated, there will always be harmony of con- 

The deep tones of all the scales, and even of the Blue 
and Violet scales (which, strictly speaking, are not 
deep), form with Black harmonies of analogy and not 
of contrast. So also do the unbroken tones of the Red, 
Orange, Yellow, Green, and the very light tones of the 
Violet and Blue scales. 

The association of Black with sombre colors, as Blue 
and Violet, the complemenlaries of which. Orange and 
Greenish Yellow, are luminous, may diminish the contrast 
of tone, if the colors arc in contiguity with Black, or not 


rery distant ; in this case the Black loses much of its 

Blacic placed beside a color lowers its tone ; it acts as 
if we added Black to the complementary of the contigu- 
ous color. In some cases it impoverishes it, as in the 
case of certain yellows. 

The modifications Black patterns undergo upon dif- 
ferent colored grounds, are as follows : 

Upon a Red ground, they appear Dark Green. 
Upon an Orange ground, they appear E^uish-Black. 
Upon a Yellow ground, they appear Black, of a fee- 
ble Yiolet tint, on account of the great contrast 
of tone. 
Upon a Green ground, they appear Reddish-Gray. 
Upon a Blue ground, they appear Orange-Gray. 
Upon a Violet ground, they appear Greenish Yellow 



Gray bodies properly selected as to height of tone, 
when contiguous to colored bodies, exhibit the phe. 
nomena of contrast of color more strikingly than either 
black or white substances do. 

If, instead of normal gray, we placed' a colored body in 
contact with a Gray of a complementary tint, these 
tints will be remarkably heightened by the compleraen- 
taries added to them by the colored bodies. Thus, if an 
orange color be placed on a bluish-gray, this latter will 
be singularly heightened with blue, the complementary 
of orange. 

All the primary colors gain in purity and brilliancy 
by the proximity of gray ; but the effects are far from 
being similar, or even analogous to those which result 
from the proximity of the same colors with white. 
White allows each color to preserve its integrity, and 
even heightens them by contrast, and can never be 
taken for a color itself. But Gray can; for with the 
darkest colors, as Blue and Violet, and with tlie deep 
tones in general, it produces associations which enter 
into analogous harmonies, while with the brilliant colors. 


as Red, Orange, Yellow, and the light tones of Greeu^ 
tb.ey form harmonies of contrast. Although White con* 
trasts more with the sombre colors than with the lumi- 
nous, there is not the same difference between White 
and these two classes of colors as there is between theiu 
and Gray. 

The ground as well as the interval or distance wc 
make between the colored bodies, has some influence on 
the effect. 


There are six distinct Harmonies of Colors, which may 
be comprised under two groups : 


1^. Harmony of scale, proceeding from the simulta- 
neous view of different tones of a single scale, more or 
less approximating. 

2°. Harmony of hues, proceeding from the simulta- 
neous view of tones of nearly the same height, or nearly 
80, belonging to scales more or less approximating. 

3°. Harmony of a dominant colored light, proceeding 
from the simultaneous view of different colors assorted 
conformably to the law of contrast, but one of them pre- 
dominating, as if they were seen through a glass stained 
with a faint tone of that color. 


1^. Harmony of contrast of scale, arising from two 
distinct tones of the same scale. 

2^. Harmony of contrast of hues, arising from tones 
of different heights, each belonging to contiguous scales. 

3^. Harmony of contrast of colors, arising from the 
fiimultaneous view of colors belonging to widely different 
scales, assorted according to the law of contrast ; the 
difference in height of juxtaposed tones may also aug- 
ment the contrast of color. 

1. In the harmony of contrast, the complementary 
assortment is superior to every other ; the tones must, 
however, be nearly of equal intensity. 

2. The primaries grouped in pairs assort better as a 
harmony of contrast than an arrangement formed of one 


of these primaries and a binary of which that prhnary 
is an element, thus — 

Bhic and Yellow harmonize better than Red and 
Orange, because the binary Orange contains Red 
as one of its elements. 

Red and Blue harmonize better than Red and Violet, 
because the binary Violet contains Red as one of 
its elements. 

Yellow and Red harmonize better than Yellow and 
Orange, because the binary Orange contains V el- 
low as one of its elements. 

3. The assortment of red, yellow, and blue with a 
binary containing the primary, contrasts better when 
the primary is more luminous than the binary. 

Therefore, in this assortment, it is bettor for the pri- 
mary to be of a lower tone than the binary, thus — 

Red and Violet harmonize better than Blue and 

Yellow and Orange harmonize better than Red and 

Yellow and (jreen harmonize better than Blue and 

4. When two colors do not look well together, sepa- 
rate them with white. It is better for the white to be 
placed between each color th^jn between every two 

5. Black never produces a bad effect when placed be- 
tween two luminous colors, and is, therefore, often pre- 
ferable to white for separating colors from each other, 
thus — 

Red and Oranire do not go well together, but if sep- 
arated by black an agreeable and harmoniou? 
effect is produced. 

6. Black harmonizes with sombre colors. Blue and 
Violet, and with broken tones of luminous colors pro- 
duces harmony of analogy sometimes with a good effect. 

7. Black does not associate so well with a luminous 
and a sombre color, as it does with two luminous colors. 

In all the following assortments Black is inferior to 

Red and Blue, Orange and Blue. 



Red and Violet, Orange and Violet. 
Yellow and Blue, Green and Violet. 
Green and Blue. 

8. Although Gray does not produce a bad eflect with 
two luminous colors, yet it is generally inferior to Black 
and to White 

9. Gray with sombre colors and broken tones of lumi- 
nous colors produces harmonies of analogy, not so vigor- 
ous as those with black. 

It separates colors which do not assort well together. 


In proceeding to the selection of an assortm'^nt of 
colored objects, we have to take into consideration suita- 
bility or appropriateness to the object in view. 

Where the greatest brilliancy and splendor are desired, 
we resort to the contrast produced by complementary 
colors. In the selection of flowers to form a bouquet, 
or the furnishing of a palace, the principle is the same; 
we arrange the colors so that the greatest contrast both 
In tone and in the quality of the colors employed is pro- 

Any one familiar with the law of Contrast will attain 
this aim witli better success, even with inferior colors, 
than another ignorant of the law could obtain with the 
most brilliant colors. 

But where the artist is free to choose, he will Consider 
the aspect of the apartment, and whether it is to be used 
by daylight or artificial light A room with a cold 
northern aspect, used in the daytime, sJiould be furnished 
with objects of light warm tones; while in a room with 
a southern aspect, light hues of sombre colors may bo 
advantageously employed. 

He must never lose sight of the effect of contrast of 
tone. Thus, in a room papered with the deep crimson 
paper so commonly employed, the tone is so deep, tliat 
it forms a strong contrasting background to all light- 
colored objects placed in it; but dark-colored objects 
are lost for want of relief. In such a paper, contrast of 
color goes almost for nothing, as a blue or a green 


paper, of the same depth of tone, would produce near the 
same effect. 

In rooms that are feebly lighted, and chiefly by dif- 
fused dayliglit, light tones of soiabie colors, or luminous 
colors, are preferable for covering the walls ; but then 
other colored portions of the fittings should be colored 
in analogous harmony, and violent contrast avoided. 

In undertaking to apply the principles laid down by 
M. Chevreul, most persons overlook the importance of 
tone, or intensity, but which is of equal importance with 
color. A deep tone of a bright peagreen, of an orange, 
or of a red, may produce a very crude, vulgar effect, 
when light tones of the same colors would do the con 

Very pleasing effects may be produced by adopting 
the Harmony of Analogous Colors. 

Suppose a room to be furnished in blue, or red, or 
green, we may proceed with all the tones of one hue of 
green, for instance, or mingle the tones, of nearly equal 
intensity, of the various blue and yellow greens that lie 
on each side of pure green. 'J'he distribution of these 
in the room will require careful consideration, but pro- 
bably tlie most satisfactory effect will be attained by 
taking the lightest tones and brightest hues for the 
walls, and the deepest for the carpet. The color of the 
wood for the chairs, etc., will contrast sufficiently to se- 
cure distinct relief. 1'he curtains and the furniture may 
be of intermediate quality of color, and the effect will be 
greatly enchanced by the introduction of white. 

The artist must not omit to take into consideration 
the infl'ience of form, size, and suitability, when pro- 
ceeding to carry out the principles of Contrast. 



Av Jdwts 177^ Viirnish 59 

ADvUhvst Colored Foil 127 

Auoi^n- Green 206 

AntJiDony, Yellow of. 33 

Apparatus 7 

Arrangement of Colors in Strip- 
ing 232 

Arriingement of Letters 213 

Azure 36 

Azure Blues 141 

Balloons, Varnish for 175 

Bird'«-Eye Maple in Distemt>ec.. 197 

Black Bardella 208 

Black, Jb'ish Oil 136 

Black and Gold Mai-ble 203 

Black Rosewood, to imitate 169 

Blacks 22 

Black Varnish for Coaches and 

Iron-work 170 

Black Varnish for old Straw or 

Chip Hats 63 

Bioe Foil 127 

Blues 33 

Blues in glass Staining 140 

Bluish Gray for Rllxtnres 161 

Bluish Green 142 

Blue Verditer 37 

Boiled Oil 217 

Bougival White 21 

Brass. Lacquer for 117 

Bniss, to Gild 113 

Brass Work, to clean, for Lac- 

quenng 119 

Brick colour 42 

Brick Red 147 

Brittleness of Boiled Oil when 

Dry 217, 219 

Bronzing 120 

Bronzing on Wood 121 

Bronzing Iron 121 

Brown Gun BQ.rrels 173 

Brown lied, Fish Oil 135 

Rtowns 41 

Brown Yellow )chre 14*: 

Brunswick Green 39 

Brush, Camel Hair, use of 226 

Brushes 13, 191 

Brushes for striping 334 

Brushes and Pencils, cleanliness 

of...? 89 

Buff 4S 

Burns and Scalds 184 

Caniers Hair Brush, use of. 226 

Camel's Hair Pencil, use of in 

striping 234 

Camphorated Copal Varnish 57 

Caoutchouc or Gum-Elastic Var- 
nish 60 

Carmine 26 

Carmines and Greens, Fluxes for. 139 

Carnation 43 

Carriage Boily, Ironiug 222 

Carved Wood Gilding 107 

Carver's Polish 72 

Ceruse 19 

Changing Varnishes 64 

Charcoal Blacks 22 

Chestnut colour 43 

Chimneys, to cover with Lead 

Ore 171 

Chlorine 54 

Chocolate colour 44 

Chocolate colour, Fish ^il 136 

Chromate of Lead 31 

Chrome Yellow 31 

Cleanliness in Working 8S 

Clean Marble, Sienna, Jasper, 

and Porphyry 171 

Clean Pictures 173 

Clean Silver Furniture 170 

Clock Faces, Varnish for 174 

Cloth, to Paint 161 

Clove Brown 149 

Coaches, Varnish for 170 

Coach Painting and Varnishing.. 217 

Coating, White 70 

Coats of Rough Stuff 22--' 





OiK-hhieal I.ak« 28 

Colic, Paintei-'s 177 

Colour. Grinding 225 

ColourH.arraiigement in Striping. 232 
'Xtlour-lieighteningCompoaitioQS 74 

Colouring Yellow 79 

Colours 19 

ColourB, iipplication of, in Glass 

Staining 163 

Colours, l-ishOil 130 

Colours for Oak 191 

Colonre, Grinding and Washing... 83 

Coluuri*, llannony of. 168 

Colours in Iron, in Glass Stain- 
ing 148 

Colours of Gold in Glass Stain- 
ing 147 

Combs :... 190 

Complete Instructions for Coach 

Painting and Yarnisbing 217 

Compound colours 42 

Copal Varnisl) 56 

C^pal Varni:^h in imitation of 

Tortoisc-Mlioll 57 

Copper and Brass, to Tin 161 

Copper Foil 125 

Copper, to Gild 113 

Cork Combs 191 

Court Plaster 166 

Cracking of Varnish 225 

Crawling of Varnish 228 

Cream, ^Painter's 81 

Djuk-coloured "Woods, Polish for. 71 

Dark Lead colour 44 

" Dead Coat" 218 

Deep Black 152 

Deep Blood Red 147 

Deep Nankin Yellow 146 

Deep Violet 148 

Deep Yellow 145 

Deip Yellow Ochre 146 

Doibysbiro Spar 208 

Diet of Painters 187 

Directions for Graining and Imi- 
tating Wood and Marbles 190 

Diseases 177 

Distemper, BirdVEye Maple in.. 197 

Distemper, Mahogany in 201 

Distemper, Painting in 94 

Distemper, to grain Pollard and 

Iioot of Oak in 196 

Dove Marble 208 

Dragon, Pistache, and Olive 

Green 143 

Drawings, Gilding 115 


Drawings, Varnish for 65 

Dryer, A 219 

Dryer for Raw Oil 219 

Drying Oils 49 

Drying Quality of Boiled Oil 218 

Dust to be £.\cluded from the 

Paint Shop 217 

Dutch or German Odd 7f 

Eagle Marine coloured Foil 129 

Edges of Paper, Gilding 11? 

Egyptian Green Marble 2i^2 

Emerald Green 142 

Enamel Blue 3€ 

Ethereal Solution of Gold 7€ 

Extra Jobs 22* 

Fat Oils 48 

Fawn colour ■.. 44 

Flesh colour 44 

Flesh Red 149 

Fine Black Varnish for Coaches 

and Iron-work 170 

Finishing polish 73 

Finishing up to receive colo** 223 

Fish Oil colours 130 

Fixed Wax Yellow 146 

Fixed Yellow 144 

Flake White 19 

Flaxen Gray 42 

Fluxes , 139 

Flux for Carmines and Greens.... 139 

Foil, Copper 125 

Foils 1-25 

Foils, to Colour 126 

Forms of Letters 211 

French Polish 72. 102 

Furnace used in Glass Staining... 154 

Furniture, Oil for 173 

Furniture, Paste for 172 

Garnet Red Foil 127 

General Observations 187 

German Gold 76 

Giallolini 32 

Gild Copper, Brass, &c M3 

Gilding carved Wo«Ki wit hWater 

Size 107 

Gilding Ghiss and Porcelain ilS 

Gilding Leather 114 

Gilding Mateiials 74 

Gilding Plaster or Marble Mith 

Water Size Ill 

Gilding, Practice of. 107 

Gilding the edges of Paper 11€ 

Gliding Wood in Oil '.)% 




'illdii.g Writings, DrawiDga 115 

Uild Letters, to 214 

Gild on Glass 215 

iMld Steel 112 

(Hags Mattrass 17 

vllass Staining 137 

Glass, Staining Application of 

colours on 152 

Glass Staining, Furnace and Muf- 
fle used in 164 

Glass, to Gild 113 

Glass, to Write, Gild, and Orna- 
ment on 215 

Glass, Tarnish for 63 

Glue and Isinglass 82 

Gold colours 43 

Gold Coloured Copal Varnish 56 

Gold, Ethereal Solution of. 76 

Gold, Mosaic 75 

Gold Oil colour 78 

Gold Powder 74 

Gold water Size 78 

Gracefulness 229 

Graining colour 191 

Grain Maple in Oil 199 

Granites 209 

Grass Green 44, 143 

Gray Flux 139 

Gray, I'laxen 42 

Grayish-black for Mixtures 151 

Gray, Light 42 

Green Foil 128 

Green, Grass 44 

Green Lake 40 

Greens 37 

Greens, Fish Oil 132, 134 

Greens iiiGhuss Staining 142 

Green Veiditcr 40 

Grinding and Washing colours... 83 

Grindstone 7 

Gum Elastic Varnish 60 

Gun barrel, to Brown 173 

Gutta Percha Combs 100 

Gypsum 21 

Hair Brown 150 

Hard Carmine 148 

Bard Varnish 62 

Harmony of colours 158 

Hatchet's Brown 41 

Hats, Varnish for 03 

Hollows, Filling up 223 

Hungary Green 38 

Imitate Black Rosewood 169 

Ii&itate RosewtKxl 168 


Imitate Tortoise-Shell 167 

Imitating Wood and Marble 190 

Imitation Marbles to PoUnIi 210 

Indigo 34 

Indigo Blue 141 

Indigo Grinding Mill 9, 11 

Ink Spots, to take, out of Mahog- 
any 172 

Inside Painting, White for 171 

Instructions for Sign Writing 211 

Instructions in C^ch Painting 

and Varnishing 217 

Ironing Caniage body, when to 

be done 222 

Iron, to Tin 161 

Isabella Yellow 147 

Isinglass 82 

Italian Green 38 

Italian Jasper 207 

Ivory Black 22 

Japan, Blown, in Preparation of 

Haw Oil , 219 

Japan for a Dryer 219 

Japtiniiing 123 

Japanning, colour required 123 

Japan, Tortoise Shell 124 

Jasper, toClean 171 

Jon(|iiil 43 

Jonqnillo Yellow 145 

Ljicqner fur Brass 117 

lacquer for Philosophical In- 
struments in 

Lacquer, Gold coloured 118 

Lacquering 117 

Lacquer of various Tints 119 

Lake 28 

Lamp Black 23 

Lamp Black with Priming Coat. 220 

Lavender Blue 142 

Lavender, Oil of. 45 

Lead colour 43 

Lead colour. Dark 44 

Lead, Fish Oil 133 

Le.ul Ore, to cover backs of Chini- 

neyswith 171 

Leather, Gilding 114 

Lemon Yellow 43 

Lettei-s, Form of. 211 

Letters, Kaise 213 

Letters, Setting out 213 

iietters, to Gild 214 

Letters to make appear to stand 

out 213 

Letters, to Shadow 213 




Mght Gniy 42 

Light Timber colour 44 

hight Willow colour 44 

Linen Cloths, to Thicken 165 

IJnseeU Oil 46 

Linseed Oil Varnish... 66 

Liver Brown 150 

.viaiMer Carmine 28 

MndUer Lake 28 

Mahogany in Distemper 201 

MuhoRanV in Oil 201 

Mahi')gany, to Imitate 44 

Miiho^jiuiy, to take Ink Spots out 

of 172 

Manuscript or Text Hand, prac- 
tice is necessary for a Sign 

Wilter 211 

Maple in Oil 1»9 

Marlde, Black Bardella 208 

Marble, Black and Gold 204 

Marble, Dove 208 

Marble, Egyptian Green 206 

Marble. Gilding Ill 

Muble, Italian Jasper 207 

Marble, Rouge Hoi 20i) 

Marble 203 

Marble, Sjiint Ann's 205 

Marble, Sienna 203 

Marble, imitating 190 

Marbles, Principal adapted to 

general use in decoration 203 

Marble, to clean 171 

Marble, Verd Antique 203 

Massicot 30 

Mastic Varnish 60 

Milk, Painting in 07 

Minium 25 

Moll-stick 16 

Mordant Varnishes 65 

M«»aic Gold 75 

Mufllerused in Glass Staining.... 154 

MuUor 7 

Muriate of Gold 77 

Nankin Yellow 146 

Naples Yellow 32 

Nausea 184 

New Brown 41 

Nnt Oil 46 

Oak, imitating 190 

Oak, Root of. 196 

'>ak-wood colour 42 

Oil, Boiletl 217 

Wl-Cloth, to make 162 

Oil for Fumitaro 173 

Oil, Mahogany in aOl 

Oil of Lavender •.. Al 

Oil of Poppies 45 

Oil of Spike 45 

Oil of Turpentine 48 

Oil, Pilchard 50 

Oil, Preparing 217 

Oil, Raw 217 

Oil, Raw, preparation of. 219 

Oils 45 

Oils, Drying 49 

Oil, to grain Maple in 199 

Oil, to prepare for Fish Oil Col- 
ours 130 

Olivecolour 43 

Orange colour 43 

Orange Yellow 147 

Ornamenting and Striping 229 

Ornament on Glass 215 

Ornament on Panel 230 

Orpiment 32 

Paint and Oil, mixing for Strip- 
ing 233 

Painter, Diet of. 187 

Painter's Colic 177 

Painter's Cream 81 

Painters, Diseases and Acci- 
dents 177 

Painting, Coach 217 

Painting in Milk 97 

Painting, Practice of. 91 

Palette-knife IS 

Pale Yellow Ochre 146 

Panel, Ornaments in 230 

Paste for Furniture 172 

Patent Yellow 31 

Pearl Gray 42 

Pencils 15 

Pictures, to Clean 173, 174 

Pigments f.>r Painting on Glass.. 137 

Pilchard Oil 60 

Place to do Work in 217 

Plaster, Gilding Ill 

Plaster of Paris 21 

Poisonous Substances, effects of... 181 

Polish, Carver's 72 

P»»lishe8 70 

Polish, Finishing 73 

Polish for Dark-coloured Woods. 71 

Polish for Tunbridge-waro 71 

Polish, French 72, 102 

Polish imitation Marbles, to 210 

Polish, Water-proof. 72 

Pollard Oak ><15 





Pollaru Oak in Distemper 196 

Poppies, Oil of 45 

Porcelain, to Gild 113 

Porphyry, to Clean 171 

Portland Stone colour 44 

Practice of Gilding 107 

Practice of Painting 91 

E*ractice of Varnishing and Pol- 
ishing 100 

Practicing Sign Writing, Arti- 
cles necessary in 212 

Preparatory Size 78 

Preparing Oil 217 

Priming Coat -MO 

Printers' Ink 165 

Prussian Blue «. 33 

Pumice Stone, Smoothing with... 222 

Pure Purple 148 

Purple 43 

Putty Powder 70 

Raise Letters 213 

Kawlinson's Indigo Grindrng- 

mill 11 

Raw Oil 217 

]{xi\v on, Advantages of. 219 

Raw Oil in Ship Painting 219 

Raw Oil, Preparation of. 219 

Receipts, Useful • 159 

Red 24, 30 

Red Lead 25 

Red Lead. Drying Qualities of... 219 

Red Shell-lac Varnish 55 

Rosewood 202 

Rosewood, Black, to imitate 169 

Rosewood, to imitato 168 

Root of Oak 196 

Root of Oak in Distemper 196 

Rotten Stone 81 

Rouge Roi, or Royal Red Marble. 206 

Rough Stuffing 221 

Rubber 17 

Ruby Coloured Foil 127 

Sail-Cloth, to Paint 162 

Saint Ann's 205 

Sandpapering after Priming 220 

Sandpapering Wood-work 220 

«atin Wood 200 

Satin Wood, to imitate 44 

Saxon Blue 36 

Saxon Green 38 

Scalds and Burns 184 

Scheelo's Green 38 

Schweinfurt Green 39 

Second Coat on Carriages 220 


Second Coat, Rubbing down 

after 226 

Sepia Brown 150 

Setting out of Letters 213 

Shading 232 

Shadow Lettei-s, to 213 

Shell-lac Varnish 54 

Shell-lac Varnish, Red 55 

Ship Painting, Raw Oil in 219 

Sienna.. 203 

Sienna, to Clean 171 

Sign Writing 211 

Sign Writing a mere Mechanical 
\f^ 211 

Silver by Heatrto-V."."*— 160 

Silver Furniture, to Clean 17C 

Silver or Pearl Gray 42 

Sizes 78, 82 

Sky Blue 141 

Smalt 36 

Smoothing with Pumice Stone.... 220 

Smoothing with Sandpaper 220 

Sole Leather, use of, in Smooth- 
ing after Priming 220 

Spanish Brown 29 

Spanish White 21 

Spatulas 17 

Spike, Oil of. 45 

Spirit colour 194 

Spirits, Effect of, upon Painters.. 187 

r^pints of Wine 52 

Spirits of Wine, to increase the 
Strength of Common Recti- 
fied 159 

Steel, to Gild , 112 

Sticking Plaster 166 

Striping, Arrangement of colours 

in 232 

Striping, Brushes for 234 

Striping. Mixing the Paint and 

Oil for 23:} 

Striping an<l Ornamenting 229 

Striping, use of Camel Hair Pen- 
cils in 2.34 

Striping, Varnish in 23.'1 

Stone colour 44 

Stone colour. Fish Oil 135 

Sugar of Lead and Vitriol as a 

Dryer 211- 

Suitable place tc Work in 217 

Sulphur Yellojv 144 

Taylor's Indigfi Grinding mill. ... 9 

Timber colour. Livrbt 44 

Tunbridge-w;ire. P.>li-<h for 71 

Tin Foil 12/ 




Tin, to 161 

T(M)l)) and Apparatus 7 

Tmquoiso Blue ^ 141 

Tortoise Shell Japan 124 

Tortoise Shell, to imitate 167 

Tortoise Shell, Varnish in imita- 
tion of. 67 

Tripoli 70 

Turner'8 YoUow 31 

Turpontioe, mixing with Boilod 

Oil :.... 218 

Turpentine, Oil of. 48 

Turi>entine Varnish 55 

Turpentine, Varnish made with.. 67 

Ultramarine 35 

Umber 41 

Useful Receipts 169 

Varnish, Amber 59 

Tarnish, Camphorated Copal 57 

Varnish, Copal 56 

Varnish, Cracking 225 

Varnish, Crawling 228 

Varnished Silk, to prepare 164 

Varnishes » 51 

Varnishes, Care in Making 68 

Varnish, Changing 64 

Varnishes, General Observations 

on 66 

Varnishes, Mordant 65 

Varnishes for Paling and Coarse 

Wood-work 62 

Varnish for Balloons 175 

Varnish for Clock Faces 174 

Varnish for Coaches and Iron- 
work 170 

Varnish for Coloured Drawings... 63 
Varnish for Drawings and Card- 
work 64 

Varnish for Glass 63 

Varnish for Violins 61 

Varnish, Gold-coloured Copal 56 

Varnish, Gum-elastic 60 

Varnishing 227 

Varnishing after Striping 235 

Varnishing Carriages 235 

Varnishing Coaches 217 

Varnishing and Polishing, prac- 
tice of 100 

Varnish in Striping 233 

Varnish, Linseed Oil 56 

Varnish, Mastic 60 

Varnish in Ornaments 231 

Varnish PolL*«h 70 

Vnrnijh to iuiitatc the ChiMe«e... 170 


Varnish to preserre Glass 108 

Varnish, Turpentine 58 

Varnish, AVhite Hard 62 

Venetian Emerald 40 

Verd Antique 206 

Verdigris 87 

Vermeil 80 

Vernulion t. 24 

Verona Green 88 

Violet Blue 142 

Violet colour 43 

Violins, Varnish for 61 

Vitriol as a Dryer 219 

Voider 13 

Wainscot, to imitate 44 

Walnlit 197 

Walnut-tree colour 43 

Washing and Grinding colours... 88 

Washing off Rotten Stone 227 

Water-proof Polish 72 

Waxin? 105 

Wax Yellow 145 * 

Weakness of the Wrists 180 

White 150 

White Chalk 22 

White Coating 79 

White for inside Painting 171 

White Hard Varnish 62 

White Lead 19 

White of Troyes 22 

Whites 19 

Willow colour 44 

Wood Brown 150 

Wood Gilding In Oil 112 

Wood and Marble, imitating 190 

Wood-woi k. Sand Papering 220 

Wrists, Weakness of. 180 

Write on Glass 215 

Writings, Gilding 115 

Yellow 30 

Yellow Arsenic 32 

Yellow, Colouring 79 

Yellow, Fish Oil 136 

Yellow Foil 128 

Yellow for Browns and Greens... 144 
Yellowish-Gray for Browns ai.d 

Red 161 

Yellow, Lemon 43 

Yellow Ochre 30 

Yellow of Antimony 33 

Yellow Pink 3.". 

Yellows in Glass Staining 143 

Zaffre 36 




AHorbiog Colors 324 

Acetate of Lead as a Dryer 309 

Adulterations of White Lead 245 

AfBuities of Pigments in Drying 309 

Alchemy 272 

Analogous Colors, Harmonies 

of 336, 339 

Analogous Uarmouy, fittings col- 
ored in 339 

Analysis of Light and Color 320 

Antimony Yellows 253 

Antwerp Blue 269 

Antwerp Brown 292 

Armenian Blue 266 

Arrangement of Colors in a room 339 

Arsenic, Sulphuret of. 256 

Arsenic Yellow 256 

Artist must consider fonn, etc... 1339 

Ashes, Ultramarine 267,294 

Aspect to be Considered 338 

Asphaltum 292 

Associations of Coloi-s 329 

Association of Colore of Equal 

tone 332 

Association of Complementary 

Colors 331 

Association of non-complemcii* 

tary Colors 331 

Associations, Binary, of Colors... 3:U 
Assortment of Colored Objects... 33S 
Assortment of Red, Yellow and 
Blue, with a binary containing 
the primary contrasts better 
when primary is more lumi- 
nous than binary 331 

Assortments ol Primary Colors 

and Black a34 

Aurantium 270 

Avoid violent Contra-st 339 

Azure 200,268 

Barytlc Adulterations of Lead... 245 
Beauty Influenced by Contrast 

of tone 333 

Boauty Influenced by tone 332 


Bice Green 276 

Binary Assu-iations of Colors 331 

Binary Colore 319 

Bitumen 292 

Bl.ick 295 

Black advantageous to produce 

harmonies of Analogy 334 

Black appears tinted by con- 
tiguity 334 

Black, Blue 298 

Black, Deepened by Contrast 334 

Black, Frankfort 298 

Black Harmonizes with S<mibre 337 
Black Inferior to White, when... 337 

Black, influence on Colors 334 

Black Lead 295, 290 

Black Lowere tone 335 

Black Manganese 299 

Black may diminish Contrast of 

tone 834 

Black, Mineral 299 

Black not well with Sombre and 

Lundnous 337 

Bhick Ochre 299 

Black on Coloretl grounds, molli- 
fied 335 

Black Paper 299 

Black preferable for separating 

Luminous C«^lors 337 

Black, Hussian 299 

Black, Spanish 298 

Black, Synthesis <.f. 296 

Black to separate Luminous Col- 
ore. 337 

Black weakened by Sombre Col- 
ore 334 

Black with Deep tones 334 

Black with Primary Colore 334 

Black with Unbroken tones 334 

Black and White in contrast 333 

Blanc, D' Argent 247 

Blue 263 

Blue, Antwerp 269 

Blue, Armenian 266 

Blue Black 298 





muc, Cobalt 268 

Blue, Dumont's 268 

Blue, Enaniel 268 

Blue, Gray 32;i 

Blue, Uaerleni 269 

lilue, Hungary 268 

Blue Ochre 295 

Blue, Paris 268 

Blue Pigments 322 

Blue Powder 268 

Blue, Prussian 322 

Blue, Pure 322 

Blue, Roval 268, 269 

Blue, Saxon 268 

Blue, Tbeuard's 268 

BIuo, Vienna 268 

Bluo, White and Green 338 

Blue, Whitd and Orange 337 

Blue, White and Red 337 

Blue, White and Yellow 338 

Blue in Nature 266 

Blue with Red 330 

Blue with Yellow 330 

Blue and Orange 330 

Blue and Red better than Violet 

and Red 337 

Bine and Yellow harmonize best 337 

Body of a Pigment 242 

Bone Brown 291 

Bouquet, Principle to form 338 

Brilliancy obtained from contrast 

of Complenientaries 338 

Brilliujit Colors lose by want of 

Contrast 338 

Brilliants form harmonies with 

Giay 336 

Bringing out grain of Wood 312 

Broken Colors 319 

Brown 287 

Brown, Antwerp 292 

Brown, Bone 291 

Brown, Campania 289 

Brown, Cappagh 290 

Brown, intense Madder 284 

Brown, Iron 291 

Brown, Ivory 291 

Brown, Madder 2S4 

Brown, MangaiicHc 289 

Brown, Mineral 290 

Brown Ochre 254, 291 

Brown Pink 282 

Brown, Prussian 293 

Brown, Rubens 291 

Brown, Vandyke 289 

Biowns, Ciiledonian 290 

Drowns, Hibernian 290 


Brun de Mars 266, 291 

Brunswick Green 276 

Burning Paint 317 

Burnt Carmine 279 

Burnt Sienna Earth 271 

Burnt Umber , 290 

Burnt Verdigris 286 


Cadmium, Sulphuret of 256 

Cadmium, Yellow 256 

Caledonian Browns 290 

Campania Brown 289 

Canvas, Priming for 312 

Cappagh Brown 290 

Carbonate of Lead 246 

Carbon, Oxide of. 299 

Carburet of Iron 299 

Care in Painting 310 

Care in Using Dryera 310 

Carmine a Pure Red 322 

Carmine, Burnt 279 

Carmine, Field's 263 

Carmine, Madder 263 

Carmines, Durable 263 

Cassel-earth 289,291 

Ciissius' Purple precipitate 279 

Castle-earth 291 

Ceruse 244 

Charcoal 298 

Chevreul's llarmouyof Colore, etc 318 
Chinese Artists use harmonies 

of contrast , 334 

Chinese Greens 274, 275 

Chinese Lake 263 

Chinese Yellow 255 

Chromate of Mercury 271 

Chrome Orange 270 

Circumstances which modify a 

Color 325 

Citrine 280, 323 

Citron, Mixed 281 

Citron, Yellow 248 

Classes of Grays 323 

Cleaning 316 

Cleanliness, necessary with use 

of Lead 245 

Clear Calling 311 

Cobalt Blue 268 

Cobalt Greens 274, 275 

Cold Colors 319 

Coldness from Blue 264 

Cologne Earth 291 

Color, Analysis of. 320 

Color, An Equivocal term 244 

Color, Circumstances which Mo- 
dify 326 






Color, Coutmst of. 326 

Colored Grays 319, 323 

Colored Grounds Modify Black... 335 
Colored Objects, Assortment of.. 338 

Colors, Associations of. 329 

Colon* best separated by White.. 337 

Colors, Binary 319 

Colors, Binary A%80ciations of.... 331 

Colors, Broken 319 

Colors, Cbevreul's Principles 318 

Colors, Cold 319 

Colors, Complementary 319, 324 

Colors, Compound, with a simple 

Color a part of it 329 

Colors, Compound, with same 

simple CuIoi-8 329 

C«'lor8, Compound 321 

Colors, Contact of. 326 

Colors, Harmony of. 336 

Colors, Ilnrniony of Analogous... 339 
Colors, Ilarmuny of Contrast of.. 336 
Colors in Contact, one Improved, 

the other Injured 332 

Colors in Contiguity 329 

Colors, Inherent .• 241 

Colors, Luminous 319 

Colors, Mixing 243 

Colors, Mixture of. ;.... 321 

Colors Modify White by Con- 
tiguity 333 

Colors, Neutral 295 

Colors, Normal 319, 321 

Colors of Objects 324 

Colors, Primary 250, 319, 321 

Colors, Primary witli While 333 

Colors, Pure Sectmdary 322 

Colors, Secondary 269, 319, 321 

Colors, semi-neutral 287 

Coloi-8, Simple 321 

Colors, Sombre 319 

Colors, Source of 320 

Colors, Tertiary 280, 319 

Colors, Transient 241 

Colors, Union <»f 322 

Colors, Warm 319 

Colors and Coloring 241 

CoinplementariesC'inti-ftsted, give 

Splendour and Brilliancy 338 

Complementary asdortnieitt Su- 
perior in harmony of Contrast 336 

Complementary Coloi-s 319, 324 

Conr.plementary Colors, Associa- 

ti< n of. 331 

Composition oi Black 322 

Composition of Gray 322 

iUixapontion of Green 323 



Composition of Orange 323 

Composition of Violet 323 

Composition of White 322 

Compound Colore 321 

Compound Color with a shnple 

Color which forms part 329 

Compovnd Colora, with the same 

simple Color 329 

Compounds of the same simple 

Colors 33') 

Compound and a simple Ct>lor 

not in the Compound 330 

Contiguity of Black 334 

Contiguity of Gray 336 

Contiguity of White 333 

Contiguity, Result of Placing 

Colors in 329 

Contiguity Tints, Black 334 

Contiguity, Two Simple Colors in 330 

Contrast, Avoid Violent 339 

Contrast deepens Black 334 

Contrast, Harmonies of. 336 

Contrast, Law of. Necessary to 

know 338 

Contrast, Mixed 327 

Contrast of Black and White 333 

Contrast of Color 326 

Contrast of Colors 318 

Contmst of Colors, Ilainioiiy of. 336 
Contrast of Color Improved by 

Gray 335 

Contrast of Color Lost with 

Crimson 338 

Contrast of Complementarics 
gives Splendor and Bril- 
liancy 338 

Contrast of Hues, Ilaimony of... 386 
Contrast of Scale, Harmony of... 336 

Contrast of Tone 326 

Contrast of Tone diminished by 

Black 334 

Contrast of Tone Influences 

Beauty 333 

Contrast of Tone must bo re- 
garded 338 

Contrast, Principles of, How 

carried out 339 

Contrast, Successive 327 

Copper, Oxide of. 2S6 

Copper, Prusslate of 2S4 

Cork, Burned 298 

Crayon Pigments 307 

Crems 246 

Crimson Ground requires Light 

Colors 338 

CuUen'5 Earth 291 




CyanuH 266 

Dark Russet 284 

Dark with White too great con- 
trast 333 

Daylight, Diffused, Effect on 

Colors 339 

Decomposition of Light 320 

Deep Tones with Black 3^4 

Definitions of Colifers 319 

Desiccation 308 

Destructive Effects of White Lead 245 
Diffused Daylight, Effect on OA- 

ors 339 

Distemper Painting 315 

Distemper Pigments 307 

Dumont's Blue 268 

Durable Carmines 263 

Durability of a Pigment 242 

Dntih Ultramarine 268 

Dutch Wliito 246 

Earth, Cassel or Castle 291 

Karth, Cologne 291 

Effect Influenced by Ground 336 

Kffect Influenced by interval.... 336 

Effects of Yellow 251 

Elements, Photogenic 241 

Elements, Sciogenic 241 

Emerald Green 276 

Enamel Blue 26S 

Enamel Painting pigments 306 

English Red 261 

Euchrome 290 

External Work 311 

Factitious Ultramarine 267 

Fading of Paintings 241 

Falsalo 290 

Familiarity with Law of Contrast 

necessary 338 

Feeble Light requires Luminous 

Colors, etc 339 

Field's Carmine 203 

Field's Purple 279 

Field's Russet 284 

Flake White 246 

Flaltinj,' 311 

Florentine Lake 263 

Flowers, How to form Bouquet.. 338 

Form, Influence on Colors 331 

Form must be Considered 339 

Foxiness 288 

Frankfort Black 1 298 

French Polishing 312 

French Ultramarine 267 


French White 247 

Fresco 313 

Fresco Pigments 307 

Fuller's Earth for Removing 

Varnish 317 

Furnishing, by Contrast 338 

Gall-Stone 267 

Galena 300 

Gamboge 356 

Gamboge, A Pure Yellow 322 

German Ultramarine 267 

GialloUni 252 

Giallolini tli foitiace. 252 

Gloss, Influeiice on Colors 331 

Gold Purple 279 

Grain of Wood, to bring ont 312 

Grauiing 312 

Graphite 299 

Gray 293 

Gray, Blue 3-23 

Gray, Colored 323 

Gray, Green 823 

Gray heightens Tints 335 

Gray, How Composed 322 

Gray inferior to Black and White 

with Luminous 338 

Gray, Influence on Colors 335 

(rray ini[)rore8 contrast of Color 335 

Gray improves PrimaHes 335 

(intV, Mineral 294 

U ray (Normal) 319,323 

Gray, Omngo 323 

Gray Oxide 248 

Gi-ay produces Analogous har- 

moniu:* 335 

Gray-Red 328 

Grays, Clsvsses of. 323 

Grays, Colored 319 

Grays, Mi.xed 294 

Gray, Stone 248 

Gray, Violet 323 

Gray, Yellow 323 

Green 248, 272,286 

Green Bice 275 

Green, Brunswick 275 

Green, Composition of .323 

Green, Emerald 276 

Green, Gray 323 

Green, Holly 276 

Green, Hooker's 274 

Green, Invisible 270 

Greenish-Yellow and Violet 330 

Green Lakes 276 

Green Mineral 276 

Green, Mouliu's ^, 277 




^rcen, Native „ 275 

aioon, Olive 2SC 

Oieeui Orange Mith 329 

Orton, PruHfirtu 274, '^76 

Oiuen, Pure <J22 

Gieen, Rinmunn's 275 

Green, Scbeele'g 286 

Green, Varley's 274 

Green, Verona 275 

Green, White and Blue 338 

Green, White and Violet.^ 338 

Groea, Zinc 276 

Greou and Red 330 

Green and Yellow, better than 

Green and Blue 337 

Greens, Chrome 274, 275 

Greens, Cobalt 274, 275 

Greens, Mixed 274 

Gruuiid influences effect 336 

Grounds 310 

Haerlem Blue 260 

Hamburgh Lake 263 

Hamburgh White 246 

Harmonies by Gray 335 

Harmonies of Analogous Colors.. 336 
Harmonies of Analogy from 

Black 834 

Harmonies of Contrast 336 

Harmonies of Contrast for Black 334 
Harmony, Fittings colored in 

Analogous 339 

Harmony of Analogous Colors... 339 

Harmony of Colors 318 

Harmony of Contrast, Comple- 
mentary Assortment superior 

in 336 

Harmony of Contrast of Colors... 336 
Harmony of Contrast of Huhs... 336 
Ilannuuy of Contrast of Scale... 336 
Harmony of dominant colored 

Light 336 

Harmony of Hue 336 

Harmony of Scale 336 

Harmony, Selection of. 338 

Height of Tone influences Beauity 

of Association 332 

Hibernian Browne 290 

Holly Green 275 

Hooker's Green 274 

Hue 320 

Hue, Harmony of. 336 

Hues , 242 

Hues, Harmony of Cimtrast of... 336 

Hues of Grays 323 

UuuKHry 268 


Imitating Marble 315 

Importance of Tone 339 

Improvement by association of 

non -complementary Colors 332 

Indian I^ke .". 263 

Indian Red 260 

Indigo and Violet 330 

Injprovement of Contrast of Gray 335 
Inferior Colors improved by Con- 
trast % 338 

Influence of Contiguity of Bhick 334 
Influence of Contiguity of Gray. 335 

Influence of White on C<dors 333 

Inherent Colors 241 

Injurj' of Two Colore by associa- 
tion 332 

Inside Work 311 

Intense Madder Brown 284 

Intensity very important, 339 

Interval influences Effect 336 

Internal Work 311 

InTisible Green 276 

Iodide of Mercury 259 

Iodine Scarlet 259 

Iron Brown 291 

Iron, Carburet of. 299 

Iron, Phosphate of. 296 

Iron Yellow 256 

Ivory Brown 291 

Jaune de Mars 255 

Jews' Pitch 292 

Killing off the Knots 310 

Kind of Light to be considereil... 338 

King's Yellow 255 

Knots, Killing off the 310 

Kremnitz Wliite 246 

Krems 246 

Kremser White 246 

Lacca 263 

Lac Lake 263 

Laque Mineral 270 

Lake, Chinese 263 

Lake, Florentine 263 

Lake, Hnmburgh 263 

Lake, Indian 263 

Lake, Purple 280 

Lake, Roman 263 

Li\ke, Scarlet 262 

Lake, Venetian 263 

Lake, Yellow 257 

Lakes, Green 276 

Lakes, Madder 261 

Lapis Liznli 266 




T^aw of CoutJ-ast, NecesMiry to 

know 338 

riead, Acetate aa a Dryer 309 

Lead, Black 295, 299 

Lead, Carbouate uf. 246 

Load, Orange 271 

Lead, Oxide of. 271 

Lead, Protoxide of. 253 

Lead, Sulphate of 247 

Lead, Snlphnret ^ 300 

Lead, White '. 244 

Lead, White, Adulterations of... 245 

Lead, White, Destructive 245 

Lead, White, Oxides of. 244 

Li^ht 320 

Light, Analysis of. 320 

Liglit, Decomposition of. ;.... 320 

Light Ked 261 

Ligiit with Wiiite better tlian 

Dark 333 

Luminous Coloi-s 319 

Lundnous Culoi-s separated by 

Black 337 

Luminous and Sombre not well 

with Black 337 

Madder Brown 284 

Madder Carmine 263 

Madder Lakes 261 

Madder Purple 279 

Manganese Black 299 

Manganese Brown 289 

Manganese, Oxide of.. 289 

Marble, Imitating 315 

Mars, Orange 271 

Mars, Scarlet 270 

Martel on Harmony, etc., of Co. 

ors : 318 

Massicot 253 

Masticot 253 

Mercury, Chromate of. 271 

Mercury, Iodide <»f. 259 

Mineral Black 299 

Mineral Brown 290 

Mineral Gi-ay 294 

Mineral Green 276 

Mineral Pitch 292 

Mineral Purple 280 

Mineral Yellow 2:3, 256 

Mixed Citrine 281 

Mixed Contrast 327 

Mixed Grays 294 

Mixed Greens 274 

Mixed Olive 2^6 

Mixed Purples 278 

Mixed Russet 28;J 


Mixing Colors 243 

Mixing for Pure Secondary Col- 

m-s 322 

Mixture of Colors 321 

Modes of Painting 310 

Modifications in Colors by Con- 
tact 326 

Modifications of Black on Colored 

Grounds .'i3l- 

MouHn's Green 277 

Mutual Improvemeut by associa- 
tion 331. 

Mutual Injury by association.... 332 

Naples Yellow 252 

Native Green 275 

Native Manganese Brown 290 

Nerodi Foglio 299 

Neutral C«jlor8 * 295 

Neutrals 244 

Non-Coniplementaries Improve 

by association 332 

Nou-Complementaiies Injured 

by association 332 

Non-Complementary Colors, As- 
sociation of.. 331 

Normal Colors 319, 321 

Normal Gray 319, 823 

Northern Aspect requires Light 
Warm tones 838 

Objects, Colors of 324 

Ochre, Black 299 

Ochre, Blue 296 

Ochre, Brown 254, 291 

Ochre, Orange 271 

•>.'hre, Oxford , 254 

Oohre, Purple 280 

Ochre, Red 260 

Ochre, Roman 254 

Ochre, Russet 285 

Ochre, Scarlet 261 

Ochre, Spanish 271 

Ochre, Spruce 263 

Ochre, Stone 254 

Ochre, Yellow 263 

Ocre de Rue , 254 

Oil Painting 310 

Olive 2J">, 323 

Olive Green 28d 

Olive, Mixed 283 

Operations of Painting 310 

Oi-ange , 269 

Orange, Bliick and Red harn;o 

niae 307 

Orange, Chrome TtQ 




Orange, Gomp«ieltion of. 323 

Onmge de Mars.... .^ 256 

Onifigo, Omy 323 

Onuigc Lead 271 

(^niiige, Mars 271 

Oiango Ochre 271 

Orange Orpinieiit 272 

Orange Russet 284 

Orange, White and Blue 337 

Orange, White and Violet 338 

Orange ^'ithOreen 329 

Orange with Retl 329 

Orange with Yellow 330 

Orange Yellow 248 

Orange and Yellow better then 

Orangeand Red 337 

Orange and Bine «.... 330 

Ores of Zinc 248 

Oi'piment, Orange 272 

Orpinient, Red 272 

Orpiment, Yellow 256, 272 

Ontside Work 311 

Oxford Ochre 254 

Oxide, Gray 248 

Oxide of Carbon 299 

Oxide of Copper 286 

Oxideof Lead 271 

Oxide of Manganese 289 

Oxide (.f Zinc 247 

Oxides of Lead, White 244 

Painting, Care in 310 

Painting, Distemper 315 

Painting in Oil 310 

Painting in Fresco 313 

Painting, Monies of 310 

Paintings, Why they Fade 241 

Paint, Removing 317 

Paper. Black 299 

Paper, Priming fir 312 

Paris Blue 268 

Pearl Whiti' 249 

Persian Hed 361 

PluMphiito I'f Iron 295 

Photogenic Klements 241 

Pigment, R.mI 322 

Pigments 319 

Pigments, Bine 322 

Pigments not uffectetl by Heat... 3'!6 
Pigments not aiffVcted by Lime... 307 
Pigments not cliiingod by Light, 
etc.. nor Sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, etc .303 

Pigments, Qualities of. 242 

Pigments, Tables of. 800 

Plguionts Trassparont 306 

Pigments which change by Inm, 

etc '.- 306 

Pigments which cliange by Lead, 

etc 304 

Pigments which change by Lightf 
Oxygen, and pure air, but not 
by shade. Sulphuretted Hy- 
drogen damp, and foul air ^101 

Pigments which change by Ligh t, 
etc., and Sulphuretted Iiy- 

drogen, etc 30'i 

Pigments which change by shade 

etc., and not by Light, etc 301 

Pink, Brown 282 

Pitch, Jews' 29i 

Pitch, Mincml 292 

Plaster, Priming ft>r 313 

Phwtic Painting 314 

PliimbHgo 295, 299 

Points to Notice in Dryers 310 

Points to Study in arranging Objects 338 

Polishing, French 312 

Powder, Blue 268 

Precipitate, Casf«ius' Purple 279 

Primaries < Jain byOn«y 336 

Primaries in pairs better as a 

harmony of contrast 336 

Primaries with Black 334 

Primary C.l mk 250, 319. 321 

Pilmary Colors impnivc by as- 
sociation with \Vhit«' 333 

Prhnary 311 

Principles <»f Contrast. Imw car- 
ried ont 339 

Prismatic Spectrum 320 

Protoxide of Lead « 1'63 

Prussian Blue 322 

Prussian Brown 291,293 

Prussian Green 274, 276 

Prussian lied 261 

Prussiate of Copper... 284 

Pure Blue 322 

Pure Coloi-s 322 

PureGreen 323 

PureReil 322 

Pure Sectndary Colors 322 

Pure Yellow ." 322 

Purity of Ultranmrine 322 

Purple 277 

Purple, Field's 270 

Purple, Gold 27S 

Purple, Like 280 

Purple, Miulder 279 

Purple, Mineral 280 

I*urple Ochre SM 




Fnrplb Precipitate, Gassings 279 

Pinplo Uiibiate 279 

Purples, Mixed 278 

Putty, How used 310 

Qualities of Pigments 242 

Raw Sienna Earth 255 

Realgar 272 

Hsd 257 

Red, Black and Orange harmon- 
ize 837 

Red, English 261 

Red, Gray 323 

Red, Indian 260 

Red, Light 261 

Red Ochre 260 

Red, Orange with 329 

Red Orpnnent 272 

Red, Persian 261 

Red Pigment 322 

Red, Prnsf^ian 261 

Red, Pure 322 

Red, Venetian 261 

Red, White and Blue 337 

Red White and Violet 338 

Red with Blue 330 

Red with Yellow 330 

Red and Blue better than Red 

and Violet.« 337 

Red and Green 3^J0 

Red and Violet better than Blue 

and Violet 337 

Red and Yellow, better than 

Orange and Yellow 337 

Reflecting Colors 324 

Relief, IIo\^ secured 339 

Removing Paint 317 

Removing Varnish 316 

Restoring 31fi 

Result of Colors in Contiguity... 329 

Rinmann's Green 275 

Roman Lake 26.'J 

Roman Oflire 264 

Roman White 247 

Room. How Objects airangi'd 

in.. a.'jg 

Rouge de Mars 2r»r>, 2«)1 

Royal Blue Jes, 26 > 

Rouge de Mai-s 25.5 

Ruben's Bmwn 291 

Rubiate, IMnple 279 

Jiubia Tiw'ioiia 284 

Rubric 2f51 

Rules of Painting 313 

Kuwet 2S2, 323 


Russet, Dark 284 

Russet, Field's 284 

Russet, Mixed 283 

Russet Ochre 285 

Rnsset, Orange 284 

Russian Black 299 

Sandarac 272 

Saxon Blue... 268 

Scagliola 315 

Scale 320 

Scale, Harmony of. 336 

Scale, Harmony of Contrast of... 336 

Scarlet, Iodine 259 

Scarlet Lake 262 

Scarlet Ochre 261 

Scheele's Green 286 

Sciogenic Elements 241 

Secondary Colors 269, 819, 821 

Secondary Colors, Pure S22 

Selection of Harmony 338 

Semi-Neutral Colors 287 

Shade 242 

Shades 320 

Siccatives 308 

Silver White 247 

SimpleColors 321 

Simple Colors in Contiguity 330 

Simultaneous Contrast of Color.. 327 

Size, How used 311 

Size, must be considered 339 

Smalt 268 

Snow W^hite 248 

Solvents for Varnish 316 

Sombre Colors 319 

Sombre Colors weaken Black 334 

Sombre Harmonize with Black.. 337 
Sombre and Luminous not well 

with Black 387 

Source of Color 320 

Sttuthern aspect requirof^ light 

hues of Sombre Colors 338 

Spanish Black 298 

Spanish Ochre 271 

Spectrum, Prismatic 32C 

Siilendor obtained by Contrast of 

Complementaries 3'18 

Spruce Ochre 2.i3 

StAin Graining 312 

Standard of Color 321 

Stone Gray 218 

Stone Ochre 254 

Stone, Priming for 312 

Straw Color 250 

Stucco, Priming f »r 312 

Successive Con t nut 327 




Suitability uinst be considered... 339 
Stiitability of object in assort- 
ment 338 

Sulphate of Lead 247 

Sulphate of Zinc as a Dryer 309 

Sulphuret of Arsenic 255 

Snipliuret of Cadmium 256 

8ulphuret of Lead 300 

Synthesis of Black 296 

Tables of Pignients 300 

Terra Camagione 261 

Terra di Sienna 255, 271 

Terra Puzznoli 261 

Terre de Cassel 291 

Terro Verte 274 

Tertiaries 323 

Tertiary Colors 280,319 

Thenard's Blue 268 

Tints 242, 250, 320 

Tints Heightened by Gray 335 

Tin White 249 

Tone, Contrast of 326 

Tone iiiflnencefl Beauty of as- 
sociation .' 332 

Tone Lowered by Black 335 

Tone, Must regard Contrast of... 338 

Tone Strengthened by White 333 

Tone, Very important 339 

Tones 319 

Tones deep and unbroken with 

Black 304 

Transient Colors 241 

Transparencies 313 

Transparent Pigments 305 

Ultramarine , 266, 822 

Ultramarine Ashes U07, 294 

Ultramarine, Dutch 268 

Ultramarine, Factitiuns 267 

Ultramarine, French and Uer- 

man 267 

Umber 282, 290 

Unbroken Tones with Black 334 

Union of Colors 322 

Vandyke Bn.wn 289 

Varley's Green 274 

Varnish, Kemoving 316 

Varnish, Solvents f)r 316 

Venetian Lake 2fi3 

Venetinn Bed 261 

Venetian White 246 

Verdetto 275 

VerJigiia, Burnt 286 

Verona Green 275 


Vienna, Blue 268 

Vienna, White 246 

Violent Contrast avoided 339 

Violet, Composition of. 323 

Violet de Mars 280 

Violet, Gray 323 

Violet, White and Green 338 

Violet, White and Orange 338 

Violet, White and Bed 338 

Violet and Greenish Yellow 330 

Violet and Indigo 330 

Violet and Red, better than Vio- 
let and Blue 337 

Warm Colors 319 

Water Colors 305 

White 243 

White allows each Color its in- 
tegrity 336 

White, Dutch 246 

White, Flake 246 

White, French 247 

White, Hamburgh 246 

White, How composed 322 

White improves Primary Colors 

by Association 333 

White, influence on Colors 333 

White, Kremnitz 246 

White, Kremser 246 

White Lead 244 

White Lead, Adulterations, etc.. 245 

White Lead, Destructive 245 

White Modified by contiguity.... 333 

White not a Color 335 

White Oxides of Lead 244 

White, Pearl 249 

White, Roman 247 

White, Silver .' 247 

White, Snow 248 

White Strengthens Tone 333 

White superior to Black, when.. 337 

White, Tin 249 

White to sepanUe C<tlors 337 

White, Vienna , 24H 

White, Venetian 2-16 

White, Zinc 247 

White and Black in Contrast.... 333 

Wood, Priming for 312 

Work Exposed to Weather 311 

Yellow 250 

Yellow, Arsenic 256 

Yellow, Cadmium 256 

Yellow, Chinese 255 

Yellow, Effects of. 251 

Yellow, Gray S23 




Ifellow, Iron 255 

iftllow, King's , 255 

Yellow Lake 257 

yellow. Mineral 253, 256 

Yollow Ochre 253 

Yellow, Orange with 330 

Yellow Orpiinent 256, 272 

Yellow Pigmont 322 

Yellow, Pnre 322 

Yellow, Red with 330 

Yellow, White and Blue «.... 338 

Yellow with Blue 830 

Yellow and Blue harmonize best 337 
fellow and Qreen, better than 
Blue and Green 887 


Yellow and Orange, bettor than 
Red and Orange 337 

Tellow and R«d, hotter than 
Yellow and Orange 387 

Yellows, Antimony 253 

Yellows 248 

Zaffre aCiS 

Zinc, Green 27<i 

Zinc, Ores of. 248 

Ziuc, Oxide of. 247 

Zinc, Stone itn 

Zinc, Sulphate as a Dryer )A9 

Zinc, White 2il 


Pounded by Mathew Carey, 1785- 









86^ Any of the Books comprised in this Catalogue will be sent free of 
postage at the printed prices to any address in the World. 

Descriptive Catalogue, 96 pages, 8vo,, and our other Catalogues, 
the whole covering all of the branches of Science Applied to the 
Arts, sent free and free of postage to any one in any part 
of the world, who will furnish us with his address. 

i^^Where not otherwise stated, all of the Books in this Catalogue are 

bound in muslin. 

"^— . 



ppactical and ^cientic Boo^^ 


Henry Carey Baird & Co 


810 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Any of the Books comprised in this Oatalogne will he sent by maH, free tf 
postage, to any address in the world, at the pnblioation prices. 

A DescriptiTe Oatali^e, 96 pages, 8to., will be sent free and free of postagOi 
to any one in any ^xrt of the world, who will fnmish his address. 

Where not otherwise stated, all of the Books in this Oatalogne are bound 

in mnslin. 


A treatise containing plain and concise directions for the manipula- 
tion of Wood and Metals, including Casting, Forging, Brazing, 
Soldering and Carpentry. By the author of the " Lathe and Its 
Uses." Third edition. Illustrated. 8vo. . . . $3.00 

ANDRES.— A Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of Volatile 
and Fat Varnishes, Lacquers, Siccatives and Sealing 
From the German of Erwin Andres, Manufacturer of Varnishes 
and Lacquers. With additions on the Manufacture and Application 
of Varnishes, Stains for Wood, Horn, Ivory, Bone and Leather. 
From the German of Dr. Emil Winckler and Louis E. Andes. 
The whole translated and edited by William T. Brannt. With 11 
illustrations. i2mo. ^2.50 

ARLOT.— A Complete Guide for Coach Painters : 

Translated from the French of M. Arlot, Coach Painter; for 
eleven years Foreman of Painting to M. Eherler, Coach Maker, 
Paris. By A. A. Fesquet, Chemist and Engineer. To which is 
added an Appendix, containing Information respecting the Materials 
and the Practice of Coach and Car Painting and Varnishing in the 
United States and Great Britain. i2mo. . . . $1.25 



cal Draughtsman's Book of Industrial Design, and Ma- 
chinist's and Engineer's Drawing Companion : 

Forming a Complete Course of Mechanical Engineering and Archi- 
tectural Drawing. From the French of M. Armengaud the elder, 
Prof, of Design in the Conservatoire of Arts and Industry, Paris, and 
MM. Armengaud the younger, and Amoroux, Civil Engineers. Re- 
written and arranged with additional matter and plates, selections from 
and examples of the most useful and generally employed mechanism 
of the day. By William Johnson, Assoc. Inst. C. E. Illustrated 
by hfcy folio steel plates, and fifty wood-cuts. A new edition, 4to., 
half morocco $10.00 

ARMSTRONG. — The Construction and Management of Steam 
Boilers : 

By R. Armstrong, C. E. With an Appendix by Robert Mallet, 
C. E., F. R. S. Seventh Edition. Illustrated, i vol. i2mo. 75 

ARROWSMITH.— Paper-Hanger's Companion : 

A Treatise in which the Practical Operations of the Trade are 7**^ 
Systematically laid down: with Copious Directions Preparatory to 
Papering; Preventives against the Effect of Damp on Walls; the 
various Cements and Pastes Adapted to the Several Purposes of 
the Trade; Observations and Directions for the Panelling and 
Ornamenting of Rooms, etc. By James Arrowsmith. i2mo., 
cloth ^1.25 

ASH TON. — ^The Theory and Practice of the Art of Designing 
Fancy Cotton and Woollen Cloths from Sample : 
Giving full instructions for reducing drafts, as well as the methods of 
spooling and making out harness for cross drafts and finding any re- 
quired reed; with calculations and tables of yarn. By Frederic T. 
AsHTON, Designer, West Pittsfield, Mass. With fifty-two illustrations. 
One vol. folio ^10.00 

AUERBACH— CROOKES.-^Anthracen : 

Its Constitution, Properties, Manufacture and Derivatives, including 
Artificial Alizarin, Anthrapurpurin, etc., with their applications in 
Dyeing and Printing. By G. Auerbach. Translated and edited 
fiom the revised manuscript of the Author, by Wm. Crookes, F. R. 
S., Vice-President of the Chemical Society. 8vo. . . I5.00 

BAIRD.— Miscellaneous Papers on Economic Questions. 
By Henry Carey Baird. {^In preparation.) 

BAIRD.— The American Cotton Spinner, and Manager's and V 
Carder's Guide : 
A Practical Treatise on Cotton Spinning ; giving the Dimensions and 
Speed of Machinery, Draught and Twist Calculations, etc.; with 
notices of recent Improvements : together with Rules and Examples 
for making changes in the sizes and numbers of Roving and Yarn. 
Compiled from the papers of the late Robert H. Baird. i2mo. 



BAIRD. — Standard Wages Computing Tables : 

An Improvement in all former Methods of Computation, so arranged 
that wages for days, hours, or fractions of hours, at a specified rate 
per day or hour, may be ascertained at a glance. By T. Spangler 
Baird. ' Oblong folio ^500 

BAKER. — Long- Span Railway Bridges : 

Comprising Investigations of the Comparative Theoretical and 
Practical Advantages of the various Adopted or Proposed Type 
Systems of Construction ; with numerous Formulae and Tables. By 
B. Baker. i2mo. $150 

BAKER.-— The Mathematical Theory of the Steam-Engine : 
With Rules at length, and Examples worked out for the use o\ 
Practical Men. By T. Baker, C. E., with numerous Diagrams. 
Sixth Edition, Revised by Prof. J. R. Young. i2mo. . 75 

BARLOW. — ^The History and Principles of Weaving, by 
H^nd and by Power : 
Reprinted, with Considerable Additions, from " Engineering," with 
a chapter on Lace-making Machinery, reprinted from the Journal of 
the '* Society of Arts." By Alfred Barlow. With several hundred 
illustrations. 8vo., 443 pages j^ 10.00 

BARR. — A Practical Treatise on the Combustion of Coal: 
Including descriptions of various mechanical devices for the Eco- 
nomic Generation of Heat by the Combustion of Fuel, whether solid, 
liquid or gaseous. 8vo ^2.50 

BARR. — A Practical Treatise on High Pressure Steam Boilers : 
Including Results of Recent Experimental Tests of Boiler Materials, 
together with a Description of Approved Safety Apparatus, Steam 
Pumps, Injectors and Economizers in actual use. By Wm. M. Barr. 
204 Illustrations. 8vo ^^3.00 

BAUERMAN. — A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron : 

Containing Outlines of the History of Iron Manufacture, Methods of 
Assay, and Analysis of Iron Ores, Processes of Manufacture of Iron 
and Steel, etc., etc. By H. Bauerman, F. G. S., Associate of the 
Royal School of Mines. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Illustrated with numerous Wood Engravings from Drawings by J. B. 
Jordan. i2mo ^2.00 

BAYLES.— House Drainage and Water Service : 

In Cities, Villages and Rural Neighborhoods. With Incidental Con. 
sideration of Certain Causes Affecting the Healthfulness of Dwell* 
ings. By James C. Bayles, Editor of " The Iron Age " and " The 
Metal Worker." With numerous illustrations. 8vo. cloth, $3.00 

BEANS.— A Treatise on Railway Curves and Location of 
Railroads : 
By E. W. Beans, C. E. Illustrated. i2mo. Tucks . $1.50 

BECKETT. — A Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks, and Watches 

and Bells : 

By Sir Edmund Beckett, Bart., I.L. D., Q. C. F. R. A. S. With 

numerous illustrations. Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

i2mo $2.25 


BELL. — Carpentry Made Easy : 

Or, The Science and Art of Framing on a New and Improved 
System. With Specific Instructions for Building Balloon Frames, Barn 
Frames, Mi'l Frames, Warehouses, Church Spires, etc. Comprising 
also a System of Bridge Building, with Bills, Estimates of Cost, and 
valuable Tables. Illustrated by forty-four plates, comprising nearly 
200 figures. By William E. Bell, Architect and Practical Builder. 
8vo. .......... $S'^^ 

BEMROSE. — Fret-Cutting and Perforated Carving: 

With fifty-three practical illustrations. By W. Bemrose, Jr. I vol. 
quarto .......... fe.oo 

BEMROSE.— Manual of Buhl-work and Marquetry: 

With Practical Instructions for Learners, and ninety colored designs. 
By W. Bemrose, Jr. i vol. quarto .... ^53.00 

BEMROSE.— Manual of Wood Carving: 

With Practical Illustrations for Learners of the Art, and Original and 
Selected Designs. By William Bemrose, Jr. With an Intro- 
duction by Llewellyn Jewitt, F. S. A., etc. With 12S illustra- 
tions, 4to. fc'OO 

BILLINGS.— Tobacco : 
Its History, Variety, Culture, Manufacture, Commerce, and Various 
Modes of Use. By E. R. Billings. Illustrated by nearly 200 
engravings. 8vo $3'^^ 

BIRD. — The American Practical Dyers' Companion: 

Comprising a Description of the Principal Dye-Stuffs and Chemicals 
used in Dyeing, their Natures and Uses ; Mordants, and How Made ; 
with the best American, English, French and German processes for 
Bleaching and Dyeing Silk, Wool, Cotton, Linen, Flannel, Felt, 
Dress Goods, Mixed and Hosiery Yarns, Feathers, Grass, Felt, Fur, 
Wool, and Straw Hats, Jute Yarn, Vegetable Ivory, Mats, Skins, 
Furs, Leather, etc., etc. By Wood, Aniline, and other Processes, 
together with Remarks on Finishing Agents, and Instructions in the 
Finishing of Fabrics, Substitutes for Indigo, Water-Proofing of 
Materials, Tests and Purification of Water, Manufacture of Aniline 
and other New Dye Wares, Harmonizing Colors, etc., etc. ; embrac- 
ing in all over 800 Receipts for Colors and Shades, accompanied by 
1 70 Dyed Samples of Raw Materials and Fabrics. By F. J. Bird, 
Practical Dyer, Author of »*^The Dyers* Hand-Book." 8vo. ;^ 10.00 

BLINN. — A Practical WTorkshop Companion for Tin, Sheet- 
Iron, and Copper-plate Workers : 

Containing Rules for describing various kinds of Patterns used by 
Tin, Sheet-Iron and Copper-plate Workers; Practical Geometry; 
Mensuration of Surfaces and Solids; Tables of the Weights of 
Metals, Lead-pipe, etc.; Tables of Areas and Circumferencci 
of Circles ; Japan, Varnishes, Lackers, Cements, Compositions, etc., 
etc. By Leroy J. Blinn, Master Mechanic. With over One 
Hundred Illustrations. i2mo. if>2.5o 




BOOTH.— Marble Worker's Manual : 

Containing Practical Information respecting Marbles in general, their 
Cutting, Working and Polishing ; Veneering of Marbke ; Mosaics ; 
Composition and Use of Artificial Marble, Stuccos, Cements, Receipts, 
Secrets, etc., etc. Translated from the Ft«nch by M. L. Booth. 
With an Appendix concerning American Marbles. l2mo., cloth $1.50 

fiOOTH and MORPIT.— The Encyclopaedia of Chemistry, 
Practical and Theoretical : 
Embracing its application to the Arts, Metallurgy, Mineralogy, 
Geology, Medicine and Pharmacy. By James C. Booth, Melter 
and Refiiner in the United States Mint, Professor of Applied Chem- 
istry in the Franklin Institute, etc., assisted by Campbell Morfit, 
author of " Chemical Manipulations," etc. Seventh Edition. Com- 
plete in one volume, royal 8vo., 978 pages, with numerous wood-cuts 
and other illustrations ....... 1^5 ^oo 

BRAMWELL.— The Wool Carder's Vade-Mecum : 

A Complete Manual of the Art of Carding Textile Fabrics. By W. 
C. Bramwell. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated, 
pp. 4.00. i2mo. ........ $2.50 

BRANNT.— A Practical Treatise on the Raw Materials and the 
Distillation and Rectification of Alcohol, and the Prepara- 
tion of Alcoholic Liquors, Liqueurs, Cordials, Bitters, etc. : 
Edited chiefly from the German of Dr. K. Stammer, Dr. F. Eisner, 
and E. Schubert. By Wm. T. Brannt. Illustrated by thirty-one 
engravings. i2mo. .....•• ^2.50 

BRANNT. — The Techno-Chemical Receipt Book : 

Containing several thousand Receipts comprising the latest and mobt 
useful discoveries in Chemical Technology and Industry. Editel 
from the German of Drs. E. Winckler, Heintze and MiERZiNSKl, 
with additions by W. T. Brannt. {In preparation.) 

BROWN. — Five Hundred and Seven Mechanical Movements: 
Embracing all those which are most important in Dynamics, Hy- 
draulics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, Steam-Engines, Mill and other 
Gearing, Presses, Horology and Miscellaneous Machinery ; and in- 
cluding many movements never before published, and several of 
which have only recently come into use. By Henry T. Brown. 
i2mo $1.00 

BUCKMASTER.— The Elements of Mechanical Physics : 
By J. C. Buckmaster. Illustrated with numerous engravings. 
l2mo $i'SO 

BULLOCK. — The American Cottage Builder : 

A Series of Designs, Plans and Specitications, from $200 to j^20,ooo, 
for Homes for the People; together with Warming, Ventilation, 
Drainage, Painting and Landscape Gardening. By John Bullock, 
Architect and Editor of " The Rudiments of Architecture and 
Building,'* etc., etc. Illustrated by 75 engravings. 8vo. S3.50 

BULLOCK. — The Rudiments of Architecture and Building : 
For the use of Architects, Builders, Draughtsmen, Machinists, En- 
gineers and Mechanics. Edited by John Bullock, author of " The 
American Cottage Builder." Illustrated by 250 Engravings. 8vo. 1^3.50 


BURQH. — Practical Rules for the Proportions of Modem 
Engines and Boilers for Land and Marine Purposes. 
By N. P. BuRCH, Engineer. i2mo. . . . . $1.50 

BURNS. — The American Woolen Manufacturer: 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Woolens, in two parts. 
Part First gives full and explicit instructions upon Drafting, Cross- 
Drawing, Combining Weaves, and the correct arrangement of Weights, 
Colors and Sizes of Yarns to produce any desired fabric. Illustrated 
with diagrams of various weavings, and twelve samples of cloth for 
explanation and practice. Part Second is fully supplied with ex- 
tended Tables, Rules, Examples, Explanations, etc. ; gives full and 
practical information, in detailed order, from the stock department to 
the market, of the proper selection and use of the various grades and 
staples of wool, with the admixture of waste, cotton and shoddy; and 
the proper application and economical use of the various oils, drugs, 
dye stuffs, soaps, belting, etc. Also, the most approved method for 
Calculating and Estimating the Cost of Goods, for all Wool, Wool 
Waste and Cotton and Cotton Warps. With Examples and Calcula- 
tions on the Circular motions of Wheels, Pinions, Drums, Pulleys 
and Gears, how to speed them, etc. The two parts combined form a 
whole work on the American way of manufacturing more complete 
than any yet issued. Ey George C. Burns. 8vo. . . ^^6.50 

BYLES.— Sophisms of Free Trade and Popular Political 

Economy Examined. 

By a Barrister (Sir John Barnard Bvles, Judge of Common 

Pleas). From the Ninth English Edition, as published by the 

Manchester Reciprocity Association. i2mo. . . . ^1.25 

BOWMAN.— The Stmcture of the Wool Fibre in its Relation 
to the Use of Wool for Technical Purposes : 
Being the substance, with additions, of Five Lectures, delivered at 
the request of the Council, to the members of the Bradford Technical 
College, and the Society of Dyers and Colorists. By F. H. Bow- 
man, D. Sc, F. R. S. E., F. L. S. Illustrated by 32 engravings. 
8vo ;^6.50 

BYRN.— The Complete Practical Distiller: 

Comprising the most perfect and exact Theoretical and Practical De- 
scription of the Art of Distillation and Rectification ; including all of 
the most recent improvements in distilling apparatus ; instructions for 
preparing spirits from the numerous vegetables, fruits, etc ; directions 
for the distillation and preparation of all kinds of brandies and other 
spirits, spirituous and other compounds, etc. By M. La Fayette 
Byrn, M. D. Eighth Edition. To which are added Practical 
Directions for Distilling, from the French of Th. Fling, Brewer and 
Distiller. i2mo • . . $1.50 

BYRNE. — Hand-Book for the Artisan, Mechanic, and Engi- 
Comprising the Grinding and Sharpening of Cutting Tools, Abrasive 
Processes, Lapidary Work, Gem and Glass Engraving, Varnishing 
and Lackering, Apparatus, Materials and Processes for Grinding and 



Polishing, etc. By Oliver Byrne. Illustrated by 185 wood en- 
gravings. 8vo. . ^5.00 

BYRNE. — Pocket-Book for Railroad and Civil Engineers : 
Containing New, Exact and Concise Methods for Ikying out Railroad 
Curves, Switches, Frog Angles and Crossings ; the Staking out of 
work ; Levelling ; the Calculation of Cuttings ; Embankments ; Earth- 
work, etc. By Oliver Byrne. iSmo., full bound, pocket-lx)ok 
form $^'7S 

BYRNE.— The Practical Metal- Worker's Assistant : 

Comprising Metallurgic Chemistry ; the Arts of Working all Metals 
and Alloys ; Forging of Iron and Steel ; Hardening and Tempering ; 
Melting and Mixing; Casting and Founding; Works in Sheet Metal; 
the Processes Dependent on the Ductility of the Metals ; Soldering ; 
and the most Improved Processes and Tools employed by Metal- 
workers. With the Application of the Art of Electro-Metallurgy to 
Manufacturing Processes; collected from Original Sources, and from 
the works of Holtzapflfel, Bergeron, Leupold, Plumier, Napier, 
Scoffern, Clay, Fairbairn and others. By Oliver Byrne. A new, 
revised and improved edition, to which is added an Appendix, con- 
taining The Manufacture of Russian Sheet-Iron. By John Percy, 
M. D., F. R. S. The Manufacture of Malleable Iron Castings, and 
Improvements in Bessemer Steel. By A. A. Fesquet, Chemist and 
Engineer. With over Six Hundred Engravings, Illustrating every 
Branch of the Subject. 8vo ^7-oc 

BYRNE.— The Practical Model Calculator: 

For the Engineer, Mechanic, Manufacturer of Engine Work, Navai 
Architect, Miner and Millwright. By Oliver Byrne. 8vo., nearly 
600 pages $4.$^ 


Comprising a Collection of Designs for various Styles of Furniture. 
Illustrated by Forty-eight Large and Beautifully Engraved Plates. 
Oblong, 8vo $3.50 

CALLINGHAM.— Sign Writing Mid Glass Embossing: 
A Complete Practical Illustrated Manual of the Art. By James 
Callingham. i2mo $1.50 

CAMPIN. — A Practical Treatise on Mechanical Engineering: 
Comprising Metallurgy, Moulding, Casting, Forgjing, Tools, Work- 
shop Machinery, Mechanical Manipulation, Manufacture of Steam- 
Engines, etc. With an Appendix on the Analysis of Iron and Iron 
Ores. By Francis Campin, C. E. To which are added. Observations 
oa the Construction of Steam Boilers, and Remarks upon Furnaces 
used for Smoke Prevention ; with a Chapter on Explosions. By R. 
Armstrong, C. E., and John Bourne. Rules for Calculating the 
Change Wheels for Screws on a Turning Lathe, and for a Wheel- 
cutting Machine. By J. La Nicca. Management of Steel, Includ- 
ing Forging, Hardening, Tempering, Annealing, Shrinking and 
Expansion ; and the Case-hardening of Iron. By G. Ede. 8vo. 
Illustrated with twenty-nine plates and 100 wood engravings $5.00 



CAREY. — A Memoir of Henry C. Carey. 

By Dr. Wm. Elder. With a portrait. 8yo., cloth . . 75 
V CAREY.— The Works of Henry C. Carey : 

Harmony of Interests : Agricultural, Manufacturing and Commer< 

cial. 8vo. $i-S^ 

Manual of Social Science. Condeased from Carey's ** Principles 
of Social Science." By Kate McKean. i vol. i2mo. . $2.25 
Miscellaneous Works. With a Portrait. 2 vols. 8vo. $6.00 

Past, Present and Future. 8vo. . •» . . . ^^2.50 
Principles of Social Science. 3 volumes, 8vo. . . j^ 10.00 
The Slave-Trade, Domestic and Foreign; Why it Exists, and 
How it may be Extinguished (1853). 8vo. . . . ^2.00 
The Unity of Law : As Exhibited in the Relations of Hiysical, 
Social, Mental and Moral Science {1872J. 8vo. . . $3'SO 

CLARK. — Tramways, their Construction and Working : 

Embracing a Comprehensive History of the System. With an ex- 
haustive analysis of the various modes of traction, including horse- 
power, steam, heated water and compressed air; a description of the 
varieties of Rolling stock, and ample details of cost and working ex- 
penses. By D. KiNNEAR Clark. Illustrated by over 200 wood 
engravings, and thirteen folding plates. 2 vols. 8vo. . if>l2.50 

COLBURN.— -The Locomotive Engine : 

Including a Description of its Structure, Rules for Estimating its 
Capabilities, and Practical Observations on its Construction and Man- 
agement. By Zerah Colburn. Illustrated. i2mo. . $1.00 

COLLENS.— The Eden of Labor ; or, the Christian Utopia. 
By T. Wharton Collens, author of ** Humanics," "The History 
of Charity," etc. i2mo. Paper cover, j^ 1. 00; Cloth . t(>l«2S 
S<( COOLEY. — A Complete Practical Treatise on Perfumery : 

Being a Hand-book of Perfumes, Cosmetics and other Toilet Articles. 
With a Comprehensive Collection of Formulae. By Arnold J. 
CoOLEY. i2rao $1.50 

COOPER.— A Treatise on the use of Belting for the Trans-^ 
mission of Power. 
With numerous illustrations of approved and actual methods of ar- 
ranging Main Driving and Quarter Twist Belts, and of Belt Fasten- 
ings. Examples and Rules in great number for exhibiting and cal- 
culating the size and driving power of Belts. Plain, Particular and 
Practical Directions for the Treatment, Care and Management of 
Belts. Descriptions of many varieties of Beltings, together with 
chapters on the Transmission of Power by Ropes; by Iron and 
Wood Friction al Gearing ; on the Strength of Belting Leather ; and 
on the Experimental Investigations of Morin, Briggs, and others. By 
John H. Cooper, M. E. 8vo I3.50 

vRAIK. — The Practical American Millwright and Miller. 
By David Craik, Millwright. Illustrated by numerous wood en- 
gravings and two folding plates. 8vo $5'00 




CRISTIANI.— A Technical Treatise on Soap and Candles : 
With a Glance at the Industry of Fats and Oils. By R. S. Cris- 
TiANi, Chemist. Author of " Perfumery and Kindred Arts." Illus- 
trated by 176 engravings. 581 pages, 8vo. . . . ^^7.50 

CRISTIANI.— Perfumery and Kindred Arts: 

A Comprehensive Treatise on Perfumery, containing a History of 
Perfumes from the remotest ages to the present time. A complete 
detailed description of the various Materials and Apparatus used in 
the Perfumer's Art, with thorough Practical Instruction and careful 
Formulae, and advice for the fabrication of all known preparations of 
the day, including Essences, Tinctures, Extracts, Spirits, Waters, 
Vinegars, Pomades, Powders, Paints, Oils, Emulsions, Cosmetics, 
Infusions, Pastilles, Tooth Powders and Washes, Cachous, Hair Dyes, 
Sachets, Essential Oils, Flavoring Extracts, etc. ; and full details for 
making and manipulating Fancy Toilet Soaps, Shaving Creams, etc., 
by new and improved methods. With an Appendix giving hints and 
advice for making and fermenting Domestic Wines, Cordials, Liquors, 
Candies, Jellies, Syrups, Colors, etc., and for Perfuming and Flavor- 
ing Segars, Snuff and Tobacco, and Miscellaneous Receipts for 
various useful Analogous Articles. By R. S. Cristiani, Con- 
sulting Chemist and Perfumer, Philadelphia. Svo. . • if>5.oo 

CUPPER.— The Universal Stair-Builder : 

Being a new Treatise on the Construction of Stair-Cases and Hand- 
Rails; showing Plans of the various forms of Stairs, method of 
Placing the Risers in the Cylinders, general method of describing 
the Face Moulds for a Hand- Rail, and an expeditious method of 
Squaring the Rail. Useful also to Stonemasons constructing Stone 
Stairs and Hand-Rails ; with a new method of Sawing the Twist 
Part of any Hand- Rail square from the face of the plank, and to a 
parallel width. Also, a new method of forming the Easings of the 
Rail by a gauge ; preceded by some necessary Problems in Practical 
Geometry, with the Sections of Prismatic Solids. Illustrated by 29 
plates. By R. A. Cupper, Architect, author of "The Practical 
Stair-Builder's Guide." Third Edition. Large 4to. . $2.50 

DAVIDSON.— A Practical Manual of House Painting, Grain- 
ing, Marbling, and Sign- Writing : 
Containing full information on the processes of House Painting in 
Oil and Distemper, the Formation of Letters and Practice of Sign- 
Writing, the Principles of Decorative Art, a Course of Elementary 
Drawing for House Painters, Writers, etc., and a Collection of Useful 
Receipts. With nine colored illustrations of Woods and Marbles, 
and numerous wood engravings. By Ellis A. Davidson. i2mo. 


DAVIES. — A Treatise on Earthy and Other Minerals and 
Mining : 
By D. C. Da VIES, F. G. S., Mining Engineer, etc. Illustrated by 
76 Engravings. i2mo t5^5.oo 


DAVIES. — A Treatise on Metalliferous Minerals and Mining: 
By D. C. Davies, F. G. S., Mining Engineer, Examiner of Mines, 
Quarries and Collieries. Illustrated by 148 engravings of Geological 
Formations, Mining Operations and Machinery, drawn from th« 
practice of all parts of the world. 2d Edition, i2mo., 450 pages $5.00 

0AVIE8.— A Treatise on Slate and Slate Quarrying: 
Scientific, Practical and Commercial. By D. C. Davies, F. G. S., 
Mining Engineer, etc. With numerous illustrations and folding 
plates. i2mo. $2. SO 

DAVIS. — A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Bricks, 
Tiles, Terra-Cotta, etc. : 

Including Common, Pressed, Ornamentally Shaped, and Enamelled 
Bricks, Drain-Tiles, Straight and Curved Sewer- Pipes, Fire-Clays, 
Fire- Bricks, Terra-Cotta, Roofing-Tiles, Flooring-Tiles, Art-Tiles, 
Mosaic Plates, and Imitation of Intarsia or Inlaid Surfaces; com- 
prising every important Product of Clay employed in Architecture, 
Engineering, the Blast- Furnace, for Retorts, etc., with a History and 
the Actual Processes in Handling, Disintegrating, Tempering, and 
Moulding the Clay into Shape, Drying Naturally and Artificially, 
Setting and Burning, Enamelling in Polychrome Colors, Composition 
and Application of Glazes, ett. ; including Full Detailed Descriptions 
of the most modern Machines, Tools, Kilns, and Kiln-Roofs used. 
By Charles Thomas Davis. Illustrated by 228 Engravings and 
6 Plates. 8vo., 472 pages . . . . . . $S'0O 

DAVIS. — The Manufacture of Leather: 

Being a description of all of the Processes for the Tanning, Tawing, 
Currying, Finishing and Dyeing of every kind of Leather ; including 
the various Raw Materials and the Methods for Determining their 
Values; the Tools, Machines, and all Details of Importance con- 
nected with an Intelligent and Profitable Prosecution of the Art, with 
Special Reference to the Best American Practice. To which are 
added Complete Lists of all American Patents for Materials, Pro- 
cesses, Tools, and Machines for Tanning, Currying, etc. By Charles 
Thomas Davis. Illustrated by 302 engravings and 12 Samples of 
Dyed Leathers. One vol., 8vo., 824 pages . . . ^ 
DAWIDOWSKY— BRANNT.— A Practical Treatise on the 
Raw Materials and Fabrication of Glue, Gelatine, Gelatine 
Veneers and Foils, Isinglass, Cements, Pastes, Mucilages, 
etc. : 
Bnsed upon Actual Experience. By F. Dawidowsky, Technical 
Chemist. Translated from the German, with extensive additions, 
including a description of the most Recent American Processes, by 
William T. Brannt, Graduate of the Royal Agricultural College 
of Eldena, Prussia. 35 Engravings. i2mo. . . . if>2.50 

OE GRAFF.— The Geometrical Stair-Builders' Guide: 

Being a Plain Practical System of Hand-Railing, embracing all its 
necessary Details, and Geometrically Illustrated by twenty-two Steel 
Engravings ; together with the use of the most approved principles 
of Practical Geometry. By SiMON De Graff, Architect. 4to. 



D£ KONINCK— DI£TZ.— A Practical Manual of Chemical 
Analysis and Assaying : 

As applied to the Manufacture of Iron from its Ores, and to Cast Iron, 
Wrought Iron, and Steel, as found in Commerce. By L. L. De 
KoNiNCK, Dr. Sc, and E. Dietz, Engineer. Edited with Notes, by 
Robert Mallet, F. R. S., F. S. G., M. I. C. E., etc. American 
Edition, Edited with Notes and an Appendix on Iron Ores, by A. A. 
Fesquet, Chemist and Engineer. i2mo. . . . ;^2.50 

DUNCAN.— Practical Surveyor's Guide: 

Containing the necessary information to make any person of com- 
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By Andrew Duncan. Illustrated. i2mo. . . . $1.25 
DUPLAIS. — A Treatise on the Manufacture and Distillation 
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del, Fruits, etc. ; with the Distillation and Rectification of Brandy. 
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Ageing of Brandy and the improvement of Spirits, with Copious 
Directions and Tables for Testing and Reducing Spirituous Liquors, 
etc., etc. Translated and Edited from the French of MM. DUPLAIS, 
Ain6 et Jeune. By M. McKennie, M. D. To which are added the 
United States Internal Revenue Regulations for the Assessment and 
Collection of Taxes on Distilled Spirits. Illustrated by fourteen 
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DUSSAUCE. — A General Treatise on the Manufacture of 
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Theoretical and Practical. Comprising the various Methods, by the 
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Cider, Molasses, and Beets; as well as the Fabrication of Wood 
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DUSSAUCE.— Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of Matches, 
Gun Cotton, and Fulminating Powder. 
By Professor H. Dussauce. i2mo <^3 00 


Containing upwards of two hundred Receipts for making Colors, on 
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EDWARDS. — A Catechism of the Marine Steam-Engine, 
For the use of Engineers, Firemen, and Mechanics. A Practical 
Work for Practical Men. By Emory Edwards, Mechanical Engi- 
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the most modern Engines. Third edition, thoroughly revised, with 
much additional matter. 12 mo. 414 pages . . . $200 

EDWARDS. — Modem American Locomotive Engines, 
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EDWARDS. — Modem American Marine Bngines, Boilers, and 

Screw Propellers, 

Their Design and Construction. Showing the Present Practice of 

the most Eminent Engineers and Marine Engine Builders in the 

United States. Illustrated by 30 large and elaborate plates. 4to. 1(5.00 

EDWARDS.— The Practical Steam Engineer's Guide 

In the Design, Construction,* and Management of American Stationary, 
Portable, and Steam Fire- Engines, Steam Pumps, Boilers, Injectors, 
Governors, Indicators, Pistons and Rings, Safety Valves and Steam 
Gauges. For the use of Engineers, Firemen, and Steam Users. By 
Emory Edwards. Illustrated by 119 engravings. 420 pages. 
i2mo $2 50 

ELDER.— Conversations on the Principal Subjects of Political 
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ELDER.— Questions of the Day, 
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ELDER. — Memoir of Henry C. Carey. 
By Dr. William Elder. 8vo. cloth 75 

BRNI. — Mineralogy Simplified. 

Easy Methods of Determining and Classifying Minerals, including 
Ores, by means of the Blowpipe, and by Humid Chemical Analysis, 
based on Professor von Kobell's Tables for the Determination of 
Minerals, with an Introduction to Modem Chemistry. By Henry 
Erni, A.M., M.D., Professor of Chemistry. Second Edition, rewritten, 
enlarged and improved. i2mo. ..... I>300 

FAIRBAIRN.— The Pnnciples of Mechanism and Machinery 
- of Transmission * 

Comprising the Principles of Mechanism, Wheels, and Pulleys, 
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ing and Disengaging Gear. By Sir William Fairbairn, Bart. 
C. E. Beautifully illustrated by over 150 wood-cuts. In one 
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FITCH.— Bessemer Steel, 
Ores and Methods, New Facts and Statistics Relating to the Types 
of Machinery in Use, the Methods in Vogue, Cost and Class of Labor 
employed, and the Character and Availability of the Ores utilized in 
the Manufacture of Bessemer Steel in Europe and in the United States ; 
together with opinions and excerpts from various accepted authorities. 
Compiled and arranged by Thomas W. Fitch. 8vo. . $^ 00 

FLEMING. — Narrow Gauge Railways in America. 

A Sketch of their Rise, Progress, and Success. Valuable Statistics 
as to Grades, Curves, Weight of Rail, Locomotives, Cars, etc. By 

Howard Fleming. Illustrated, 8vo $1 S^ 

FORSYTH.— Book of Designs for Headstones, Mural, and 
other Monuments : 
Containing 78 Designs. By James Forsyth. With an Introduction 
by Charles Boutell, M. A. 4 to., cloth . . . $5 00 



PRANKEL— HUT^TER.— A Practical Treatise on the Manu- 
facture of Starch, Glucose, Starch- Sugar, and Dextrine : 
Based on the German of Ladislaus Von Wagner, Professor in the 
Royal Technical High School, Buda-Pest, Hungary, and olher 
authorities. By Julius Frankel, Graduate of the Polytechnic 
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ing every branch of the subject, including examples of the most 
Recent and Best American Machinery. 8vo., 344 pp. . ^3.50 

GEE.— The Goldsmith's Handbook : 

Containing full instructions for the Alloying and Working of Gold, 
including the Art of Alloying, Melting, Reducing, Coloring, Col- 
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Rules and Recipes. By George E. Gee. i2mo. . . $i-7S 

GEE.— The Silversmith's Handbook : 

Containing full instructions for the Alloying and Working of Silver, 
including the different modes of Refining and Melting the Metal ; its 
Solders ; the Preparation of Imitation Alloys ; Methods of Manipula- 
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the Surface of the Work ; together with other Useful Information and 
Memoranda. By George E. Gee, Jeweller. Illustrated. i2mo. 


Designs for Gothic Furniture. Twenty-three plates. Oblong ^2.00 

GREENWOOD.— Steel and Iron : 

Comprising the Practice and Theory of the Several Methods Pur- 
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Mills, the Forge, and the Foundry. By William Henry Green- 
wood, F. C. S. Asso. M. I. C. E., M. I. M. E., Associate of the Royal 
School of Mines. With 97 Diagrams, 536 pages. i2mo. . $2.00 

GREGORY. — Mathematics for Practical Men : 

Adapted to the Pursuits of Surveyors, Architects, Mechanics, and 
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GRIER.— Rural Hydraulics : 

A Practical Treatise on Rural Household Water Supply. Giving a 
full description of Springs and Wells, of Pumps and Hydraulic Ram, 
with Instructions in Cistern Building, Laying of Pipes, etc. By W. 
W. Grier. Illustrated 8vo 75 

GRIMSHAW.— Modem Milling: 

Being the substance of two addresses delivered by request, at the 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, January 19th and January '27th, 
1881. By Robert Grimshaw, Ph. D. Edited from the Phono- 
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GRIMSHAW.— Saws : 
The History, Development, Action, Classification, and Comparison 
of Saws of all kinds. IVitA Copious Appendices, Giving the details 


of Manufacture, Filing, Setting, Gumming, etc. Care and Use of 
Saws; Tables of Gauges; Capacities of Saw- Mills; List of Saw- 
Patents, and other valuable information. By Robert Grimshaw. 
Second and greatly enlarged edition, with Supplement ^ and 354 Illus- 
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GRIMSHAW. — ^A Supplement to Qrimshaw on Saws : 
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GRISWOLD. — Railroad Engineer's Pocket Companion for the 
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Comprising Rules for Calculating Deflection Distances and Angles, 
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Construction of Railroads, intended Expressly for the Young En- 
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W. Griswold. i2mo., tucks t'^'lS 

GRUNER. — Studies of Blast Furnace Phenomena: 

By M. L. Gruner, President of the General Council of Mines of 
France, and lately Professor of Metallurgy at the Ecole des Mines. 
Translated, with the author's sanction, with an Appendix, by L. D. 
B. Gordon, F. R. S. E., F. G. S. 8vo. . . . $2.50 

GUETTIER.— Metallic Alloys: 

Being a Practical Guide to their Chemical and Physical Properties, 
their Preparation, Composition, and Uses. Translated from the 
French of A. Guettier, Engineer and Director of Founderies, 
author of " La Fouderie en France," etc., etc. By A. A. Fesquet, 
Chemist and Engineer. i2mo. ^3.00 

HASERICK.— The Secrets of the Art of Dyeing Wool, Cotton, 
and Linen, 
Including Bleaching and Coloring Wool and Cotton Hosiery and 
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E. C. Haserick. Illustrated by 323 Dyed Patterns of the Yarns 
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A Practical Treatise on their Manufacture. By a Practical Hatter. 
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HENRY. — The Early and Later History of Petroleum : 

With Authentic Facts in regard to its Development in Western Penn* 
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Henry. Illustrated 8vo. 

HOFFER. — A Practical Treatise on Caoutchouc and Gutta 


Comprising the Properties of the Raw Materials, and the manner of 

Mixing and Working them ; with the Fabrication of Vulcanized and 

Hard Rubbers, Caoutchouc and Gutta Percha Compositions, Water- 


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From the German of Raimund Hoffer. By W. T. Brannt. 
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HOPMANN.— A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of 
Paper in all its Branches : 
By Carl Hofmann, I^ate Superintendent of Paper-Mills in Germany 
and the United Slates ; recently Manager of the ** Public Ledger ** 
Paper-Mills, near Elkton, Maryland. Illustrated by no wood en- 
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HUGHES. — American Miller and Millwright's Assistant: 
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HULME. — Worked Examination Questions in Plane Geomet- 
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For the Use of Candidates for the Royal Military Academy, Wool- 
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JERVIS.— Railroad Property: 

A Treatise on the Construction and Management of Railways; 
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KEEN E.— A Hand-Book of Practical Gauging: 

For the Use of Beginners, to which is added a Chapter on Distilla- 
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ascertaining the Strength of Wines. By James B. Keene, of H. M. 

Customs. 8vo. $1.25 

^ KELLEY. — Speeches, Addresses, and Letters on Industrial and 
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By Hon. William D. Kelley, M. C. 544 pages, 8vo. . ;^3.oo 

KELLOGG. — A New Monetary System : 
The only means of Securing the respective Rights of Labor and 
Property, and of Protecting the Public from Financial Revulsions. 
By Edward Kellogg. Revised from his work on «* Labor and 
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Paper cover $i.OQ 

Bound in cloth 1.50 

KEMLO.— Watch-Repairer's Hand-Book: 
Being a Complete Guide to the Young Beginner, in Taking Apart, 
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other Foreign Watches, and all American Watches. By F. Kemlo, 
Practical Watchmaker. With Illustrations. i2mo. . ^1.25 


KENTISH.->A Treatise on a Box of Instruments, 
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ber, Cask and Malt Gauging, Heights, and Distances. By Thomas 
Kentish. In one volume. i2mo. .... j^i.25 

KERL.— The Assayer's Manual : 
An Abridged Treatise on the Docimastic Examination of Ores, and 
Furnace and other Artificial Products. By Bruno Kerl, Professof 
in the Royal School of Mines ; Member of the Royal Technical 
Commission for the Industries, and of the Imperial Patent-Office, 
Berlin. Translated from the German by Wiluam T. Brannt, 
Graduate of the Royal Agricultural College of Eldena, Prussia. 
Edited by William H. Wahl, Ph. D., Secretary of the Franklin 
Institute, Pliiiadelphia. Illustrated by sixty-five engravings. 8vo. 


KINGZETT.— The History, Products, and Processes ef the 
Alkali Trade : 
Including the most Recent Improvements. By Charles Thomas 
KiNGZETT, Consulting Chemist. With 23 illustrations. 8vo. 1^2.50 

KINSLEY. — Self- Instructor on Lumber Surveying : 

For the Use of Lumber Manufacturers, Surveyors, and Teachers. 
By Charles Kinsley, Practical Surveyor and Teacher of Surveying. 
i2mo. .......... j^2.oa 

KIRK.^The Founding of Metals : 

A Practical Treatise on the Melting of Iron, with a Description of the 
Founding of Alloys; also, of all the Metals and Mineral Substances 
used in the Art of Founding. Collected from original sources. By 
Edward Kirk, Practical Foundryman and Chemist. Illustrated. 
Third edition. 8vo. ....... $2.50 

KITTREDGE.— The Compendium of Architectural Sheet- 
Metal Work : 
Profusely Illustrated. Embracing Rules and Directions for Estimates, 
Items of Cost, Nomenclature, Tables of Brackets, Modillions, Den- 
tals, Trusses, Stop-Blocks, Frieze Pieces, etc. Architect's Specifica- 
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added the Exemplar of Architectural Sheet- Metal Work, containing 
details of the Centennial Buildings, and other important Sheet-Metal 
Work, Designs and Prices of Architectural Ornaments, as manufac- 
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manufactured by the Kittredge Cornice and Ornament Company, 
The whole supplemented by a full Index and Table of Contents. By 
A. O. Kittredge. 8vo., 565 pages .... $5.00 

LANDRIN.— A Treatise on Steel : 

Comprising its Theory, Metallurgy, Properties, Practical Working, 
and Use. By M. H. C. Landrin, Jr., Civil Engineer. Translated 
from the French, with Notes, by A. A. Fesquet, Chemist and En- 
gineer. With an Appendix on the Bessemer and the Martin PrO' 
cesses for Manufacturing Steel, from the Report of Abram S. Hewitt 


United States Commissioner to the Universal Exposition, Paris, 1867. 
l2mo 4^300 

LARDEN.— A School Course on Heat : 

By W. Larden, M. A. 321 pp. i2mo ^((2.00 

JUARDNER.— The Steam-Engine : 
For the Use of Beginners. By Dr. Lardner. Illustrated. i2mo. 

LARKIN. — The Practical Brass and Iron Founder's Guide : 

A Concise Treatise *on Brass Founding, Moulding, the Metals and 

their Alloys, etc.; to which are added Recent Improvements in the 

Manufacture of Iron, Steel by the Bessemer Process, etc., etc. By 

James Larkin, late Conductor of the Brass Foundry Department in 

Reany, Neafie & Co.'s Penn Works, Philadelphia. Fifth edition, 

revised, with extensive additions. i2mo. . . . ^2.25 

t'EROUX. — A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of 
Worsteds and Carded Yams : 

Comprising Practical Mechanics, with Rules and Calculations applied 
to Spinning ; Sorting, Cleaning, and Scouring Wools ; the English 
and French Methods of Combing, Drawing, and Spinning Worsteds, 
and Manufacturing Carded Yarns. Translated from the French of 
Charles Leroux, Mechanical Engineer and Superintendent of a 
Spinning-Mill, by Horatio Paine, M. D., and A. A. Fesquet, 
Chemist and Engineer. Illustrated by twelve large Plates. To which 
is added an Appendix, containing Extracts from the Reports of the 
International Jury, and of the Artisans selected by the Committee 
appointed by the Council of the Society of Arts, London, on Woolen 
and Worsted Machinery and Fabrics, as exhibited in the Paris Uni- 
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LEFFEL. — The Construction of Mill-Dams : 

Comprising also the Building of Race and Reservoir Embankments 
and Head-Gates, the Measurement of Streams, Gauging of Water 
Supply, etc. By James Leffel & Co. Illustrated by 58 engravings. 
8vo. ^2.50 

LESLIE.— Complete Cookery: 
Directions for Cookery in its Various Branches. By Miss Leslie. 
Sixtieth thoasand. Thoroughly revised, with the addition of New 
Receipts. In i2mo., cloth |(i>.5o 

LIEBER. — Assayer's Guide : 

Or, Practical Directions to Assayers, Miners, and Smelters, for the 
Tests and Assays, by Heat and by Wet Processes, for the Ores of all 
the principal Metals, of Gold and Silver Coins and Alloys, and of 
Coal, etc. By Oscar M. Lieber. i2mo. . . . iii.25 

LOVE. — The Art of Dyeing, Cleaning, Scouring, and Finish- 
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Being Practical Instructions in Dyeing Silks, Woolens, and Cottons, 
Feathers, Chips, Straw, etc. Scouring and Cleaning Bed and Win- 
dow Curtains, Carpets, Rugs, etc. French and English Cleaning, 
any Color or Fabric of Silk, Satin, or Damask. By Thomas Love, 
a Working Dyer and Scourer. Second American Edition, to which 


are added General Instructions for the use of Aniline Colors. 8vo. 

343 P^gcs ^S'OO 

LUKIN.—Amongst Machines: 

Embracing Descriptions of the various Mechanical Appliances used 
in the Manufacture of Wood, Metal, and other Substances. i2mo. 

LUKIN. — The Boy Engineers : 

What They Did, and How They Did It. With 30 plates. i8mo. 

LUKIN.— The Young Mechanic : 
Practical Carpentry. Containing Directions for the Use of all kinds 
of Tools, and for Construction of Steam- Engines and Mechanical 
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MAIN and BROWN. — Questions on Subjects Connected with 

the Marine Steam-Engine : 

And Examination Papers* with Hints for their Solution. By 

Thomas J. Main, Professor of Mathematics, Royal Naval College, 

and Thomas Brown, Chief Engineer, R. N. i2mo., cloth . 1^1.50 

MAIN and BROWN. — The Indicator and D3mamometer: 
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J. Main, M. A. F. R., Ass't S. Professor Royal Naval College, 
Portsmouth, and Thomas Brown, Assoc. Inst. C. E., Chief Engineer 
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MAIN and BROWN.— The Marine Steam-Engine. 

By Thomas J. Main, F. R. Ass't S. Mathematical Professor at the 
Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and Thomas Brown, Assoc. 
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MARTIN.— Screw-Cutting Tables, for the Use of Mechanical 
Engineers : 
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MICHELL.— Mine Drainage: 

Being a Complete and Practical Treatise on Direct-Acting Under- 
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MOLESWORTH.— Pocket-Book of Useful Formulae and 
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MOORE. — The Universal Assistant and the Complete Me- 
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Containing over one million Industrial Facts, Calculations, Receipts, 
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MORRIS. — Easy Rules for the Measurement of Earthworks : 
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By Elwood Morris, C. E. 8vo $1.50 

V" MORTON. — The System of Calculating Diameter, Circumfer- 
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NAPIER.— Manual of Electro-Metallurgy : 

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NAPIER. — A System of Chemistry Applied to Dyeing. 

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NEVILLE.— Hydraulic Tables, Coefficients, and Formulae, for 
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NICHOLLS. —The Theoretical and Practical Boiler-Maker and 
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N ORRIS. — ^A Handbook for Locomotive Engineers and Ma- 
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KYSTROM. — On Technological Education and the Construc- 
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O'NEILL. — A Dictionary of Dyeing and Calico Printing : 

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ORTON. — Underground Treasures*. 

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VILLE. — The School of Chemical Manures : 
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WALTON.— Coal-Mining Described and Illustrated: 

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WARE.—The Sugar Beet. 

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WARN.— The Sheet-Metal Worker's Instructor: 

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WARNER. — New Theorems, Tables, and Diagrams, for the 
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